Group Work


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Group Work

  1. 1. No, not groupwork Planning for Effective Group Interaction
  2. 2. Why use groups? <ul><li>Focus is on topic rather than teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Peer teaching increases retention </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone has the chance to discuss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assume responsibility for own learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in decision making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice interpersonal communication </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Arranging for Groups <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducive to interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attractive and pleasant to work in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good lighting and ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Room to circulate to groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxed and supportive </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Arranging for Groups <ul><li>Seating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrangements that have each member facing the rest are best </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to provide table space for writing </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Arranging for Groups <ul><li>Seating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrangements to share among groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving groups </li></ul><ul><li>Report groups </li></ul>A1 A2 A3 A4 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3 ETC… A1 B1 C1 D1 B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4 D1 D2 D3 D4
  6. 6. Arranging for Groups <ul><li>Group size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of task will dictate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conveying info: large groups [25-30] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended discussion [10-12] (ensures enough diversity of opinion) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving [4-6] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory problems [2-4] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short discussion [pairs] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Arranging for Groups <ul><li>Grouping </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-selected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be time consuming </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May lead to a homogenous mix </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could leave someone out </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher-selected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance groups by </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure that at least one group member has the skills needed for the task </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Establishing Groups <ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of the activity clearly stated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A research team approach should be developed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight cooperation and commitment to do one’s share </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Establishing Groups <ul><li>Initial leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many activities do not require a leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups > 3 need a leader for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing responsibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recorder must be selected for any task to objectively report group’s contributions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Establishing Groups <ul><li>The charge [purpose for being] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be a clear picture of what students are to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This should be stated early and clarified as needed </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Group Interaction <ul><li>Every group has to learn to work together </li></ul><ul><li>Takes time to fit into and contribute to the group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Member may become discouraged, disturbed or angry at each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follows a Predictable Progression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some groups may start at stage 3 or 4 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Stages of Group Interaction <ul><li>Teacher’s Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to identify the stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note the stages represent feelings , not the content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate movement to a more productive stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure all feel included, accepted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realize this may be gradual process for some groups </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Stages of Group Interaction <ul><li>Teacher’s possible actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus and refocus group attention on the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify tasks, ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give/repeat directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See group discussion PowerPoint for more </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Stages of Group Interaction <ul><li>Stage 1: Groping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When first grouped, they may not know each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May not know how to work together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May not trust each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still need to identify other’s skills, knowledge etc.. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some icebreakers and other activities to build group may help </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Stages of Group Interaction <ul><li>Stage 2:Griping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discouraged when progress is slow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May attack each other verbally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May play negative roles, block group interaction due to discomfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus the group on working to do a good job </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Stages of Group Interaction <ul><li>Stage 3: Grasping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With patience… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas start to fit together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement emerges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More comfortable as they see progress is being made </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Stages of Group Interaction <ul><li>Stage 4: Grouping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand and appreciate how others operated and contribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins to function well and roles of building and maintenance emerge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High level work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of “my group” </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Stages of Group Interaction <ul><li>Stage 5: Acting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All members play constructive roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing in all decisions, planning etc.. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel good about the group </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Effective Groups…. <ul><li>Know why they were formed and what they are to do </li></ul><ul><li>Openly communicate feelings and attitudes as they see this helps the group function </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure all members express themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Listen attentively to ideas of all members </li></ul>
  20. 20. Effective Groups…. <ul><li>Recognize all members and their ideas are important </li></ul><ul><li>Accept that each is unique and has personal needs that must be met </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the unique talents and abilities of each member and uses them all </li></ul>
  21. 21. Effective Groups…. <ul><li>Recognize that its success is the responsibility of all members </li></ul><ul><li>Share the responsibility for leadership with each member taking a turn </li></ul>
  22. 22. Leadership functions <ul><li>Help each person feel at ease </li></ul><ul><li>Build and maintain group over time </li></ul><ul><li>Help set and define goals </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve a cooperative esprit de corps allowing group to work toward goals </li></ul><ul><li>Get a task done </li></ul>
  23. 23. Effective Leaders Return to previous slide
  24. 24. So… <ul><li>Good interpersonal communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among selves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With other groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comfort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A group may begin at any stage </li></ul>
  25. 25. So… <ul><li>As interaction becomes directed and constructive, the group will begin functioning at stage 4 or 5. </li></ul>
  26. 26. So… <ul><li>Group leaders must know and practice behaviors that move the group forward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership can be shared with group and with teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers should hold group accountable for their behaviors </li></ul></ul>