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  1. 1. The Effect of Fertilization and Environmental Factors on Water Quality in the Upper Cove River Watershed<br />Danielle Eldracher<br />
  2. 2. Background<br />Watershed originates in the Yale Golf Course<br />Empties into Long Island Sound in West Haven<br />Travels through a variety of lake, marsh, forest and residential topography<br />Includes a potable water reservoir<br />East Tributary flows directly from the golf course<br />West Tributary comes from another direction control<br />The two converge and flow into reservoir<br />Water flows over spillway and into another lake<br />
  3. 3. Past Research<br />In the past few decades, industrialization, population growth, and intensive use of chemical fertilizers have doubled the amount of nitrogen in circulation (Horton)<br />Coastal bays and oceans are hit hardest rivers dump runoff<br />Low-lying wetlands are key to a healthy watershed they trap runoff and filter its harmful sediments through natural vegetation (Mitchell)<br />Excess nitrates can cause blue-baby syndrome in infants, and can potentially lead to cancer<br />
  4. 4. Purpose<br />Learn about the overall water quality<br />Determine how human activity affects it (fertilization)<br />Determine how natural and environmental factors affect it<br />
  5. 5. Variables/Hypothesis<br />IV: Time, Location, Environmental factors<br />DV: Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, pH, Conductivity, and Nitrate measurements<br />Hypothesis: <br />Nitrate will be higher in the east tributary due to fertilization of the golf course<br />water quality will improve/recover from any nitrate pollution after flowing through marsh areas<br />Temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration will be inversely related<br />
  6. 6. Materials<br />Vernier Probes: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, nitrate, conductivity<br />Bucket with rope<br />Wash bottle with distilled water<br />Kim wipes<br />Test tubes and holder<br />Nitrate Standard solutions : high (100 mg/L) and low (10 mg/L)<br />MUC field guide<br />GPS unit<br />Notebook and pencil<br />Stopwatch <br />
  7. 7. Procedure<br />Record date and time and make notes about the weather/surroundings<br />Record any relevant observations at each sample site<br />Fill the bucket with water from the sample site<br />Immediately test for temperature and dissolved oxygen<br />Test for pH and Nitrate<br />Test for conductivity<br />
  8. 8. Procedure Continued<br />For each test, the probe should remain completely submerged for 1-2 minutes<br />Probes should not touch the sides of the container <br />The tips of the probes should not be touched<br />After each test, rinse off the probe with distilled water <br />Dry using Kim wipes<br />Secure the probe back in its solution bottle if it has one<br />
  9. 9. Sample Sites<br />
  10. 10. Nitrate Averages<br />
  11. 11. Other Averages<br />pH<br />Conductivity<br />Dissolved<br />Oxygen<br />
  12. 12. Nitrate Changes Over Time<br />Tributaries<br />Other Sites<br />
  13. 13. Dissolved Oxygen Changes <br />Tributaries<br />Other Sites<br />
  14. 14. Conductivity Changes <br />Tributaries<br />Other Sites<br />
  15. 15. pH Changes Over Time<br />Tributaries<br />Other Sites<br />
  16. 16. Additional Tests<br />
  17. 17. Conclusions<br />Nitrate concentrations higher overall in east tributary than in west tributary<br />Nitrate seems to be filtered out as water flows through wetlands—from confluence to spillway to outlet<br />DO concentrations higher overall in the west tributary than in the east tributary<br />pH was lowest at the end of October and highest at the beginning of January<br />
  18. 18. Sources<br />Anderson, Chauncey W. "Ecological Effects on Streams from Forest."      Water-Resources Investigations Report: n. pag. Web. 5 Nov. 2010.      <>. <br />Carter, Virginia. "Wetland Hydrology, Water Quality, and Associated Functions." United States Geological Survey, 7 Mar. 1997. Web. 9      Sept. 2010. <>. <br />Evans, Robert, J. W. Gilliam, and J. P. Lilly. "Wetlands and Water Quality." North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, June      1996. Web. 7 Sept. 2010. <      evans/ag473-7.html>.<br />Fox, T. R., et al. "Forest Fertilization and Water Quality." Better Crops 91.1      (2007): 7-9. Web. 5 Nov. 2010. <      $webindex/F8B6AF8F6BF7C25A85257276007048BB/$file/07-1p07.pdf>. <br />"Functions and Values of Wetlands." Washington State Department      of Ecology, n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2010. <      wetlands/functions.html>. <br />Graves, Scott M. "The Cove River Historical Site." N.p., n.d.      Web. 5 Nov. 2010. <>. <br />Mullins, Daniel E. "Fertilization Practices Can Affect Water Quality."      Pensacola News Journal (Jan. 2001): n. pag. Web. 5 Nov. 2010.      <>. <br />"WATER PURIFICATION: An Essential Ecosystem Service ." Ecological      Society of America, n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2010. <      ecoservices/comm/body.comm.fact.wate.html>.<br />Wetlands—Nature’s Water Filters ." Ducks Unlimited Canada, n.d.      Web. 9 Sept. 2010. <      wetlands.html>. <br />