2014 e learning innovations conference akin awoyemi access and use of ict for elearning


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2014 e learning innovations conference

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2014 e learning innovations conference akin awoyemi access and use of ict for elearning

  1. 1. Access and use of ICT for eLearning: A Case Study of Nigerian Tertiary Institutions Awoyemi Akinade Systems Analyst Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Nigeria akinawoyemi@yahoo.co.uk
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • ICT provides new ways to engage students, such as classroom management software. • ICT is being used not only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of students. • The use of technologies such as PowerPoint, Mobile Note Taker and interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom. • ICT is also being used in the assessment of students, One example is the Audience Response System (ARS), which allows immediate feedback tests and classroom discussions
  3. 3. Intro’ cont • There has been a paradigm shift in several Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria with many of these institutions engaging in introducing, implementing and supporting ICT initiatives aimed at developing educational services. • This paper aims at providing a description and analysis of the current state of ICT implementation in Tertiary Institution in Nigeria. • A study of 10 Tertiary Institutions was conducted using open-ended questionnaires. • The results show that the country has advanced greatly in terms of design and implementation of ICT policies, as well as telecommunication. • Agencies under the Federal Ministry of Communication and Technology, such as NITDA and NCC supports ICT infrastructure capacity building in Tertiary Institutions through its nationwide network that interconnects academic and research institutions.
  4. 4. Nigeria Government e-Education Initiatives There are presently at least nine ICT for education initiatives at various stages of development in Nigeria. They include: • a. The Nigerian Universities Network (NUNet) Project • b. The Polytechnics Network (PolyNet) Project • c. The School Net Project • d. The Nigerian Education, Academic and Research Network (NEARNet) • e. The Teachers Network (TeachNet) Project • f. National Open University • g. National Virtual (Digital) Library (Ministry of Education/ NUC) • h. National Virtual Library (Ministry of Science and Technology/NITDA) • i. National Information, communication and education programme of the Presidency
  5. 5. Objectives of the Study The main objectives are to examine the: • The current state of implementation of ICT for learning in Nigeria • Institutional policies and frameworks for the adoption of ICT for learning in Nigeria • ICT Infrastructure in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions • Access and use of ICT by Students and Lecturers in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions • Stakeholders involved in promotion ICT for Learning in Nigeria • Challenges and Limitation to adopting e-learning in Nigeria
  6. 6. METHODOLOGY • Qualitative data by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions was used to collect data from the selected 10 Schools (7 Public Institutions and 3 Privately owned Institutions spread across Nigeria.) • Responses were received. In some cases when the returned answers were unclear, phone conversations were used to gain clarity. • In addition, we acquire official documents from several institutions including statements of institutional vision and strategic plans. • In the descriptive analysis, the contents of the questionnaires and interviews were analyzed response-by response, and then analyzed based on categories and subcategories of responses of the questions. • The data analysis process also included the comparison between the responses and information from documents like institutional vision, strategic plans, and project reports to augment the quality of information across the whole data set.
  7. 7. FACTORS FOR SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF ICT IN EDUCATION Listed are factors that prevent teachers from using technology in learning: • 1) lack of experience on the part of teachers with ICT, • 2) lack of on-site support for teachers using technology, • 3) lack of help supervising students when using computers, • 4) lack of ICT specialist teachers to teach students computer skills, • 5) unavailability of computers, • 6) lack of time required to successfully integrate technology into the curriculum, and • 7) lack of financial support.
  8. 8. CASE STUDY, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION We chose in this study to focus on what we believe are the most fundamental aspects in a successful implementation of ICT4E, namely • ICT policies of government and Tertiary Institutions, • ICT infrastructure, • Access and use of ICT for education, and • Organizations involved in and supporting Tertiary Institutions
  9. 9. 1. ICT policies of government and Tertiary Institutions According to responses from questionaire: • there are various legislation that stipulates and encouraged use of ICT for teaching, learning and research in Nigerian Tertiary education. • All the respondents mentioned official documents such as strategic plans, institutional vision, and action plans for ICT within their institutions. • ICT has been part of the referential framework of current government policies and this has influenced the referential frameworks of institutions of tertiary education. • Some of these institutions have very poor ICT infrastructure, and sometimes lack even a simple website for information.
