On 7 June 1939, Salk was awarded his M.D. The next day, he married Donna Lindsay, a Phi Beta Kappa psychology major who was employed as a social worker. The marriage would produce three sons: Peter, Darrell, and Jonathan. After graduation, Salk continued working with Francis, and concurrently began a two-year internship at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. Upon completing his internship, Salk accepted a National Research Council fellowship and moved to the University of Michigan to join Dr. Francis, who had been heading up Michigan'sdepartment of epidemiology since the previous year. Working on behalf of theU.S. Army, the team strove to develop a flu vaccine. Their goal was a "killed-virus" vaccine--able to kill the live flu viruses in the body, while simultaneously producing antibodies that could fight off future invaders of the same type, thus producing immunity. By 1943, Salk and Francis had developed a formalin-killed-virus vaccine, effective against both type A and B influenza viruses, and were in a position to begin clinical trials.In 1946, Salk was appointed assistant professor of epidemiology at Michigan.Around this time he extended his research to cover not only viruses and the body's reaction to them but also their epidemic effects in populations. The following year he accepted an invitation to move to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine's Virus Research Laboratory as an associate research professor of bacteriology. When Salk arrived at the Pittsburgh laboratory, whathe encountered was not encouraging. The laboratory had no experience with thekind of basic research he was accustomed to, and it took considerable efforton his part to bring the lab up to par. However, Salk was not shy about seeking financial support for the laboratory from outside benefactors, and soon his laboratory represented the cutting edge of viral research.
58,000 cases of polio were reported in 1952, with 3,145 people dying and 21,269 left with mild to disabling paralysis
Polio myelitis, traceable back to ancient Egypt, causes permanent paralysis in those it strikes, or chronic shortness of breath often leading to death. Children, in particular, are especially vulnerable to the polio virus. The University of Pittsburgh was one of four universities engaged in trying to sort and classify the more than one hundred known varieties of polio virus. By 1951, Salk was able to assert with certainty that all polio viruses fell into oneof three types, each having various strains; some of these were highly infectious, others barely so. Once he had established this, Salk was in a positionto start work on developing a vaccine.
20,000 physicians and public health officers, 64,000 school personnel, and 220,000 volunteers," with over 1,800,000 school children participating in the trial.
The success of the trial catapulted Salk to instant stardom. He was inundatedwith offers from Hollywood and with pleas from top manufacturers for him toendorse their products. He received a citation from President Eisenhower andaddressed the nation from the White House Rose Garden. He was awarded a congressional medal for great achievement in the field of medicine and was nominated for a Nobel Prize but, contrary to popular expectation, did not receive it. He was also turned down for membership in the National Academy of Sciences,most likely a reflection of the discomfort the scientific community still felt about the level of publicity he attracted and of continued disagreement with peers over his methods.
polio virus lived and multiplied in the small intestine. An oral vaccine, he believed, might block the virus from entering the bloodstream, destroying it before it spread.
It was called the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and opened in 1963 in the San Diego neighborhood of La Jolla. Salk believed that the institution would help new and upcoming scientists along their careers as he said himself, "I thought how nice it would be if a place like this existed and I was invited to work there." This was something that Salk was deprived of early in his life, but due to his achievements, was able to provide for future scientists.
1914 - 1995
He was an American medical researcher and a virologist who is known as a developer of the first successful vaccine against poliomyelitis.
Full Name Jonas Edward SalkBirthdate October 28, 1914Birthplace East Harlem, New YorkFather’s Name Daniel B SalkOccupation Garment workerMother’s Name Dora PressReligion Orthodox Jewish - PolishName of Spouse Donna LindsayOccupation Social WorkerChildren Peter Salk Darrel Salk Jonathan Salk
HIGH SCHOOLTownsend Harris High School COLLEGECity College of New York MEDICAL SCHOOL Dr Salk with his mentor Dr Thomas FrancisNew York UniversitySchool of Medicine "As a child I was not interested in science. I was INTERNSHIP merely interested in things human, the human side of nature, if you like, and I continue to be interested inMt Sinai Hospital that.” -Jonas Salk, MD courtesy of his interview in Academy of Achievement
“. . .it was the laboratory work, in particular, which gave new direction to hislife.”- Oshinsky He moved to the University of Michigan to join Dr. Francis and worked on an army-commissioned project in Michigan to develop an influenza vaccine in which it is a formalin-killed- virus vaccine He accepted an offer from William McEllroy, dean of the University of Pittsburg Medical School, to be an associate research professor of bacteriology where he continued his research on flu vaccines
"Paralytic poliomyelitis (its formal name) was, if not the most serious, easily the most frightening public health problem of the postwar era.” - William O’Neill, American Historian A girl infected by the virus Jonas Salk talks to children with polio“…scientists were in a In 1952 58,000 cases of poliofrantic race to find a Parents carry a stricken child was reported with 3, 145cure.” during the polio scare.- O’neill people dying
Polio Myelitis causes permanent paralysis in those it strikes or chronic Polio patients in an Iron Lungs in 1952 shortness or breath often leads to deathHe used a killed- virus vaccine, in By 1951, Salk was able towhich it was killed with formaldehyde classify the polio virusesin 13 days. into 3 typesThe first people to be inoculated withSalk’s vaccine were his wife and 3children.
