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  • learn how mercury and only mercury has been shown to reproduce three of the major diagnostic hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. elevated amyloid protein, hyper-phosphorylation of Tau, and formation of neurofibrillary tangles.
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  1. 2. <ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) a kind of dementia, it is not a normal part of aging, it is “an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks of daily living”(1) </li></ul><ul><li>It starts with mild memory loss and progresses to brain damage(1) </li></ul><ul><li>It was discovered in 1906 by a German doctor called Dr. Alois Alzheimer.(1) </li></ul><ul><li>The disease actually occurs 10-15 years before symptoms appear (2) </li></ul>Dr.Alois Alzheimer
  2. 3. Signs & Symptoms Early signs: Forgetting recent events and people’s and places Difficulty solving simple math problems Later signs Forgetting how to do simple activities like brushing teeth or combing hair Forgetting names of common things like table and cup
  3. 4. Facts & Statistics <ul><li>According to World Health Organization (WHO) there are about 18 million people suffering from Alzheimer’s world wide and is expected to double to 34 million in 2050 (5) </li></ul><ul><li>In the end of 2009, Around 5 million Americans suffered from Alzheimer’s disease, its expected to reach 16 million in 2050 (1) </li></ul><ul><li>The National Institute on Aging estimated that up to 50% of Americans aged 85 years or older may have Alzheimer’s disease (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer's is ranked as the 6 th cause of death (3) </li></ul><ul><li>According to the World Health Organization (WHO) some areas in Asia and Africa have lower incidence of Alzheimer’s which may be due to their different lifestyle and eating habits (4) </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>According to the World Health Organization ( WHO) Okinawa , one of Japan’s poorest Prefecture known for its longevity and longest life expectancy in the world. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Average life expectancy on Okinawa is 81.2 years –(2) </li></ul><ul><li> 86 for women, (2) </li></ul><ul><li>75 for men (2) </li></ul><ul><li>They have low levels of cancer and heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>The reason behind this is their DIET which is characterized by: low salt, soy beans, fish, seaweed and green vegetables (1) </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Okiwana Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Eating health and natural foods </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Overeating </li></ul><ul><li>Eating 7 servings of fruits and vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Eating 7 servings of whole grains </li></ul><ul><li>Eating 2 servings of soy </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking 6 glasses of water </li></ul><ul><li>Oily fish 3 times a week </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of green tea everyday </li></ul><ul><li>Low alcohol consumption </li></ul>Okiwana Lifestyle Unhurried calm lifestyle A lot of exercise Spend a lot of time with family Meditation , qi gong, tai chi
  6. 7. <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Diet, nutrition and lifestyle can reduce the incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's and improve cognitive functions in elderly </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>The brain is a fatty organ (60% fat) , it loves the good fats like Polyunasturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as omega-3 fatty acids and Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) like Oleic acid that’s found in Olives </li></ul><ul><li>It dislikes the bad fats like trans fats found in animal sources like butter </li></ul><ul><li>Intake of saturated fatty acids, unhydrogentaed fats, trans fats may increase the risk of dementia(2.3) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Study 1 <ul><li>Population: 815 </li></ul><ul><li>Age: 65 years & older </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: E at a diet high in Polyunsaturated fatty acid (vegetable fat) and low in trans fat (animal fat) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) <ul><li>Omega-3 </li></ul><ul><li>Omega-3 gets is converted into EPA and DHA which are essential for brain health and optimal function but the efficiency and amount of the conversion is unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Its proved to treat depression, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dementia(2) particularly Alzheimer’s disease (2)and other mental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces build-up of Amyloid plaque (abnormal clumps in the brain) linked with Alzheimer’s in mice and may help humans </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Omega-3 Deficiency may prevent regeneration of cell membrane which can speed up brain aging process </li></ul>
  11. 13. Omega-3 & Mood <ul><li>Study:1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In New Zealand, 4644 subjects, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ages: over 15 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings: good mental & physical health varied with consumption of fish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study:2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings: no link between fish consumption and improved mood in individuals who aren't depressed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study:3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Austraila </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings: Regular meals that include omega-3 + breakfast improved mood and cognitive performance </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>In the book “ The Jungle Effect ” Dr. Daphne Miller explains why the prevalence of depression is low in Iceland even though its always gloomy and dark </li></ul><ul><li>The reason behind that is the consumption of a lot of Omega-3 fatty acids “from fish, roasted seabirds that eat fish, and from the meat and milk of animals that graze on omega-3-rich mosses and lichens” </li></ul>
