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Urbike

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Urbike

  1. 1. Raakesh s/o Mogana Sundram Pua Hock Leong Vincent Low Elango Elayabharath
  2. 2.  Life – Cycle Design Flow Design Ethical Violations in Design Analyze Common Factors Feedback Testing
  3. 3.  Love Canal Ford Pinto Therac – 25 Chernobyl Nuclear Plant
  4. 4.  Located near Niagara Falls. Experiencing population boom. Hooker Chemical’s dump site for toxic waste. Government built school and residence.
  5. 5. Image Source: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_UV2eaSWz0xY/TMBkOlRDU5I/AAAAAAAAABY/pYsNqs4515c/s1600/LoveCanal-middle500px.jpg
  6. 6.  Birth Deficiencies  Webbed toes  Extra set of teeth  Heart defects  Mental retardation Image Source: http://www.fiendishcuriosities.com/photos/photo_2006- 06-13_18-12_0.jpg High no. of miscarriages
  7. 7.  Siting & Design Phase  No adequate suitability tests done  Ignored concerns of Hooker Chemical
  8. 8.  Sacrificing Safety (Public Health) Denial of Responsibility Negligence for Ecological & Environmental sustainability Image Source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_FivrbNsJk1Y/TTYscPlx8NI/AAAAAAAAAVY/rdkKT8dj7O8/s1600/Love+Canal.jpg
  9. 9.  Love Canal Ford Pinto Therac - 25 Chernobyl Nuclear Plant
  10. 10. Ford PintoImage Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bluepinto.jpg
  11. 11.  American Subcompact Market Ford President Lee Iacocca 25 month conception to production schedule (average car takes 43 months) Fuel tank design + other design variables
  12. 12.  Design: $2000, 2000 pound limit, Fuel Tank problem Testing: Rear collision resulted in fuel leakage and fire Feedback: Engineers came up with redesign proposals Design: Cost/Benefit Analysis was done
  13. 13.  Benefits Savings: 180 burn deaths, 180 serious burn injuries, 2100 burned vehicles Unit Cost: $200,000 per death, $67,000 per injury, $700 per vehicle Total Benefit: 180 x ($200,000) + 180 x ($67,000) + 2100 x ($700) = $49.5 Million Costs Sales: 11 million cars, 1.5 million light trucks Unit Cost: $11 per car, $11 per truck Total Cost: 11,000,000 x ($11) + 1,500,000 x ($ I 1) = $137 Million From Ford Motor Company internal memorandum: "Fatalities Associated with Crash--Induced Fuel Leakage and Fires." Source: Douglas Birsch and John H. Fielder, THE FORD PINTO CASE: A STUDY IN APPLIED ETHICS. BUSINESS, AND TECHNOLOGY. p. 28.1994.
  14. 14.  Consciously Sacrificing Public Safety Monetary Value of Life Using Value of Life in Cost/Benefit Analysis
  15. 15. Image source: http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/showcase2004/images-04/jn_pinto.gif Safety should have been prioritized Could have pushed cost of the safety modification to the consumer
  16. 16.  Love Canal Ford Pinto Therac – 25 Chernobyl Nuclear Plant
  17. 17.  Medical grade linear accelerator Cures cancer / tumors Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Overdosed 6 people ~x100 the limit
  18. 18.  Therac – 6 and Therac 20 More compact, dual mode, depth dose Not standalone using hardware
  19. 19.  Operator interface – return carriage Error messages – codes No mechanical safety back-ups
  20. 20.  Hazard testing – Assumptions  Programming errors eliminated  Program does not degrade due to reproduction process  Execution error only by faulty hardware Computer selects wrong energy level  10^-12
  21. 21.  Overconfidence in software Safety vs Reliability, User friendly Unrealistic risk assessments
  22. 22.  Simple and reliable coding practices Self checking codes Operator training FDA intervention
  23. 23.  Love Canal Ford Pinto Therac – 25 Chernobyl Nuclear Plant
  24. 24.  Located in Pripyat Experimental test went out of control Immediate death of 2 workers, 28 firemen Worst nuclear accident
  25. 25.  Safety Violations • Safety Regulations are not followed • Almost all the 211 control rods are removed • Unstable fission rate
  26. 26.  Safety Violations • The workers quarter located just 3 km away from the plant • Productivity versus safety
  27. 27.  Safety Violations • Lacked of communication between engineers • Pressured to succeed
  28. 28.  Environmental Violation • No containment structure • Fast, cheaper, better •Emergency was not called upon immediately •Spread of radiation to other parts of the world
  29. 29. AlienationViolations Environment Pollution Radiation illness
  30. 30.  Profit Pride

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