Elaich module 3 topic 3.8 a - Salt decay in lab: Salt crystallization

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Salt decay in lab: Salt crystallization

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Elaich module 3 topic 3.8 a - Salt decay in lab: Salt crystallization

  1. 1. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Knowing the built heritage Module 3 Basic Cour s e Exercises Exercise 3 . 8.A Salt decay in lab: Salt crystallization Educational Toolkit
  2. 2. Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage
  3. 3. Prof. Antonia Moropoulou NATIONAL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS Module 3 Exercises Set
  4. 4. Salt decay in lab Prof. Antonia Moropoulou
  5. 5. Salt Crystallization Laboratory experiment simulating and “weighing” salt decay Based on: RILEM . “Crystallization test by total immersion. (for untreated stone)”, Test V. la (1980) ICCROM “A Laboratory manual for architectural conservators”, (1988) <ul><li>Stone samples 5x5x5cm </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium sulphate (NaSO 4 ) solution 14wt% </li></ul>Step 1. Dry the samples in the oven at 60 o C for 24h, then allow to cool in a desiccator to room temperature Step 2. Weigh the samples ( W o ) Step 3. Immerse totally the samples in a 14wt% Na 2 SO 4 solution for 24h Step 4. Dry the samples for 24h in the oven at 60 o C and then allow to cool in a desiccator to room temperature Step 5. Weigh the samples ( W n ) Step 6. Repeat steps 3-5 until there is evidence of macroscopic deterioration or until the samples are completely destroyed Step 7. Plot weight ( W o , W 1, W 2 …… W n ) as a function of number of cycles ( n ) Specifications Prof. Antonia Moropoulou
  6. 6. Salt Crystallization Laboratory experiment simulating movement of salts Based on: ICCROM “A Laboratory manual for architectural conservators”, (1988) G. W. Scherer “Laboratory notes CEE 105 / ART 105 Lab in Conservation of Art”, Princeton University (2004) Specifications <ul><li>Stone samples 5x5x25cm </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium sulphate (NaSO 4 ) solution 16wt% </li></ul>Step 1. Dry the samples in the oven at 60 o C for 24h, then allow to cool in a desiccator to room temperature Step 2. Weigh the samples ( W o ) Step 3. Lay the samples over a 16wt% Na 2 SO 4 solution Step 4. Cover the solution with a plastic membrane Step 5. Place the setup at a dry environment (direct sunlight, heated air flow, enclosed box with a saturated calcium chloride solution, etc.) Step 6. Observe salt efflorescences – weathering day by day Step 5. At the end of experiment weigh the samples ( W f ) Prof. Antonia Moropoulou
  7. 7. Images courtesy of Prof. G. W. Scherer Example of an experiment conducted with prisms of stone (5x5x25cm) suspended with the bottom surface in contact with a pool of sodium sulphate solution 16wt% that rises by capillary suction. A glass enclosure preserves a relative humidity of 39% that is fixed by a saturated solution of calcium chloride Prof. Antonia Moropoulou
  8. 8. Images courtesy of Prof. G. W. Scherer 8 days 14 days 21 days 47 days Sodium Sulphate Salt Test on Cordova Limestone Prof. Antonia Moropoulou
  9. 9. 3 days 14 days 21 days 47 days Sodium Sulphate Salt Test on Berea Sandstone Prof. Antonia Moropoulou Images courtesy of Prof. G. W. Scherer

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