  13. 15. Omega-3 & Mood conclusion <ul><li>From the previous studies and other studies it was shown that Omega-3 is essential for general health and well being but its too early to conclude that omega-3 fatty acids enhances improves mood. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Walnuts <ul><li>Research showed that diets containing 2%, 6% or 9% walnuts were positively associated with cognitive function and age-related deficits in mice </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Walnut extracts may play a role in treating Alzheimer's disease </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>walnut extracts and 2 of its major components: Gallic & Ellagic Acid inhibit Acetylcholinesterase that causes amyloid beta protein aggregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inhibit the site of Acetylcholinesterase responsibel for the breakdon of acetylcholine </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Walnuts contains polyphenols that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that may reduce age-related sensitivity to oxidative stress or inflammation(1,2) </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin E, melatonin, and antioxidant polyphenols such as ellagic acid that could act synergistically with the PUFAs to increase dietary polyphenolic absorption and uptake following consumption (1) </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) </li></ul><ul><li>DHA and it metabolites prevents brain cells from damaging </li></ul><ul><li>Using it for early treatment can help reduce memory decline in patients suffering from Alzheimer’s symptoms </li></ul>Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA)
  18. 20. DHA cont. <ul><li>Study: </li></ul><ul><li>n 2008, 4 year old children for 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>Results: group 1 had higher scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: high DHA intake is associated with improved cognitive function (improved listening& Vocabulary skills ) </li></ul>Group 1 (n=90) Group 2 (n=85) 400 mg DHA per day Placebo
  19. 21. DHA & Stress <ul><li>Study: 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age: 50-60 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dose: 1.5-1.5 g DHA per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: 2 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings: aggressiveness was reduced by 30% in individuals who took more than 150 mg per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion: 1.5 – 1.8 g/day DHA helps reducing stress </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>Study: 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge study on 23 countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings: diet poor in fish led to low DHA levels in mother’s milk and increased postnatal depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study: 3 ( Rotterdam study ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings: direct relationship between dementia and consumption of saturated fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inverse relationship between Omega-3 fatty acid consumption and dementia </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Study: 4 ( PAQUID study ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects: 1,416 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ages: >67 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: South west of France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: 7 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings: 170 cases of dementia ( 135 Alzheimer’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results: there was 34% reduced risk of developing dementia in individual who consumed fish at least once a week and 31% less likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Study: 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects: 204 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) , stable condition and receiving Acetylcholine esterase inhibitor and had Mini-Mental State Examination (*MMSE) score of 15 points or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean age: 74±9 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings : in a subgroup ( n=32) with Very mild cognitive function (MMSE 27 points), a significant reduction in MMSE decline rate was observed in group 1 compared with group 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion : Omega-3 FA in patients with dementia or AD did not delay the rate of cognitive decline but there are positive effects in patients with very mild AD </li></ul></ul>Group 1 – omega 3 group Group 2 – Control group 0.7 gram DHA and 0.6 gram EPA for 6 months Placebo for 6 months Both groups had similar MMSE scores after 6 months
  23. 25. <ul><li>Study: 6 (animal study) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding: DHA intake increased the production of LR11- a protein important for clearing the brain from harmful substances that are linked to Alzheimer’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion : DHA decreases the risk of Alzheimer’s. </li></ul></ul>Mouse model Diabetic rat model Cultured human cell
  24. 26. <ul><li>Study: 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects: 1025 men from Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean age: 68 years at baseline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type: cross-sectional & longitudinal over 6 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variables : Cognitive Function ( assessed with battery cognitive tests focusing on memory, language, speed, visuospatial, attention ) Dietary intake ( assessed with Validated Food Frequency Questionnaire –FFQ ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results: median fish consumption 0.2- 4.2 servings/week </li></ul></ul>Cross-sectional (at baseline) Longitudinal (after 6 years) No relationship between fish (omega-3) consumption and cognitive preformance No relationship between fish (omega-3) consumption and cognitive preformance
  25. 27. National institute of health (NIH) <ul><li>Study: 8 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in 2009, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population: patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: 18 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results: still in progress </li></ul></ul>Group 1 Group 2 2g/day DHA Placebo
  26. 28. Omega-3 Conclusion <ul><li>“ There is some evidence that suggest a protective effect of omega 3 fatty acids against dementia. However, there is no good evidence to support the use of dietary or supplemental omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cognitive impairment of dementia” </li></ul>
  27. 29. Vitamin E <ul><li>Animal study: </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion : Vitamin E may improve cognitive deficit cause through ageing by its antioxidant and neuro-protecting effect </li></ul>Group 1 Group 2 Aged rats fed Vitamin E Control group At baseline <ul><ul><ul><li>Aged rats showed very poor learning ability concerns in water mazes </li></ul></ul></ul>After Vit E consumption Learned the place with a marked speed after 5 trails No change After 48 hours without trial Marked retention of maximum memory function 60 % Memory los
