Th141 final exam reviewer - Fr. Pat Giordano


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Reviewer for Theology 141 under Fr. Pat Giordano
Semester 1, SY 2011-2012
Ateneo de Manila University

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Th141 final exam reviewer - Fr. Pat Giordano

  1. 1. Th141 Final exam reviewer (Fr. Giordano) Social Encyclical Topic Author Year1. Rerum Novarum The Condition of Labor Leo XIII 18912. Quadragesimo Anno After Forty Years Pius XI 19313. Mater et Magistra Christianity and Social Progress John XXIII 19614. Pacem in Terris Peace on Earth John XXIII 19635. Gaudium et Spes Pastoral Constitution of the Second Vatican 1965 Church in the Modern World Council6. Populorum Progressio On the Development of Peoples Paul VI 19677. Octogeisma Adveniens A Call to Action on the 80th Paul VI 1971 Anniversary of Rerum Novarum8.Justitia in Munda Justice in the World Synod of Bishops 19719. Laborem Excercens On Human Work John Paul II 198110. Sollicitudo Re Socialis On Social Concern John Paul II 198711. Centesimus Annus On the Hundredth Anniversary of John Paul II 1991 Rerum Novarum12. Caritas in Veritate Charity in Truth Benedict XVI 2009 RERUM NOVARUM 1. What are the evil effects of the Industrial Revolution that Rerum Novarum responded to? Shift from the land to the city caused: o Social dislocation o Lack of housing o Unemployment Shift from the home to the factory caused: o Miserly wages o Deplorable working conditions (particularly for children) o Severe strain on families Seeds of discontent were the cause for radical social movements Additional notes: o Philippines now is like Great Britain in 1911 2. What was the teaching of Leo XIII on private property? Private property is a right to every person Private property must used with reference to the need of the community Man should use his possessions as ready to share when others are in need Duty to give to the poor that which remains after needs have been met Justice demands that the common good take precedence over individual gain in determining economic policy, without infringing on human rights Criteria of the moral law when pertaining to the economic system: o Justice o Equity in exchange o Balance between various economic sectors o Organization of the constituent economic units 1
  2. 2. 3. What are the criticisms Rerum Novarum makes on liberal capitalism and Marxist Socialism? Liberal capitalism – should be rewarding individuals for their hard work. However, the focus becomes the desire for profit and makes the rich few really rich and makes them treat employees like slaves. This is unjust. The problem with capitalism is that it releases the individual from social and moral constraints. Utilitarianism is “if it works, use it”; maximize pleasure, minimize pain. There must be changes, such as the living wage, to make liberal capitalism more humane. Marxist socialism – supposedly a remedy to the ills of liberal capitalism. However, it creates more problems. Marxist socialism sacrifices human rights and religious welfare while destroying the freedom of the individual by removing the right to private property. It denies individuals to potential independence. In socialism, the individual liberty is subordinated to social wellbeing. Money and labor are a means to human dignity and subsidiarity, but if abused, they will have negative effects on society.4. What did Leo XIII mean by “living wage” in Rerum Novarum? Living wage – the worker’s just compensation that is not just enough to meet basic necessities, but one that provides decent support for his family as well. To be given a living wage means not only to have a sufficient income to meet one’s present needs but to be secured during instances of unemployment, sickness and death. If the mother and children have to work, then that is not a living wage. A wage so low that it must be supplemented by the wage of the other members of the family (wife and/or children) before it can provide adequate food, clothing, and shelter together with essential spiritual and cultural needs cannot be regarded as a living wage. QUADRAGESIMO ANNO5. What was the world situation at the time Quadragesimo Anno was written? World War I shattered liberal confidence Parliamentary democracy was helpless in the face of the rise of communism in the Soviet Union, Nazism in Germany and Fascism in Italy Worldwide depression / The Great Depression6. Define the “corporatist” model of economic government proposed by Pius XI in Quadragesimo Anno. Corporatism – proposed as an answer to the evils of capitalism and social Marxism. It is an economic system involving the division of the people. Workers and employers would be organized into industrial and professional corporations serving as organs of political representation and controlling. Structures of economic self-government (modeled on medieval guilds), combined with vocational groups, bring workers and managers together in joint organizations to determine the policy for the industry as whole, with a council of industry representatives determining overall national economic policy. 2