Salk and the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis conducted the first field trial of Salk’s vaccine in 1952 involving 20,000 physicians and public health officers, 64,000 school personnel and 220,000 volunteers with over 1, 800, 000 children in trial
In April 12, 1955, Dr Francis who monitor theresults, declared that. . .
The success brought Salk to instant stardom: He received offers from Hollywood; Pleas from top manufacturers to endorse their products; He was awarded with a congressional medal for great ahievement and was nominated for a Nobel Prize.In 1957, he became a professor in Experimental Medicine in University of Pittsburg. He began to work on vaccines against viral infections in the central nervous system. Salk also conducted important research on the prevention and treatment of influenza, multiple sclerosis, cancer, and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
In the same year as Salk developed the killed-virus vaccine. He developed the live-virus vaccine against polio which is taken orally rather than intravenously in the same year as Salk developed the killed-virus vaccine. US did not permitted him to make a field trial in the country, and Sabin did it in Europe which was effective too.Dr Albert Sabin
Although Jonas Salk is credited with ending the scourge of polio because his killed-virus vaccine was first to market, Albert Sabin’s sweet-tasting and inexpensive oral vaccine are commonly used worldwide. "The live virus vaccine is highly effective in developed countries ...” -Dr Salk in his press conference in 1980
By 1963, Salk opened an institute called Salk Institute for Biological Studies under his leadership. "I thought how nice it would be if a place like this existed and I was invited to work there.“ - Dr Salk in 1963
1956, awarded the Lasker Award 1957, the Municipal Hospital building is renamed Jonas Salk Hall and is home to the Universitys School of Pharmacy and Dentistry 1958, awarded the James D. Bruce Memorial Award 1975, awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award and the Congressional Gold Medal 1976, Jonas Salk received the Academy of Achievements Golden Plate Award 1976, named the Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist Association
1977, awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Jimmy Carter 2006, the United States Postal Service issued a 63 cent Distinguished Americans series postage stamp in his honor. 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Salk into the California Hall of Fame 2009, BBYO boys chapter chartered in his honor in Scottsdale, Arizona, named "Jonas Salk AZA #2357" Schools in Mesa, Arizona; Spokane, Washington; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Bolingbrook, Illinois; Levittown, New York; Old Bridge, New Jersey; Merrillville, Indiana, and Sacramento, California, are named after him.
In 1966, New York times referred to him as the Father of Biophilosophy."As a biologist, he believes that hisscience is on the frontier of tremendousnew discoveries; and as a philosopher,he is convinced that humanists andartists have joined the scientists toachieve an understanding of man in allhis physical, mental and spiritualcomplexity.” - Howard Taubman, New York times Journalist
Jonas Salk died from heart failure at the age of80 on June 23, 1995 in La Jolla and was buried at El Camino Memorial Park in San Diego.
http://www.squidoo.com/jonas-salk http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonas_Salk http://pabook.libraries.psu.edu/palitmap/bios/Salk__Jona s.html http://www.libraries.uc.edu/liblog/wp- content/uploads/2012/04/sabinandnixon.jpg http://img.tfd.com/mk/S/X2604-S-04.tif.png http://www.polioplace.org/people/jonas-salk-md David M. Oshinsky, Polio: An American Story, Oxford University Press, 2005. Jeffrey Kluger, Splendid Solution: Jonas Salk and the Conquest of Polio, Berkley Trade, 2006 Jonas Salk interview with Academy of Achievement Taubman, Howard. "Father of Biophilosophy" The New York Times, Nov. 11, 1966
“There are two types of medical specialists. There are those who fight disease day and night, who assist mankind in times of despair and agony and who preside over the awesome events of life and death. Others work in the quiet detachment of the laboratory; their names are often unknown to the general public, but their research may have momentous consequences” Dr Jonas Edward Salk in Wisdom Magazine 1956