  10. 10. 2. ICT Infrastructure Nigeria has made significant progress in terms of ICT infrastructure by liberalizing the IT Industries, this has made telephone (fixed and mobile) available and affordable thereby boosting Tele-density from 1% by 2003 to 10% as at 2010. ISPs were licenced to use diverse facilities to connect to the Internet thereby boosting bandwidth, which is crucial to down stream information. The government encouraged and promotes Internet cafés across cities, towns and villages by reducing drastically the cost of the permit to give more access to the people at the rural communities. Internet connectivity are becoming more popular through wireless access protocol (WAP) in the country, especially with the granting of license to Airtel, MTN, Globacom, Etisalat and some other mobile telecommunication operators in the country. However, majority of respondents in this study have poor IT infrastructure. In some cases, there is only a dial-up connection via a modem, a small server with some hubs, and a small LAN to distribute Internet access to a computer room, management rooms and lecturers’ rooms. In some institutions, the lecturers and students use the same computer room.
  11. 11. 3. Access and Use of ICT in Education The benefits of ICTs for students can only be achieved if the institutions ensure access for all stakeholders and its use in teaching and learning, research and management. a) Institutional websites provide important information that can form the basis for quality ranking of Tertiary Institutions. Judging from the questionnaire responses majority of the institutions in this study has websites.  one of these institutions reported that their website was under construction.  The currently available websites range from rudimentary to advanced, depending on the IT capacity of each institution and/or the frequency of information updates.  The website of any institution presents the institution as an organization with a specific vision and describes its faculties or schools and academic programs.  In some institutions, the website provides other relevant information such as academic regulations, admission requirements, and the rights and duties of students and the lecturers. Institutions such as FUNNAB, University of Jos, ABU, OAU and CU provide more information regarding the faculties, schools and departments.
  12. 12. Access and Use Cont’d • A few institutions included news about the institutions on their home page. The news items on the FUNNAB, ABU and UI site included text, images and some short videos. • Institutions like FUNNAB, ABU, OAU, UNILAG and University of Jos have libraries accessible online • FUNNAB and University of Jos shared some education materials, such as courseware for download. b) According to the questionnaire responses all the institutions, have computer rooms for lecturers and students. c) There is a nationwide program involving the Institutions, banks and IT companies that facilitates donations of furnished ICT centres to these institutions. • Intercontinental Bank PLC has donated an ICT Centre to AAUA, • NCC (Nigeria Communication Commission), donated 100 units of laptops to Adeyemi College of Education, • NITDA constructed solar powered ICT centres to 6 out of seven public institutions in the study. Bandwidth remains problematic and the overwhelming majority of students and lecturers do not own a computer, Availability of both Internet access and Internet enabled devices is improving. Prices have decreased significantly with the emergence of new IT companies and new tools such as mini-laptops, tablets and mobile phones. With the new services offered by mobile phone companies, it is now possible to have Internet access anywhere in the country.
  13. 13. 4. Pedagogy • Documents on Tertiary education in Nigeria spoke of needing adequate infrastructure, training of lecturers, using of ICTs for teaching, learning research and management, and shifting towards student centered learning to provide a quality education to growing student enrollments • Despite government recommendations that student- centered learning is required by current job market conditions most of the institutions in this study were unable to move beyond a rhetorical commitment to transforming pedagogy.