  3. 3. Didn’t work because the world of 1931 was much more complex than 1250. Instead, a new term was proposed: “social justice”. Avoid these two extremes: o Individualism (worst extreme of Capitalism) – denying or minimizing the social and public character of the right of property o Collectivism (worst extreme of Marxist Socialism) – rejecting or minimizing the private and individual character of the right of property7. How did Pius XI define “social justice” in Quadragesimo Anno? The common good of all should be upheld and one class cannot exclude another from sharing in the benefits Social justice must be present in work. Adequate needs should be given to every workingman. Social justice is promoting the common good in society while including (not contradicting) the authentic good of each and every person, and that the government should allow this. MATER ET MAGISTRA8. What were the two significant teachings of John XXIII in Mater et Magistra? Socialization – as we enter more complex relationships, we realize the importance of human solidarity. State intervention to ensure that property will reach its social functions and be used for the common good – the state has the duty to look out for the weaker ones. John XXIII proposed taxation so everyone can be the best that they can be.9. Present four other themes present in Mater et Magistra. Highlighted thesocial dimension of property and related to it the need for a more effective distribution of goods in society Broadened the criteria of thejust wage to take into account the contribution of the individual, the economic state of the enterprise in which individuals work, the requirements of each community, and the common good Warned against the dangers of neo-colonialism, which continued the political dominance of the poor by the rich Agriculture: just wage for farmers, health and crop insurance, price management, agricultural technology10. Present the 3 stages which should normally be followed in the reduction of social principles into practice that John XXIII presented in Mater et Magistra. Observe – view the concrete situation in light of the principles Judge – form a judgment in the principles learned Act – what, in the circumstances, can be done to implement these principles? PACEM IN TERRIS 3
  4. 4. 11. What was the world situation at the time of Pacem in Terris? April 11, 1963, at the height of the tension between USA and USSR (Cold War) Blockade of Berlin / Berlin Wall in Germany North Vietnam occupied by USSR and South Vietnam by USA Cuban Missile Crisis – John XXIII called for disarmament and urged developed nations not to take advantage of underdeveloped nations and instead guide them12. Present and explain the four major themes of John XXIII in Pacem in Terris? Rights of each individual – traditional rights (ex. Right to religious freedom) and rights that were not as easily accepted (ex. rights for freedom and searching for the truth, freedom of assembly, right to immigrate and emigrate, right to express one’s opinion, right to choose freely one’s state of life). This is keeping in with dignity as human persons. Conscience over authority – authority is derived from God, but it affirms that it must also derive its obligatory force from the moral order. If you are a lawmaker, your laws must be in consonance with the moral law of God. The state can oblige individuals in conscience only if its authority is intrinsically related to the moral order (God). Disarmament – Justice should demand disarmament. The arms race deprives individuals and nations of the economic goods necessary for social progress. It also causes individuals to live in constant fear of nuclear war and hazards from nuclear testing. There is no such thing as a just war. Fostering the common good – let people be all they can be. The common good is a principle of integration. Each political community also has the common good, which transcends the individual’s common good, but which cannot be divorced from the common good of the entire human community. GAUDIUM ET SPES (“Joys and Hopes”)13. What does Gaudium et Spes mean by reading the “signs of the times”? Reading the signs of modernity Openness to the contemporary situation The Church must help in the process of evaluating what the world has to offer14. Present and explain the five elements that are central to Gaudium et Spes. Personalism o The focus on the person is a major shift in emphasis o Doctrine of individual rights that focuses on the person and validates the claims of the person over and against society o The person is the meaning and fulfillment of created reality Social nature of the person o Individuals are not solitary beings, even though they have individual responsibility and freedom o People cannot live or attain their full potential by themselves 4
  5. 5. o The interdependent characteristic of the modern age is rooted in and finds fulfillment in the social nature of the person The Church and the world o The Christian community is truly and internally linked with humanity and history o The moral norm for individuals: to harmonize with the genuine good of the human race and allow persons as individuals and members of society to pursue their total vocation and to fulfill it Justice o Pursuit of justice by seeking more humane and just conditions of life and directing institutions to guarantee human dignity o Search for peace by safeguarding personal rights and guaranteeing respect for the person Development o Progress should be directed to the complete human fulfillment of all citizens o Wealthier nations must help less developed nations achieve this goal o Requires stimulation of economic growth and reform of economic and social structures POPULORUM PROGRESSIO15. What new direction does Populorum Progressio present? Historical situation: other countries saw their economic development stall while others see theirs rise rapidly. The new direction according the Paul VI, states that the social question has become worldwide. Disturbed by the capitalist system accompanied by industrial revolution. Profit is the key motive over labor. There is a growing gap between the rich and the poor nations.16. How does Populorum Progressio define integral human development? Development of the human person not only in terms of economic wealth but also in other aspects like knowledge, culture, the desire for cooperation and peace, the recognition of supreme values and the destiny of the person and the acceptance of faith which opens the individual to a union with God. Simply put: It’s not just having more. It’s BEING more Development is not only economic:Authentic development Complete development  Integral Human Development Aspects of human development: o Individual human development o Transcendental Human Development a. Promote the good of all humanity b. Union with God c. This is where the social dimension of property comes in 5
  6. 6. d. Those who have more ought to give those who don’t e. Paul VI: There can be no progress towards development of individuals without simultaneous development of all humanity in the spirit of solidarity17. What is the threefold threat that Paul VI gives to the rich who fail to respond to the needs of the poor in Populorum Progressio? Judgment and Wrath of God o The aim of all Christians is to be like Christ. The main characteristic of Christ’s ministry was his treatment of the poor and marginalized. Throughout his ministry, in various parables like that of Lazarus and the rich man, the rich who fails to give to the poor gets the wrath of God. o As written in 1 John 3:17, “If someone who has the riches of this world sees his brother in need and closes his heart to him, how does the love of God abide in him?” Wrath of the Poor o One must avoid the risk of increasing the wealth of the rich and the dominion of the strong while leaving the poor in their misery. The continued greed of the rich will certainly call upon them the wrath of the poor, with consequences no one can foretell. Continued Avarice Will Make the Rich Destroy Themselves o The human person is only truly human in keeping with the nature, which was given to human beings by the Creator. Avarice and greed is the most evident form of underdevelopment. Because of the rich’s failure to respond to the needs of the poor, they are both dehumanized. The rich need the poor in order to develop themselves. OCTOGESIMA ADVENIENS18. What did Paul VI say about the role of local churches in analyzing the situation of their own countries in Octogesima Adveniens? Since situations differ from country to country, no universal program can be prescribed Local churches should develop their own program of social justice They must analyze the situation proper to their own country in the light of the gospel Draw principles of reflection, norms of judgment and directives for action both from the gospel and the Church’s message19. What change of focus did Paul VI present for involvement of Christians in Octogesima Adveniens? Need of the involvement of Christians to shift focus from economics to politics In the social and economic field, the ultimate decision rests with political power Action for justice is a personal responsibility of every Christian 6
  7. 7. Effort to bear witness to the principles of justice in personal and community life, through participation in the social and political processes in each of our own countries Need for a continuous and sustained commitment to promote a person- based and community oriented cultural process There is a need for us to direct it in order to not end up as its victims but its protagonists.20. What did Paul VI mean by a “call to action” in Octogesima Adveniens? Christians must become involved in social reforms as part of their mission as Christians The urgency of the situation heightens the social responsibility of the Christian JUSTITIA IN MUNDA21. What is the often-quoted statement of the Synod of Bishops in Justice in the World? "Action on behalf of justice and participation in the transformation of the world fully appear to us as a constitutive dimension of the preaching of the Gospel, or, in other words, of the Churchs mission for the redemption of the human race and its liberation from every oppressive situation." Calling attention to the structural roots of injustice afflicting human relations, the Bishops declare that action in the pursuit of justice and participation in the transformation of the world are essential elements in the Churchs mission of preaching the Gospel. Concern for justice must be a part of all phases of Christian life; it provides a critical antidote to an exclusively otherworldly Christianity.22. To proclaim justice, what must the Church be in Justice in the World? The Church must stand with the poor and oppressed if it is to be faithful to this gospel mandate, especially at a time when the concentration of the world’s wealth and power are concentrated in the hands of the few. The Church has the duty to proclaim justice on the social, national and international level, and to denounce instances on injustice because the Church has received from Christ the mission of preaching the Gospel, which contains a call to people to turn away from sin and to love the Father, a call to universal kinship, and a consequent demand for justice in the world. The Church is not alone responsible for justice in the world. However, she has the proper and specific responsibility which is identified with her mission of giving witness before the world of the need for love and justice contained in the Gospel message, a witness to be carried out in the Church institutions themselves and in the lives of Christians. And we, as members of Church have the same duty to promote the common good and to act as agents of the gospel in the different aspects of our lives, be it our family, professional, or social life. LABOREM EXERCENS 7
  8. 8. 23. How does John Paul II distinguish between “objective work” and “subjective work” in Laborem Exercens? Objective work – the agricultural means, industrial processes or microprocessing by which humans subdue the earth. It is work in the objective sense, simply the external aspects of work, and the actual job one does, with its necessary tools or machines. Subjective work – the human capacity to act in a planned and rational way, capable of deciding about himself and with a tendency to self- realization. Man is now the subject of work not the other way around. The Catholic tradition affirms the priority of the subjective character of work over its objective character. This affirmation follows from the Catholic understanding that the spiritual aspect of the human person, who is both flesh and spirit, distinguishes us as human, and that each human person is so far a transcendent being superior to all material things.24. What is the distinction between “labor” and “capital”? Labor – the primary efficient cause. Capital – the instrumental cause; the whole collection of means of production. Capital is both work and a collection of things, as it is based on natural resources, money and technology. Because it is instrumental, capital must always be subject to labor. The conflict between labor and capital is not as a class struggle, as Marx would have it, but the exploitation of a labor, which is a moral conflict. The exploitation of labor is rampant even today, workers are treated as means of production and most times are given the lowest wages possible. Labor is the cause of production while capital is a means of production, it is merely a tool or instrument; therefore, labor should always have priority over capital and not the other way around. The means of production cannot become a separate property called capital, as opposed to labor. They cannot be used to exploit labor nor should they be owned just for the sake of owning them. The only purpose of capital is serve labor.25. What are the four traditional rights of labor defined by John Paul II in Laborem Exercens? Suitable employment for all those capable of it Just remuneration for the work done Organization of the labor process to respect the requirements of the person and his life Right to form unions26. What is the distinction between “direct” and “indirect” employer in Laborem Exercens? Direct employer – the specific individual with whom the worker enters into a contract Indirect employer – sets the context in which the worker contracts with the direct employer. Includes all factors that influence wages and working conditions, which the owner or corporation cannot control (i.e. government policies, the policies of other industries, unions, and even 8
  9. 9. foreign governments and corporations)27. What are the four values that John Paul II says that labor brings? People transform nature and personally fulfill themselves Work is a basis for family life and the resources it needs Persons affirm their membership in a nation and participate in attaining the common good Persons achieve a deeper realization of their personhood through a deeper participation in community and the common good28. What is the teaching of John Paul II on “opposition” in Laborem Exercens? The worst thing is if workers are apathetic.Workers have the right to enter into opposition, participate, and not be apathetic. Struggle should be non-violent. The worst thing for a worker is to be marginalized. There must be participation in labor unions. Workers fight for justice. SOLLICITUDO REI SOCIALIS29. Who and what does John Paul II blame for the lack of any progress since Populorum Progressio in Sollicitudo Rei Socialis? Emphasized the widening gap between Northern and Southern hemisphere Two opposing blocks: liberal capitalism in the West and Marxist capitalism in the East (both are combined with industrialization) Both ideologies lack solidarity and preference for the poor Tension at the end of WWII caused stagnation of developing countries and exaggerated concerns for security and arms race30. How does John Paul II define solidarity in Sollicitudo Rei Socialis? Solidarity is not just a feeling. It is a firm and persevering determination to commit oneself to the common good It is an attitude of commitment to the good of one’s neighbor, coupled with a readiness to sacrifice oneself in the service of the other. The virtue of solidarity transforms the interpersonal relationships of individuals with the people around them. Transforms interpersonal relationships of individuals and nations and brings about a radical change of society31. What is the meaning of “social mortgage” in Sollicitudo Rei Socialis? Private property’s social dimension is emphasized Calls for private owners and those who are capable to realize the social obligation to give and to share to the poor and the needy Private property has an intrinsically social function based upon and justified precisely by the principle of the universal destination of goods32. Present John Paul II’s teaching on “structures of sin” in Sollicitudo Rei Socialis. Structures of sin are rooted in personal sin and concrete acts of individuals which grow stronger and spread, and become the source of other sins Results of interrelated actions of people, rooted in desire for profit and power 9
  10. 10. Institutions that corrupt those in power and victimize the weak The challenge for us to remove the structures of sin to bring about solidarity Solidarity requires sacrifices of our own interest for others Economic systems that lack of solidarity and work against the common good: Marxism and Capitalism Root causes of structures of sin: the all-consuming desire for profit and the thirst for power CENTISIMUS ANNUS33. What is the historical situation at the time Centisimus Annus was written? 100th anniversary of Rerum Novarum Emergence of hyper-industrialism Spirit of revolution based on class war and Marxist philosophy After the collapse of socialism in Eastern Europe Before the collapse of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union and the conclusion of the Persian Gulf War Fall of the Berlin Wall The accelerated division of Western societies into rich and poor Nations are now independent because of "decolonization" have seen formal sovereignty returned, but they still did not have control over their own economies. The United Nations has not established alternatives to war as effective means for the resolution of international conflicts. 1989 represents the end of a decade which saw many dictatorial and oppressive regimes end in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and especially in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Many of these governments violated human rights to private initiative, to ownership of property, and to freedom in the economic sector.34. What are the key themes from Rerum Novarum which are thematically discussed in Centisimus Annus? Restoration of peace between social classes Right to private property Just wages Question of rights Relation between the citizen and the state Restoring or establishing harmony between various social groups35. What is the teaching of Centisimus Annus on private property? Church defends the right to private property But this is not an absolute right and private property needs a social function Goods are common to the community New form of property – knowhow, technology and skill36. What is the teaching of Centisimus Annus on welfare state? The welfare state produced many negative outcomes as a result of tasks proper to the state. There was a reduced sense of social solidarity, dominated by bureaucratic thinking that did not focus on ways to help 10
  11. 11. people. Conflict with the preferential love for the poor There is a need for the principle of subsidiarity. Sometimes, people no longer strive to be responsible. They depend on the state to give them everything and become dehumanized. The state should promote independence and responsibility. The state should undertake only those tasks which are beyond the capacity of individuals or private groups Governmental agencies should not intervene unnecessarily, always respecting the basic rights of the members of society All societies of a superior order should adopt an attitude of help with respect to lower-order societies, and never destroy or absorb them. The state has its role in guaranteeing personal freedom, a stable currency, and efficient public services To provide a response that is not simply material and are this to address “the deeper human need”, only met by the service of love. The poor not seen as burden, but as people with potential as people seeking to share the goods of the world.37. What is the teaching of John Paul II on capitalism in Centisimus Annus? Capitalism has good and bad aspects It is survival of the fittest Capitalism, as compared to socialism, enables individuals and nations them to share in development from the opportunities created by the market. Although it is through market competitiveness that we attain economic development, its efficiency only accounts for goods that can be bought and sold. The fulfilment of the basic human needs require outward market forces demanded by justice and truth. It opens up the nation to more than free work or market exchange, but also of participation. A business enterprise or community is not just an association of capital goods, but is still primarily a society of persons. Everyone is tasked to find a resolution to the fulfilment the basic human needs. The free market is the most efficient instrument for utilizing resources and effectively responding to needs Capitalism should be an economic system that recognizes the fundamental and positive role of the business, the market, private property and the resulting responsibility for the means of production, as well as free human creativity in the economic sector. An overexpression of consumerism is an offset of capitalism. It is a culture of excess, consumption, and neglect that affects (1) the recuperating processes of the earth, and (2) our regard for each other. This creates further marginalization. CARITAS IN VERITATE 11
  12. 12. 38. What is the relationship between “charity” and “truth” in Caritas in Veritate? People today no longer believe in truth. Everything is relative. Benedict XVI says that there is an objective truth Without truth, charity degenerates into sentimentality and emotionalism o Love becomes an empty shell and the word “love” is misused and abused o Truth frees charity from the constraints of an emotionalism that deprives it of relational and social content and of a fideism that deprives it of human and universal breathing space. Truth grounds our being in objective reality Charity in truth is the principal driving force between the authentic development of every person and of all humanity Only in truth does charity shine forth; only in truth can charity be authentically lived Truth is the light that gives meaning and value to charity Charity without truth is like a pool of good sentiments—helpful for social cohesion, but of little relevance because there is no real place for God in the world Charity is grace; it islove received and given.39. What is the relationship between “charity” and the “common good”? To love someone is to desire that person’s good and to take effective steps to secure it Charity is to help others be all that they can be The common good is the good of all of us In an increasing globalized society, the common good cannot fail to assume the dimensions of the whole human family (community of peoples and nations) To love someone is to desire that person’s good and to take effective steps to secure it. Beside the good of the individual, there is a good that is linked to living in society, the common good. It is the good of all of us, made up of individuals, families and intermediate groups, which together constitute society. In an increasingly globalized society, the common good and the effort to obtain it cannot fail to assume the dimensions of the whole family, that is to say, the community of peoples and nations in such a way as to shape the earthly city in unity and peace, rendering it to some degree an anticipation and pre-figuration of the undivided city of God.40. What is Benedict XVI’s teaching on the moral dimension of the environment? People are the stewards of nature Rights must be linked to the fulfillment of duties in order to bring about an integral human development. One of these duties is our duty to protect the environment. “The environment is God’s gift to man, and in our use of it, we have a responsibility towards the poor, towards future generations and towards humanity as a whole.” Thus, we must dismiss the selfish notion that views nature simply as “raw materials to be exploited at our own pleasure.” 12
  13. 13. Nature is a gift from God that enables us to draw from it principles needed in order to cultivate it, and not destroy it. However, at the same time, the Pope warns us that the environment should not be seen as something more important than the human person. Rather, it is through nature that we recognize God’s creative activity and expressive love for all humanity. Its preservation therefore calls for us to become responsible stewards over nature. This requires self-examination of our current lifestyles as well as a shift in mentality which can lead to the adoption of new lifestyles marked by solidarity and intergenerational justice, wherein highly industrialized countries help developing countries to deal with today’s environmental challenges. In conclusion, the moral dimension of the environment arises from our responsible use of freedom to protect and cultivate it so we can accommodate the world’s population while still upholding the dignity of God’s creation.41. Show how Benedict XVI relates a pro-life mentality to environmental concerns. Do not promote abortion to save nature The environment is not as important as the human Humans are the stewards of nature. It is contrary to authentic development to view nature as something more important than the human person. The subject of human development is closely related to the duties arising from our relationship to the natural environment. It is God’s gift to us. In our use of it, we have a responsibility towards the poor, towards future generations, and towards humanity as a whole. It is necessary to reject the opposite position that aims at total technical dominion over nature. When human ecology is respected within society, environmental ecology also benefits. If there is a lack of respect for the lack of right to life and to a natural death, if human conception, gestation, and birth are made artificial, if human embryos are sacrificed to research, the concept of society ends up losing the concept of human ecology and along with that of environmental ecology. There must be a consistentethics of life – life must be protected at every stage42. How does Benedict XVI define “integral human development” in Caritas in Veritate? Benedict XVI first recalls Paul VI’s definition in Populorum Progressio (1967) Benedict XVI then extends the scope of it so that it also addresses the critical issues faced by the world today (40+ years later) Integral human development: o Holistic development of human person in every dimension to promote the good of every man and of the whole man o Know more, have more to be more o As a vocation, calls us to do more, know more, and have more, in order to be more 13
