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A presentation on the application of drones for conservation efforts.

Published in: Environment
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  1. 1. Drones Technology to extend conservation efforts Elaine Lum Technology Profile Report BAT 05, Miami University February, 2015
  2. 2. What are drones? • Also known as unmanned aerial vehicles • Remotely controlled from the ground • Uses a camera or spectral imaging device mounted on the vehicle • Used for gathering images in its flight path See one in action in the next slide
  3. 3. Conservation applications of drones • Map land changes due to deforestation • Monitor illegal poaching
  4. 4. • Track movements of large animals • Survey edge effects along wildlife corridors (Koh & Wich, 2012) Watch a TEDtalk about conservation drones in the next slide
  5. 5. Advantages of drones • Does not require specialized knowledge or complex algorithms like traditional remote sensing techniques (Flynn & Chapra, 2014)
  6. 6. • Much more affordable than using proprietary satellite products Advantages of drones (Flynn & Chapra, 2014; Koh & Wich, 2012)
  7. 7. • Able to gather information at low altitudes, therefore not affected by cloud cover Advantages of drones
  8. 8. • Provides real-time data that can be accessed through mobile devices (Saleem, Rehmani, & Zeadally, 2015) Advantages of drones
  9. 9. • Unmanned sampling of remote areas cuts down on required manpower and manhours Advantages of drones (Flynn & Chapra, 2014; Koh & Wich, 2012)
  10. 10. Disadvantages of drones • Having to share bandwidth with other wireless devices means insufficient spectrum bands (Saleem, Rehmani, & Zeadally, 2015)
  11. 11. • Light reflection over water surface can interfere with images in aquatic sampling (Flynn & Chapra, 2014; Kwon, Yoder, Baek, Gruber, & Pack, 2014) Disadvantages of drones (Flynn & Chapra, 2014; Koh & Wich, 2012)
  12. 12. • Collisions with overhanging branches or other flying objects may occur and cause injury (Tadjdeh, 2012) Disadvantages of drones
  13. 13. • Noise of drone’s motor may disturb wildlife (Flynn & Chapra, 2014) Disadvantages of drones
  14. 14. • Possible privacy issues if used inappropriately (Tadjdeh, 2012) Disadvantages of drones
  15. 15. • Parameters of sampling must comply with FAA regulations (Flynn & Chapra, 2014; Tadjdeh, 2012) Disadvantages of drones
  16. 16. FAA regulations for drones • Operator must maintain visual contact with the drone • Flight path must avoid noise-sensitive areas • Drones must fly under 122 m. altitude • Flight control personnel must be notified if drones are within 4.8 km of an airport (Flynn & Chapra, 2014)
  17. 17. A specific application of drones in conservation Problem: Invasive algal blooms negatively impact biodiversity How can drones help scientists study this issue?
  18. 18. Cladophora: an ecological issue • Cladophora is a green filamentous alga that is an invasive species in many aquatic systems • Thick mats of Cladophora impact fauna and flora by blocking out light and competing for resources (Flynn & Chapra, 2014)
  19. 19. • Cladophora provides shelter and nutrients to pathogens such as E. coli and Salmonella in the water, causing human disease • Avian botulism is associated with algal blooms of Cladophora Cladophora: an ecological issue (Lan Chun et al., 2015; Verhougstraete, Rose, Byappanahalli, & Whitman, 2010)
  20. 20. Drone monitoring of Cladophora • Multi-spectral sensors mounted on drones flew repeated missions to gather data on Cladophora
  21. 21. • Data collected on growth cycle and biomass distribution of Cladophora will help scientists predict and control its spread • Historical changes of biomass patterns can be chronicled over time by building an image data base for future research Drone monitoring of Cladophora (Flynn & Chapra, 2014)
  22. 22. Comparing satellite and drone generated maps of Cladophora biomass Satellite generated map (Brooks, Grimm, Shuchman, Sayers, & Jessee, 2015) Drone generated map (Flynn & Chapra, 2014) Which do you think provides more useful information? Share your thoughts in the Slideshare comments section.
  23. 23. References Brooks, C., Grimm, A., Shuchman, R., Sayers, M., & Jessee, N. (2015). A satellite-based multi- temporal assessment of the extent of nuisance Cladophora and related submerged aquatic vegetation for the Laurentian Great Lakes. Remote Sensing of Environment, 157, 58-71. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2014.04.032 Flynn, K. F., & Chapra, S. C. (2014). Remote Sensing of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in a Shallow Non-Turbid River Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Remote Sensing, 6(12), 12815-12836. doi: 10.3390/rs61212815 Koh, L. P., & Wich, S. A. (2012). Dawn of drone ecology: low-cost autonomous aerial vehicles for conservation. Tropical Conservation Science, 5(2), 121-132. Kwon, H., Yoder, J., Baek, S., Gruber, S., & Pack, D. (2014). Maximizing Water Surface Target Localization Accuracy Under Sunlight Reflection with an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, 74(1-2), 395-411. Lan Chun, C., Kahn, C. I., Borchert, A. J., Byappanahalli, M. N., Whitman, R. L., Peller, J., . . . Sadowsky, M. J. (2015). Prevalence of toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum associated with the macroalga Cladophora in three Great Lakes: Growth and management. Science of the Total Environment, 511, 523-529. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.080 Saleem, Y., Rehmani, M. H., & Zeadally, S. (2015). Review: Integration of Cognitive Radio Technology with unmanned aerial vehicles: Issues, opportunities, and future research challenges. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 50, 15-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnca.2014.12.002 Verhougstraete, M. P., Rose, J. B., Byappanahalli, M. N., & Whitman, R. L. (2010). Cladophora in the Great Lakes: impacts on beach water quality and human health. Water Science & Technology, 62(1), 68-76. doi: 10.2166/wst.2010.230