  28. 30. <ul><li>Human study </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects: 5395 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age: 55 years and older at baseline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics: Subjects free of dementia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable: age, education, BMI, total energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking habits, apolipoprotein E 4 genotype, supplement use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results: after 9.6 years , 465 participants developed dementia ( 365 of them developed Alzheimer’s disease) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Vitamin E supplement at baseline was linked to lower risk of dementia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Higher intake of foods rich in vitamin E may modestly reduce long-term risk of dementia and AD. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul><ul><li>“ Vitamin D deficiency is associated with low mood and with impairment on 2 of 4 measures of cognitive performance” </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphenols </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphenols are antioxidants found in fruits and Vegetable may delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease in those at high risk </li></ul>
  30. 32. Berry Fruit <ul><li>Berries contain polyphenols that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that “may reduce age-related sensitivity to oxidative stress or inflammation that may alter neurodegeneration” </li></ul><ul><li>Possible mechanism: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct effect on signaling to enhance neuronal communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer against excess calcium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancement of neuroprotective stress shock proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of stress signals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anthocyanins can enter the breain and enhance cognitive performance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Berry Fruit cont. <ul><li>Animal Study: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects: 344 rats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Groups: “long term feeding with controlled diet or diet supplements with Vitamin E (500IU/kg) or strawberry extract or spinach with identical antioxidant” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spinach-fed rats demonstrated the greatest retardation of age-effect on all parameters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strawberries and Vitamin E showed significant but equal protection against age-induced deficits </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Mulberry <ul><li>Mulberry fruits are rich fruits in phenolics and Anthocyanin </li></ul><ul><li>Animal study: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 months old SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice (senescence-accelerated prone mouse) fed basal diet supplemented with 0.18% and 0.9% mulberry extract for 12 weeks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results: “mice fed with Mulberry extract supplement demonstrated significantly less amyloid β protein and showed improved learning and memory ability in avoidance response tests” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Supplementation of Mulberry extract might be advantageous to the induction of an antioxidant defense system and for the improvement of memory deterioration in ageing animals. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Concord Grape Juice <ul><li>Concord grape juice contains Polyphenols that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties </li></ul><ul><li>Consuming Falvonoids contains foods such as concord grape juice is linked to reduced risk of dementia </li></ul><ul><li>Study: 12 adults with memory decline ( not dementia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results: “significant improvement in verbal learning and non-significant improvement in verbal and spatial recall” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects: consumption high amounts of concord grape juice caused a small increase in fasting insulin levels </li></ul></ul>Group 1 Group 2 Concord grape juice for 12 weeks Placebo for 12 weeks
  34. 36. Grapes <ul><li>Study: 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population : mice with Alzheimer's disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration : 5 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results : group 1 had significantly reduced Alzheimer's cognitive deterioration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationale : grape seed extract prevents amyloid beta plaque formation in the brain ( a risk factor for Alzheimer's) </li></ul></ul>Group1 Group 2 Water + Grape seed extract Plain water
  35. 37. Grapes cont. <ul><li>Study: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: 12 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results: group 1 showed significant improvement in short-term retention and spatial memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion : Concord grapy juice may provide benefits for older adults with early memory decline </li></ul></ul>Group 1 Group 2 Drank 15-21 Oz Concord grape juice Placebo
  36. 38. Coffee Bean <ul><li>Coffee is known to stimulate the Central nervous system as well as the heart and circulation(1) </li></ul><ul><li>Study: 1 (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 2002, a study showed that the regular consumption of wine decreased the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) 50 % </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The daily consumption of coffee reduced the risk of AD by 31 % </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regular physical activity also reduced the risk of AD by 31% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This study is generalizable to populations of largely European descent. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 39. Coffee Bean cont. <ul><li>Animal Study: 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 mg Caffeine ( equivalent of 500 mg caffeine to human) was added to drinking water of Tg mice (swedish mutations APPsw transgenic -TG) between 4-9 months of age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral tests were made on the final 6 weeks of treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results: Tg mice preformed significantly better when it came to learning, remembering than the Tg control mice </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Caloric Restriction <ul><li>Studies have shown that there is an inverse relations between Calorie restriction and Alzheimer's(1,2) </li></ul><ul><li>Studies on rodents showed extended life span and reduced age-related diseases and reduced oxidative stress in the brain with caloric restriction, these studies are suggested to be applicable on humans (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Incidence of Alzheimer’s is lower in countries with low food consumption like China and Japan (2) </li></ul>
