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Primeira Guerra Mundial e Revolução Russa

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Aula sobre a Grande Guerra e a Revolução Russa de 1917

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Primeira Guerra Mundial e Revolução Russa

  1. 1. Belle Époque  Disputas imperialistas  Paz armada: corrida armamentista Nacionalismos: pan-germanismo/ pan-eslavismo Disputas na região Balcânica Política de Alianças • Tríplice Aliança – Alemanha, Áustria-Hungria e Itália. • Tríplice Entente – Inglaterra , França e Rússia,
  2. 2. O assassinato do arquiduque Francisco Ferdinando, em 1914, em Sarajevo (Bósnia), é considerado a causa imediata do início da Primeira Guerra Mundial. A Áustria reagiu militarmente contra a Sérvia. A Rússia entrou em defesa da Sérvia e declarou guerra à Áustria. Início da Primeira Guerra Mundial
  3. 3. 28 de julho: Áustria declara guerra à Sérvia 29 de julho: a Rússia entra na guerra contra a Áustria e Alemanha. 1° de agosto: Alemanha declara guerra à Rússia, e posteriormente, à França. 4 de agosto: Com o intuito de atingir a França, os exércitos alemão e austríaco invadiram a Bélgica. 1ª. Fase: guerra de movimento
  4. 4. Turquia e Japão entram no conflito ao lado da Tríplice Aliança. Houve um equilíbrio as forças inimigas 1915 – 1917, guerra de trincheiras, onde cada lado visava garantir suas posições. 2ª. Fase: guerra de posições
  5. 5. Em 1917, a Rússia se retira do conflito para resolver problemas internos. Os Estados Unidos entram no conflito ao lado da Entente. No começo de 1918, as tropas da Alemanha ficaram isoladas e sem condição de sustentar o combate. No dia 11 de Novembro do mesmo ano, o governo alemão assinou um acordo de paz (armistício) em situação bastante desfavorável. 3ª. Fase: desfecho do conflito
  6. 6. De todos os tratados impostos as nações derrotadas, o mais se destaca é o de Versalhes, que determina uma série de atrocidades a Alemanha. De acordo com o Tratado de Versalhes: - A Alemanha é o único país responsável guerra. - Perde as suas colônias -Entrega todas as suas armas de guerra, de terra, mar e ar. -Fica proibida de ter marinha ou aeronáutica. Sendo permitido apenas um pequeno exército constituído por voluntários. -Paga uma indenização de aproximadamente 33 bilhões de dólares em dinheiro aos países vencedores. -Cede o “corredor polonês” para a Polônia Tratado de Versalhes
  7. 7. A Revolução Russa
  8. 8. A RÚSSIA NO INÍCIO DO SÉCULO XX • diversidade étnica e cultural • 80 % da população vivia no campo • governo autoritário do Czar Nicolau II (Romanov) • industrialização tardia
  9. 9. POSDR – Partido Operário Social Democrata Russo (1898) – formado por intelectuais. Dividido em 1903 em dois grupos: 1. Mencheviques (minoria) – Revolução liberal burguesa aos moldes da Revolução Francesa. Líder: Martov. AGRÁRIA CAPITALISTA SOCIALISTA 2. Bolcheviques (maioria): Revolução socialista com participação de operários e camponeses, liderada por partido 100% revolucionário e absolutamente disciplinado. Líder: Lênin. AGRÁRIA SOCIALISTA KADET (1905) – Partido Constitucional Democrata, formado pela burguesia. Politicamente fraco. MOVIMENTOS DE OPOSIÇÃO
  10. 10. REVOLUÇÃO DE 1905 - “ENSAIO GERAL” A guerra Russo-Japonesa (1904-1905), RESULTADOS 1.“Domingo Sangrento” (jan/1905). 2. Manifesto de outubro: formação do parlamento russo - Duma 3. Encouraçado Potemkin: levante no navio de guerra Potemkin
  11. 11. REVOLUÇÃO BRANCA – março de 1917 Governo de coalizão  O príncipe Lvov assume o poder em conjunto com o revolucionário do partido Kadet, Alexandre Kerensky.  Concessão de anistia aos presos políticos  Permanência da Rússia na Guerra Mundial  Liberdades individuais.  Redução da jornada de trabalho (10 horas).  Liberdade de imprensa.
  12. 12. • Publicação das "Teses de Abril“: “Todo o poder aos sovietes" e "Paz, pão e terra". • Retirada da Rússia da Primeira Guerra (Tratado de Brest-Litovsky) •Organização da Guarda Vermelha (Trotsky) tropas formadas por operários, soldados e marinheiros para combater os inimigos. REVOLUÇÃO DE OUTUBRO - 1917
  13. 13. ETAPAS DA IMPLANTAÇÃO DO SOCIALISMO 1. Comunismo de Guerra (1917-1921) (Estatização e endurecimento) 2. NEP (Nova Política Econômica) (1921-1928) (Política econômica mista) 3. Planos Quinquenais (1928 - década de 1980) (Planificação econômica) "Quando a terra pertencer aos camponeses e as fábricas aos operários e o poder aos sovietes, aí teremos a certeza de possuir alguma coisa pela qual lutar e por ela lutaremos!“ Lênin
  14. 14. Trotsky X Stalin TRÓTSKY: inimigo do EstadoSTÁLIN: Protetor dos povos

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