  14. 14. Pedagogy Cont’d • Across the institutions in this study, teaching in most programs was still teacher centered • Notable exceptions including UNILAG, University of Jos, ABU and CU, which used problem based learning, project oriented learning and problem oriented learning. • Use of the Internet as a tool of teaching and learning is still not seen as desirable by most institutions, • Few institutions were using a learning management system. • A blended learning model was in use at UNILAG, FUNNAB, CU and OAU. • There were also some cases of completely online programs at NOUN and some completely online courses. • Some institutions for instance UI Distance Learning Centre, had introduced distance learning within a blended model, which included short periods of face-to-face interaction, and the delivery of study materials to resource centers in the form of CDs and various electronic devices and storage media.
  15. 15. Organizations involved in and supporting Tertiary Education in Nigeria • operating and investment budgets of public tertiary institution of learning were funded by the national budget through the National University Commission • funds from donors • Multilateral financial support on literature acquisition, research funding, scholarships for lecturers, and various kinds of equipment including ICT • New model of funding and support for both public and private institutions in the form of TETfund • Other agencies including NCC, NITDA • Owners of Privately owned institutions
  16. 16. Challenges and Limitations According to the ICT strategic objectives for Tertiary institutions in Nigeria the major concerns of government were: • expansion, • quality improvement and • increasing access to higher education. • Some tertiary institutions still have inadequate infrastructure and need to improve their technical capacity by training lecturers, researchers and technical staff in the effective use of ICT within their jobs. • There is also a need to creatively embed the use of appropriate and cost effective technologies within tertiary education system throughout the country. For effective implementation, some institutions still need to design action plans that require the use of ICT as a key tool for teaching and learning.
  17. 17. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS • The results show that Nigeria government policies encourage all Tertiary Institutions to address ICT as a key issue for teaching and learning; • There are still several persistent constraints for the implementation of ICT in tertiary education. • This study highlights some relevant issues that may help the government and Tertiary Institutions to implement and integrate ICT, as well as to reach some objectives of ICT policy in Nigerian tertiary education system. • The results show that ICT is part of strategic plans of all Tertiary Institutions, but in practice it is still not used effectively in education. • Some Tertiary Institutions have developed ICT programs and ICT courses in other programs; however, there remain several Institutions that have a strategic plan but lack a clear action plan for ICT implementation. • Even though the government provides funding for quality improvements, innovation and ICT capacity building there are some institutions that have various difficulties to access this fund as a result of bureaucracy involved. Nigeria government has made major progress in rolling out telecommunication infrastructure. • The government has broken the monopoly of Nigeria Telecommunication Limited (NITEL) by privatizing the sector thereby increasing the infrastructure, the telecommunication infrastructure covers all major cities and the villages. • However, there is still a need to expand the infrastructure to more remote areas.
  18. 18. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS • Electricity is not available in parts of the country. • Most Tertiary Institutions benefitted from funding by the government through TETFund and/or private companies and international development agencies have also contributed substantially to the ICT infrastructure capacity building in the country. • Student-centered approaches are part of strategic change plans for many Tertiary Institutions, but all institutions are still using teacher-centered approaches. The introduction of distance education using online or blended learning in a few institutions demonstrates that there are efforts to increase access and to make use of innovative pedagogy. • In conclusion, the Nigerian Tertiary Institutions are still far from meeting the objectives stated in the official “ICT Policy” and “The Mandate of NUC.” Programs to provide ICT facilities to students by NCC and NITDA have also increased access to the Internet. • Despite the improved ICT4E adoption showed in this study, there is a need for more intervention by the government and innovation by Tertiary Institutions in order to achieve successful integration of ICT in Education in Nigeria. This emphasizes the importance of the quality assurance role played by the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology. • Lecturers from all academic disciplines need access to training in a wider range of ICT competencies and pedagogical flexibility to use tools like Learning Management Systems and confidently apply innovative pedagogies within blended and online models. • All institutions must be encouraged to have a strategic plan that includes ICTs that support innovative pedagogies. • The government should continue to support the use of ICT in Tertiary Education to achieve the objectives of the national ICT Policy and higher education policy.