  39. 41. Phosphotidyl Choline <ul><li>Human study: “Phosphatidyl choline improves the memory, learning, concentration, vocabulary recall and mood of elderly people suffering from cognitive loss” </li></ul><ul><li>Animal sudy: “Phosphatidyl choline, together with vitamin B12, improves learning in aging mice” </li></ul>
  40. 42. Garlic <ul><li>“ Garlic has strong antioxidant properties and it has been suggested that garlic can prevent cardiovascular disease, inhibit platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, prevent cancer, diseases associated with cerebral aging, arthritis, cataract formation, and rejuvenate skin, improve blood circulation and energy levels” </li></ul>
  41. 43. SPICES
  42. 44. <ul><li>Curry </li></ul><ul><li>Turmeric is the base of curry </li></ul><ul><li>It is strongly protective due to the oily chemical Curcumin that acts as free radical scavenger (act as antioxidant) </li></ul>
  43. 45. Curcumin <ul><li>Curcumin also called diferuloylmethane (3) which comes from the plant Curcuma longa linn commonly known as Turmeric ( a member of ginger family) (2) </li></ul><ul><li>In vivo study : “direct evidence that curcumin stimulates amyloid plaque clearance and dystrophic neurite reduction” (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: limited bioavailability of supplements (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: lapidated formulas are currently in trial (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Studies on animals with AD showed direct relatioship between curcumin and decreaed AD (2) </li></ul>
  44. 46. <ul><li>“ Curcumin, berry fruit and walnuts have been shown to have polyphenols that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that may reduce age-related sensitivity to oxidative stress or inflammation”(1,2) </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to that curcumin was shown to have cholesterol lowering and haemostatic properties that can inhibit platelet aggregation (2) </li></ul>
  45. 47. Brain Food
  46. 48. <ul><li>Brain food is important for all ages, whether a toddler that needs to nourish his brain, a teenager that needs to maintain his alertness and concentration at school or a senior who wants to maintain good mental health and try to prevent the risk of Alzheimer’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone NEEDS brain food </li></ul>
  47. 49. Lemongrass <ul><li>Commonly used in Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: treat depression and anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects: 50 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group1: ingested lemon grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group2: Placebo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Lemongrass is non-toxic but lacks hypnotic or anxiolytic properties </li></ul></ul>
  48. 50. Passionflower <ul><li>Common name: Passiflora incarnate </li></ul><ul><li>Uses : used for anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects: 26 outpatients diagnosed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group1: n=18, 45 drops of passiflora extract per day + Placebo tablet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 2: n=18, 30mg Oxazepam + placebo tablet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: 4 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results: Passiflora and Oxazepam were effective in treating anxiety, no significance difference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects: Oxazepam had job performance impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passiflora extract is effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. Velerian <ul><li>The name means: “a state of being well or happy” </li></ul><ul><li>Uses : Mild Sedative </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism: it interacts with GABA system in the brain (Inhibits GAMA-transminase) </li></ul><ul><li>Study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects: 128 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings: decreased sleep time and increased quality </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. Ginkgo Biloba <ul><li>Used in China </li></ul><ul><li>Uses : Cerebral dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Other uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improving memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Active components : Flavonoids , terpenoids and terpene lactone </li></ul><ul><li>Study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects: 61 individuals treated with Ginkgo biloba extract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test: pre and post Neuropsychological test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results: improved speed of information processing, and memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gingko biloba is known as the “memory herb”, it increases circulation to the brain (2) </li></ul>
  51. 53. Ginkgo Biloba cont. <ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>“ several studies on individuals with dementia or other age- related cognitive impairment, duration varied from 3 to 52 weeks showed that Ginkgo biloba is safe to use and has no side effects when compared to placebo </li></ul>
  52. 54. Ginseng <ul><li>Uses : treat Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Animal study: “A study on brain damages, aged rats showed improvement in learning and memory after consumption of Ginseng powder” </li></ul><ul><li>Its been shown to improve well-being & energy (2) </li></ul>
  53. 55. Ashwagandha <ul><li>Most popular herbal drug in Ayurdic medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: tonic ( for vitality and energy ) and nootropic ( cognitive and memory enhancer ) </li></ul>
  54. 56. Dietary Risk Factor <ul><li>Homocysteine – “substance (Amino Acid) your body uses to make protein and to build and maintain tissue” (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Too high Homocysteine can be damaging to the body and may cause stroke, heart disease(1) and dementia (2) </li></ul><ul><li>It is associated with low levels of Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, “Vitamin B12 supplements may reduce the risk of Homocysteine-associated dementia” </li></ul>
  55. 57. In Conclusion <ul><li>Here are some tips to prevent Dementia and Alzheimer's </li></ul><ul><li>Stay lively & mentally active, play board games, musical instruments or even go dancing </li></ul><ul><li>Be physically active </li></ul><ul><li>Socialize with neighbors, friends and family or even random people </li></ul><ul><li>Consume a diet high in fruits and vegetables, milk, fish and fish oil </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate in berries, nuts, fish oil and cumin intake </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize calorie intake </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid trans fats in your diet, your body hates them and so does your brain </li></ul>