Role of mass media


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Role of Mass media & Photojournalism in Agriculture Extension

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  • Indian Society of Agribusiness Professionals
  • Role of mass media

    1. 1. Presented by: Ekta Belwal HHM-2013-011 M.Sc (FN)
    2. 2. • Mass media is a relatively new idea in human culture. • Mass Media incorporates all those mediums through which information is distributed to the masses. • Today, mass media is generally categorised into 7 branches. These "seven mass media", in order of their introduction are : 2
    3. 3. internet and mobile, are often called collectively as digital media & radio and TV, as broadcast media.
    4. 4. Characteristics of mass media • Communication is mostly one way • Audience has great deal of choice • Reach large & vast audience • Aim messages to attract largest audience possible • Influence society & are in turn influenced by society
    5. 5. Functions of Mass media • • • • • • Information Consensus Entertainment Symbolic Function Advertising Development – Development communication that focuses on the needs of the underprivileged & oppressed & their socio-economic & cultural interests & needs.
    6. 6. Advantages of Mass Media • Reaches many people quickly • Low cost per person reached Can be used to Tell people about new ideas & services Agenda setting & advocacy Created favourable climate of opinion
    7. 7. Disadvantages of Mass Media • • • • • Difficult to make specific to local community Fixed message Can be easily misunderstood Access often difficult Lacks feedback Less appropriate for :  Changing behaviours rooted in culture or reinforced by social norms  Promoting empowerment  Learning practical skills  Developing skills of informed decision making
    8. 8. Mass Media in Agriculture • Information on agriculture, both crop and livestock was communicated among farmers from ancient times. • However, with the development in agricultural research, need arises to transfer new information and technologies to the users i.e. farmers. • To fulfil this need, mass media like newspapers, magazines radio, TV film and internet play a vital role. • What we know about the new information on technologies, public figures and public affairs is largely dependent upon what the mass media told us about it. • The major objective of mass media in Agriculture development is – to communicate the feasible farm technologies in such a manner to attract the attention of farmers, – help them to understand and remember the message and – ultimately facilitate them to take appropriate decision.
    9. 9. Introduction • Print medium was the first to be used as mass media for communicating the information. • first newspaper to be published was ‘Bengal Gazette’ also called ‘Calcutta General Advertiser” in 1780. • Since then the use of newspapers and magazines kept on increasing in terms of their number, variety, circulation and readership. • Quite often new newspapers and magazines are introduced while the older ones change their pattern of presentation. • A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and advertising, usually printed on lowcost paper called newsprint. It may be general or of the special interest, most often published daily or weekly.
    10. 10.  News paper  Magazine ( general & public interest)  Journals  Books  Other: are leaflets, circular letters, news letters, folders, banners, wall news papers.
    11. 11.  Gives extensive coverage to a large no. of items of interest  Can be read by literate audience.
    12. 12. Print media in Agricultural Development • Among the several mass media, newspaper and farm magazine are commonly used. • cheap & affordable; read as per convenience. • permanent medium, permanently imprinted message with high storage value making them suitable for reference and research also. • ↑ rate of literacy in the country offers new promises & prospects for utilising print medium as a means of mass communication.
    13. 13. Contd.. • plays a vital role in the communication of Agri. Info. among the literate farmers on improved agricultural practices and also to inform the public in general • Agricultural journalism is of recent origin in India. It came into existence just 5 decades ago. It is now gaining importance, particularly after the establishment of AUs. • Technical info. needs to be provided to the farmers at the right time and in the right way, so that the productivity can be increased. • India has farm magazines in every state, published mostly in local languages. • Agricultural department also encourages the publishing of such farm magazines particularly through farmers association.
    14. 14. Popular magazine published from India • Indian Horticulture (semi-technical, bi-monthly magazine in English) • Indian Farming(monthly magazine in English) • Kheti(monthly magazine in Hindi) • Phal Phool(bi-monthly magazine in Hindi) • Krishika(a half-yearly peer reviewed research journal in Hindi) • Horticulture today • Agriculture Today • Agro India • Modern Kheti • Liesa India • Farm Food
    15. 15. Contd.. • • • • ICAR Reporter, English, Quarterly ICAR News, English, Quarterly ARIS News, English, Quarterly Krishi Chayanika, Hindi, Quarterly Tamil • Pasumai Vikatan, Fortnightly • Naveena Velaanmai, Monthly Telulgu • ANNADATA, Monthly Kannada • KRISHIK BANDHU, Monthly • Adike Patrike, Monthly • Sahaja Samrudha • Siri Samruddhi • Sujatha Sanchike, Monthly • Sahaja Saaguvali, Bi-Monthly • Krishi Mithra, Monthly Malayalam • Bhoomi,
    16. 16. Contd.. • Among the various types of mass media sources, newspapers can support extension by publishing news of various extension activities, guidance and recommendations, achievements, market news, research findings, successful achievements and problem faced by farming community etc. • The green revolution and white revolution could not have been come about so quickly without the use of media like print media and radio.
    17. 17. 2. Internet (World wide web) • Information Super Highway & The Network of Networks • Helps in – getting info – Disseminate info by publishing, extension & teaching – Compile info
    18. 18. Uses of Internet • knowledge sharing between the agriculture research institutes, • access to international best practices, • information sharing on public domain, • online trading and import-export.
    19. 19. Web-based ICT approaches • Unilever’s iShakti – they are attached to kiosks, known as telecenters • aAQUA – that work entirely online wide range of web portals that act as information repositories • TAU’s Agritech web portal. • AGMARKNET – launched during the 9th five-year plan, provides marketing information on the latest commodity prices from 2,800 major agricultural produce wholesale markets. • • • • • • • Agropedia AGRISNET, DACNET, e-Krishi, the agribusiness portal Agriwatch, iKisan by the Nagarjuna fertilizer group (Saravanan 2010) e-krishaksahyogi by ISAP
    20. 20. e-krishaksahyogi by ISAP • • • • • • • • envisaged to address the problem of accessibility of useful and timely information by small and marginal farmers. ISAP is carrying out this pilot of e-krishaksahyogi in Jaipur district of Rajasthan, where it is working with 5000 vegetable growers This is an applet on tab offering gateway to solution of farm-specific queries of small farmers. Farmers can learn cropping techniques with modern technologies using high definition 3D animation videos or multi-media slideshow videos. Also, they can access other relevant and timely information in the audio, pictures and text format. