An “illustration” is a visualisation or
depiction made by an artist, or
illustrator, such as a drawing, ske...
Mark—making is a term used to
describe the different lines, patterns,
and textures created in a piece of
artwork. It appli...
In 1765, new technology made it
possible to produce single—sheet
prints in a whole range of colours.
Printmakers who had p...
The late 1800s and early 1900s are
considered to be the golden age
of illustration with numerous works
frequently appearin...
Illustration's heyday began its decline
shortly after WWI and witnessed a
significant change during the 1930s
when advance...
The “groovy graphics” created by the
Push Pin set continued to blossom
into the 1970s when “Flower Power”
became mainstrea...
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Illustration, And Mark—Making: Class Teaching Notes


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Illustration, And Mark—Making: Class Teaching Notes

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Illustration, And Mark—Making: Class Teaching Notes

  1. 1. Illustration, An “illustration” is a visualisation or depiction made by an artist, or illustrator, such as a drawing, sketch, painting, photograph or other kind of image of things seen, remembered or imagined. Printing is currently the most usual process for reproducing illustrations, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. Illustrations can be artistic images illustrating perhaps text, poems, fashion designs, stamps, magazines or books; its aim however is to elucidate or decorate by providing a visual representation of something described in (the) text. Illustrations can also represent scientific images of flora, medicine or different processes, a biological or chemical process or a technical illustration to provide information on how to use something. Illustrations can be executed in different media such as gouache, watercolours, pen and ink, oils, charcoal, collage, photography or usingprinting techniques such as lino or woodcuts, silkscreen or etching. Poem illustration, Janos Orban. And Mark—Making Fashion illustration, David Downton. Book Illustration, Oliver Jeffers. Botanical illustration. Technical illustration, sewing machine instruction guide. Photo illustration, Alfred Hitchcock poster. Collage, Angelica Paez. Eleanor-Jayne Browne | Printmaking Teaching Notes | Illustration, And Mark—Making 1
  2. 2. Mark—making is a term used to describe the different lines, patterns, and textures created in a piece of artwork. It applies to any art material(s) used on any surface(s), not only paint on canvas or pencil on paper; for example a dot made with a pencil, a line created with a pen, a swirl painted with a brush, these are all types of mark—making. they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation and they are also often located in areas that were not easily accessible. One theory believes that the paintings were a way of communicating with others, whilst another ascribes them with a religious or ceremonial purpose. Decorated initials, The Lindisfarne Gospels. Altamira Bison, Cave of Altamira, Spain. Illustration however did appear in a decorative form as delicate biblical illustrations in western religious manuscripts. Mixed media mark—making, charcoal, paint, tape. Illustrated Marginalia, Flight of the Witches Manuscript, Martin Le France, 1451. Art pens used to create varying marks and strokes. Illustration— A Brief History The earliest illustration examples can be traced back to the paintings found on cave walls and ceilings of the Aurignacian period about 40,000 years ago in the El Castillo cave in Cantabria, Spain. The exact purpose of the cave paintings is not known, but evidence suggests that they were not just decorations of living areas, since the caves in which Book illustration arrived formally after the invention of the printing press but woodcut illustrations were already common in Japan and China to accompany hand written books. Miniature illustration The Christ in Majesty, Aberdeen Bestiary. Woodblock prints were initially used as early as the 8th century to Known as illuminated manuscripts disseminate texts in Japan, especially these religious illustrations added Buddhist scriptures; however until decoration to the written text and the 18th century, woodblock printing included such elements as borders remained primarily a convenient (marginalia) decorated initials and method of reproducing written texts. miniature illustrations. In the most strict definition of the term, an illuminated manuscript only refers to those decorated with gold or silver, but in common usage the term is now used to refer to any decorated or illustrated manuscript. Illustrated Japanese Buddhist scripture. Eleanor-Jayne Browne | Printmaking Teaching Notes | Illustration, And Mark—Making 2
  3. 3. In 1765, new technology made it possible to produce single—sheet prints in a whole range of colours. Printmakers who had previously worked in monochrome (1 colour or shades of one colour) and painted the colours by hand, or had printed only a few colours, gradually came to use full polychrome (a variety of colours) printing to spectacular effect. The first polychrome prints, or nishiki—e, were calendars made on commission for a group of rich patrons in Edo, where it was the custom to exchange beautifully designed calendars at the beginning of the year. In England many famous illustrators such as William Hogarth, who concentrated on socio—satirical themes; William Blake, who is best known for his religious engravings; and George Cruickshank, who facilitated a speedier process and the created the illustrations for Charles ability to reach a wider audience. Dickens’ books embraced these printing techniques and published many seminal works. moistened, the etched areas retained water and an oil—based ink could then be applied and would be repelled by the water, sticking only to the original drawing. The ink would finally be transferred to a blank paper sheet, producing a printed page). Such methods A Rake's Progress, Plate 8, William Hogarth, engraving, 1735. Portrait of Luca Giordano, etching, 18th century. Woodblock print, triptych, Three Women In A Boat On Leaf—Strewn River Detail, Nishiki—e on paper. The 17th and 18th centuries were an important time in the history of illustration as printing methods such as etching (the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio. With intaglio printing, the image is incised into a surface, and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink), engraving (the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface by cutting grooves into it) and lithography (prints were created by drawing an image onto the surface of a smooth lithographic limestone plate with oil, fat or wax. The stone was then treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic thus etching the portions of the stone which were not protected by the grease—based image. When the stone was Songs of Innocence and of Experience: The Tyger (Plate 42), William Blake, relief etching, 1794 circa 1825. Portrait of Marie Josephine Louise of Savoy, artist unknown, engraving, 18th century. Jenny Lind as Amina in Bellini's 'La Sonnambula', lithographic print, circa 1847. Eleanor-Jayne Browne 'The Bloomsbury Christening', (for 'Sketches by Boz' by Charles Dickens), George Cruikshank etched illustration, circa 1830s. | Printmaking Teaching Notes | Illustration, And Mark—Making 3
  4. 4. The late 1800s and early 1900s are considered to be the golden age of illustration with numerous works frequently appearing in books and magazines, both in Europe and the US. where a multiplicity of styles developed and drew influences from the art of the time, as well as the Arts and Crafts Movement and Art Deco. Due to the convergence of a number of factors in the US. including newly developing printing techniques (1880s a half—tone process and 1900 full—colour reproduction), paper production becoming cheaper, railways facilitating distribution and a population which was expanding and becoming wealthier, magazines such as Harper’s Monthly took advantage of these circumstances to build enormous circulations— and they needed art work for their pages. Meanwhile, publishers, particularly of children’s books, also found that the new techniques and new markets could make their business highly profitable. May Day, Kate Greenaway. Peter Rabbit first edition, first printing and Peter Rabbit first edition illustration, December 1901. First issue of The Studio Magazine, an illustrated magazine of fine and applied art, cover by Aubrey Beardsley, 1893. Walter Crane, considered to be the most influential and prolific children’s book creator of his generation, was at the forefront of the golden age, along with Kate Greenaway, with their traditional romantic illustrations influenced by the pre—Raphaelites. British illustrators became very popular and of particular note are the watercolours created by Beatrix Potter for her Peter Rabbit series. In total contrast to the “nursery” genre, the mysterious stories written by the German Brothers Grimm were heavily illustrated with dark images by Arthur Rackman; and influenced by the style of Japanese woodcuts, Aubrey Beardsley's black ink drawings emphasised the grotesque, the decadent and the erotic. Beardsley was a leading figure in the Aesthetic Movement and his contribution to the development of Art Nouveau was significant, despite the brevity of his career. February 1894 Poster for Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Edward Penfield, 5—colour lithograph, published January 1894. “Blow, blow, little breeze, And Conrad’s hat seize.” Illustration originally from Snowdrop And Other Tales, The Brothers Grimm, illustration Arthur Rackham, published 1920. Jonquil Masquerade, Walter Crane, 1899. How Sir Tristram Drank of the Love Drink, Aubrey Beardsley, 1893—1894 and How Sir Launcelot was Known by Dame Elaine, Aubrey Beardsley. Eleanor-Jayne Browne At this time, artists were suddenly given the chance to make enormous sums of money and this attracted a number of talents. Traditionally there was very little possibility for a painter to make a career through art galleries and exhibitions mainly because if wealthy Americans bought art at all, they bought European art. Moreover, there was no stigma attached to working as an illustrator, as there can be within the fine—arts community. In fact, artists were happy to see their work disseminated to such a broad public and Americans came to appreciate the illustrations that accompanied their magazines, newspapers, advertisements and books. | Printmaking Teaching Notes | Illustration, And Mark—Making 4
  5. 5. Illustration's heyday began its decline shortly after WWI and witnessed a significant change during the 1930s when advances in photographic reproduction and the advent of colour photography began to push illustrators aside— once again new technologies and new commercial needs asserted themselves. Ironically, illustrators of the Golden Age had inspired a younger generation of artists, however these younger artists had to compete not only with the established masters of magazine illustration, but with the growing use of photography and its influence on advertising. While it provided artists with new “spaces” for their work, it also demanded fresh, contemporary styles that reflected the jazz age and other changes taking place in the world in general. Economic hardships stemming from the 1920s and 30s brought all kinds of “golden ages” to an end and increasingly illustrators depicted poignant scenes of suffering and poverty. Some illustrators such as Robert Henri, both artist and teacher, became key players in the new art movement Social Realism which was committed to American “art” reflecting American “life” including the pretty, the ugly and the in—between. This realism manifested itself in many forms and whilst the visual styles differed, the message was the same. Cut The Line, depicting the launch of a US. Navy Tank Landing Ship, Thomas Hart Benton, 1944. As the world began to recover from WWII western economies boomed and consumerism began to spread. Neyret fashion advert, illustration, 1930s. People began to lead a new kind of life, which meant treating yourself During WWII illustrators' work well. The 50s were a decade marked was centred on propaganda posters by economic growth: many new and flyers. Propaganda was used by brands and products came to life, many countries to increase support increased leisure time lead to fast for the war and commitment to an food restaurants and the movies; and Allied victory. Patriotism became housewives smiled whilst cleaning the main theme of advertising and their all—new electrical gadgets. large scale campaigns were launched to sell war bonds, reduce rumours, promote efficiency in factories and maintain civilian morale. this utopia was reflected perfectly in the work of Norman Rockwell. The Runaway, Norman Rockwell, 1958. In keeping with the zeitgeist, an alternative aesthetic sprung up in the form of Push Pin Studios, whose bright and witty, often heavily outlined images packed with historical, cultural and artistic references and innovative uses of type appealed to a new audience. Founded by Seymour Chwast, Milton Glaser, Reynold Ruffins and Edward Sorel, this collective is one of the most famous graphic design and illustration studios in the world and has influenced a variety of artists whilst contributing to the field with its bi—monthly publication, “Push Pin Graphic” which ran from 1955—1981. Poster for Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits, Milton Glaser, 1975. Servis Washing Machines Advert, 1950s. During this time the average US. salary increased by 50%, a middle class arouse, credit cards were introduced, babies were booming and men supported their families by working long hours in office jobs. Everyone seemed to live a dream come true— happy and content and Women of Britain, Come Into the Factories, British WWII propaganda poster. Eleanor-Jayne Browne Cover design, Push Pin Graphic, Issue N. 36: The Thirties, Seymour Chwast, 1962. | Printmaking Teaching Notes | Illustration, And Mark—Making 5
  6. 6. The “groovy graphics” created by the Push Pin set continued to blossom into the 1970s when “Flower Power” became mainstream; however from the 1970s onwards the increased use of photography, once again, forced illustration to take a back seat and lose its place in the market, and photography became the dominant medium used in the media world and, it also took over the art scene. But does this mean the end of illustration? No, instead it can usher in a new era, and an opportunity, where conceptually, illustrators and designers can share and exchange visual ideas, methods and strategies for conveying information and telling stories. Traditionally, illustrators have been segregated from designers despite their disciplines converging; therefore it seems logical that there should be integration at certain stages— even with the computer, designers need to “know” drawing whilst illustrators should be “literate” with type. Obama election poster, Shepard Fairey, 2008. It provided a different outlook on Obama imagery, which up to then was heavily based on photographs, continuing a tradition of politically charged art. Fairey’s style is very current, he has played a seminal role in street and Westinghouse lightbulb advert, Woman's Day graffiti arts, and it engaged the Magazine, April, 1971. demographic that the Obama campaign was targeting (which is Double Exposure Photography experiments, Illustration methods and styles Dan Mountford. the demographic that can make throughout the 20th century have images or stories become viral). shifted incrementally along with The increasingly digital nature of And, attesting to its importance the changes in art and technology and the media world, as well as the Smithsonian Institution’s National the late 20th century can be viewed globalised nature of today’s market Portrait Gallery acquired Fairey’s as a bad period for illustration. For have allowed illustrators and their hand—finished collage in stencil example, illustration at the turn of next of kin— the “graphic artist” to and acrylic on paper with the word the century was the primary visual take the reign again. The past “hope”. Fairey’s success has breathed storytelling medium, but the rise in decades have seen a focus on the new life into (political) illustration the popularity of photography has digital graphic arts and with its rendered it “supplementary” and continued expansion, graphic artists and opened a new creative door for the Obama campaign. Fairey was with so many digital “illustrative” are not only gaining momentum in further commissioned to create a options available today along with the media (and other) world(s) but the increased preference for digitally also in the art field. Who can forget similar version of his image for concocted imagery, painted and Shepard Fairey’s image of Barack Time Magazine's 2008 Person of the drawn illustrations are often viewed Obama taking over social media sites Year. as relics from the past. and becoming the key image of his campaign in 2008? Fairey’s stencil portrait of Obama in red, blue and white with the word “Hope” across the bottom has become an iconic image in the world of modern politics, and beyond. The circulation of the image was rapid: from posters, to stickers, to mugs and t—shirts and its presence online went viral. But why did this image become iconic so quickly? Fashion illustration, Patrick Nagel, 1980s. Eleanor-Jayne Browne | Printmaking Teaching Notes | Illustration, And Mark—Making 6