  14. 14. o Includes socio-economic, political, and spiritual aspects of development o Benedict XVI extends scope of integral human development so that it also coverssexual ethics, bio-ethics, cultural issues and environmental issues Development must include not just material growth but also spiritual growth Development requires attention to the spiritual life, a serious consideration of the experiences of trust in God, spiritual fellowship in Christ, reliance upon God’s providence and mercy, love and forgiveness, self-denial, acceptance of others, justice and peace. Important to development is the recognition of fraternity and that the human race is one single family A sense of solidarity will help bring about development in the aforementioned dimensions by instilling: o Openness to and protection of life o Use of science and technology with moral reflection o A more humanized economy and business sector o Respect for culture, and the will to liberate from harmful aspects of it o Responsibility towards environment as stewards of creation43. What is the teaching of Benedict XVI on “globalization” in Caritas in Veritate? Globalization did not happen automatically. It is the result of human decisions, and we have the power and responsibility to direct it. Globalization is neither good nor bad. It is how we use it.Globalization is what people make it. We can dehumanize people or bring about world order. Globalization is a process and ethical criterion which involves the unity of the human family and its development towards what is good New forms of colonialism – the presumed cultural superiority by technologically advanced societies (ex. IMF’s harsh conditions on poor countries) Outsourcing of production to poor countries where labor is cheap – the ever-increasing competition results in the downsize of social security systems and danger to security of workers Problem of hoarding of non-renewable energy sources by developed countries Problem of international tourism for sex Patenting laws that disadvantage poor countries (i.e. hedge funds to generate virtual money, which turns out to be mythical money) Problems related to the environment – it is not just raw material to be used, nor is it more important than the human person (pantheism) Business activities should be inserted into a wider network of social relationships Corporations have the responsibility for the health and welfare of poor countries where they outsource production and for their own employees 14
  15. 15. o They must be concerned not only for shareholders, but for stakeholders Moving to a socialist system is not the solution (dangers of an excessively controlling state) There should be continuous sustained commitment to promote a person- based culture44. How does Benedict XVI present the “economy of communion” of Chiara Lubich in the Focalare movement as a model for business? A broad intermediate area has emerged between two types of enterprise. There are traditional companies that subscribe to social aid agreements in support of underdeveloped countries, charitable foundations, and companies oriented towards social welfare. One does not exclude profit, but considers it a means for achieving human and social ends. The Economy of Communion (EoC): o Founded by Chiara Lubich in 1991 o The movement is active in promoting spiritual and social renewal and the ideals of unity and universal brotherhood in the market economy. o Business owners choose freely to help human development, aiming to create a community where no one is in need. o Distinction between profit-based companies and non-profit based companies is no longer adequate o New type of enterprise: traditional companies that support social aid ventures o Profit is considered a means of achieving human and social ends o The market is more civilized but also more competitive o Businesses using the EoC divide profits into three parts: a. Helping the poor Giving the poor opportunities to live a more dignified life. Improving the living standards of the workers. Forming a community that lives in the spirit of constant communion and practices profit sharing. b. Formation of people to spread the culture of giving To spread the culture of giving and loving. To build a society of solidarity. Value formation activities. c. Sustainability of the business Re-investment in physical capital and in new technology to ensure company growth. Firm expansion to generate new jobs. More economic opportunities. o 2 types of poverty 15
