Elaich module 3 topic 3.3 - Atmosphere and particles

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Atmosphere and particles

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Elaich module 3 topic 3.3 - Atmosphere and particles

  1. 1. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium DECAY AND ENVIRONMENT Module 3 Basic Course Teaching Material Topic 3.3 Atmosphere and Particles Educational Toolkit
  2. 2. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.
  3. 3. Abstract Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium Welcome to Module 3 of ELAICH, You will analyse our atmosphere and the effects of particles. FOLLOW US!!!!!
  4. 4. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage <ul><li>Solid Pollutant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerosols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate matter (e.g. PM10, PM2.5...) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspended particulate </li></ul></ul>Atmosphere The classification depends on the size. Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  5. 5. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Natural source and long distance transport: Sahara dust moving over Western Europe Globally most important natural sources of aerosols: soil dust and sea salt Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  6. 6. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Natural source and long distance transport: Sahara dust moving over Atlantic Ocean towards America Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  7. 7. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Natural Emissions: Soil Dust (mineral aerosol) Sea Salt Biological Debris (Primary sources) Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  8. 8. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Sea salt in the atmosphere Seawater drops are injected into the atmosphere each time an air bubble breaks at the sea Surface, and that is on average once every second and cm² !!! = 1.3 billion tons of seasalt Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  9. 9. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Cathedral of Cadiz: statues which are less than 100 years old !!! Natural seasalt effects: penetrates in pores expands/shrinks during every wet/dry cycle breaks pores and pulverizes the stone Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  10. 10. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage <ul><li>Severe alveolar granular </li></ul><ul><li>desintegration (facing the sea) </li></ul>Walls of Rhodos, Greece Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  11. 11. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Global Biomass Burning (in addition to natural sources: soil dust, sea salt, and other pollution) Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  12. 12. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage IMPACT OF FINE DUST ON HEALTH (large aerosol particles are not inhaled!!!) Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium 5 – 10 µm 1 – 5 µm < 1 µm PM10 PM2.5 PM1
  13. 13. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage RECENT DATA USA: 500,000 people in 51 cities: 10 µg/m³ of PM2.5 increases lung cancer by 14%, fatal heart disease by 9% (we find up to 100 µg/m³ in smokers’ homes and 170 µg/m³ in class rooms with carpets, but no higher levels in offices with carpets !) 11,000 (?) people die of PM2.5 every year in Belgium, with 11 million inhabitants (cfr. 9,200 worldwide due to Chernobyl disaster in 22 years) In Belgium, on days with high PM2.5, the speed limit on highways is « automatically » reduced from 120 to 90 km/h (because then diesel cars emit 30% less soot) People in cities live 1.5 years shorter than in countryside (but also regionally !!!!) (cfr. smoking = 10 years of your life) TO THINK ON PARTICLES!!!!!!! Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  14. 14. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Rene Van Grieken lives in Antwerp Prof. Pilar Ortiz lives in Seville They are worried. And you? Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  15. 15. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage What is the effect on monuments???? Particles act in sum to sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides to give monuments this blackering aspects. PARTICLES (pollution) have not decreased day to day like SO2… Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  16. 16. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Soiling by particles of Michelangelo’s Sistene Chapel in Vatican Slide from Dario Camuffo, CNR, Padua NEW INTEREST: Influence of indoor atmospheric particles on works of art Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  17. 17. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Influence of indoor atmospheric particles on works of art <ul><li>Deposition of aerosol particles  soiling and visual degradation. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions (e.g. H 2 SO 4 )  further damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially harmful compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>soot, organic particles, S-rich particles, Fe-rich particles, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4, CaSO 4 . </li></ul>Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium
  18. 18. Abstract Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. René Van Grieken and Pilar Ortiz - UA- University of Antwerp - Belgium Answer in Module 3 of ELAICH our multiple choice questionnaire about particles¡¡¡ FOLLOW US!!!!!

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