  16. 16. a. Caused by injustices done by people and by unjust social structures b. Voluntarily choseno EoC calls us all to live a life of poverty in order to live out the culture of giving.o Developing countries see the EoC as: a. Valid contribution to alleviate poverty and decrease unemployment b. Ownership participation – workers get involved in the development of the firmo Developed countries see the EoC as: a. Feasible and practical way of achieving social justice through wealth redistributiono How the EoC works: a. Investors get their desired returns b. Ensures business viability and availability of resources c. Assures the workers of their fair share d. Promotes industrial peace and harmony e. Higher worker morale f. Minimizes wasted production efficiency g. Improves the standard of living of the poor members of the company h. Helping not by doling out, but by producing wealtho Communion - One person offers his surplus while the other brings the need into the relationshipo Filipino ethical perspectives and the EoC: a. Pagpapakatao (self) Help the person achieve the fullness of humanity b. Pakikipagkapwa (neighbor) Put self-fulfillment in reference to a neighbor’s wellbeing c. Pakikibayani (community or society) Good of all humanity; socio-cultural processes and systems cannot precede the common good d. Pakikinilalang (God) Abounds in the Philippine context because it affirms out being interconnected with all beings to God and among one anothero Filipino businesses using the EoC: a. Ancilla Enterprise Development Consulting, Inc. b. Bangko Kabayan Inc. (BK) c. Asia Pacific Circulation Exponents, Inc. (APCEI)o The EoC provides: a. The framework and the guidelines that a truly humane entrepreneur should follow in making this world a better place. 16
  17. 17. b. A way of fulfilling the love, solidarity and union with Christ while managing and expanding his or her enterprise within the market economy45. Explain what Benedict XVI means by “gratuitousness” in Caritas in Veritate? Gratuitousness is present in our lives in many different forms but it often goes unrecognized because of a purely consumerist and utilitarian view of life Gratuitousness – who is my neighbor? Discovery of the human vocation – important in human development Recognize the divine image to mature in a love for each other Walter Kasper: “Fundamental form of faith – love of God and love of neighbor” What is gratuitousness? It is only when the other receives my gift that I can give it. If I have given, I have only been able to give because they were able to receive it. And because they received it, they affected my life. Gratuitousness of based on the transcendental humanism: o We are made for giftand it is in giving that we find ourselves o Reciprocal gratitude – it is two ways. We give and receive. o Spirit of unselfish generosity where you give without expecting a return We should think of gratuitousness hence brotherhood as a symbol of the human condition, thereby seeing the practice of giving as the fundamental qualification for the state to function, with the common good as the goal. Efficiency and justice alone cannot be enough to guarantee people’s happiness; hence, there should be widespread practice of giving. We should reflect God’s gratuitous love to one another and help one another not for what we may gain in return, but because we can.46. What is the teaching of Benedict XVI on the “moral dimension of the economic life”? Current state: o Primary focus of economic life is income and profit. o Governments move towards shielding economies from moral obligations to increase efficacy. o Workers are treated as commodities o Profit becomes more important than human life or the environment o Inferior products are released into market to increase profit. o Contracts are used to abuse instead of to protect the deal. o Commutative justice is lost. Teachings: o Moral dimension should serve as backbone of the economic process. o Benedict XVI pushes for justice and the focus on the common good tempered with charity and love to serve as the lifeblood of the economic system o Justice is not enough. It is not enough to be merely “fair” or to obey the bounds of the contract.People must go beyond 17
  18. 18. justice and act out of Caritas, out of love for their fellow man. o Proprietors become responsible for all stakeholders:Workers, suppliers, shareholders, customers and everyone else involved in and affected by the business. 47. How does Benedict XVI present the moral dimensions of the market and the ethical responsibilities of business in Caritas in Veritate? According to Caritas in Veritate, business and developmental activities need to be focused on social relationships and the common good as much as they are on the economic benefits from such activies. As such, these have to be reinserted into a wider network of social relationships where the business managers dont just focus on the amount of money they make for their stakeholders, but also how their decisions affect all the other stakeholders. Those who own and manage companies have a serious responsibility for the health and welfare both of the workers in their own companies, and of the workers in poor countries where production of their products has been outsourced. They must also be responsible for the effects of their products on their customers, for the good of the wider society, and for the damage that may be done to the environment.Other notes:Encyclicals on Development: written under the concept of Transcendental Humanism(we are always seeking God to know and love more). We need integral humandevelopment that is holistic, economic, political and spiritual. In integral development,we are always learning to have more and be more.Two groups in the world that are dehumanized: 1. The poor 2. The richRelationship between questions on Caritas in Veritate and Catechism: a. 38: 1-5 b. 39: 6 c. 40: 31 d. 41a: 27, 34, 44 e. 41b: 7-11. 15 f. 42: 25 g. 43: 29 h. 44: 17, 22, essay i. 45: 20, 21, 23, 28 j. 46: 18, 19, 40 18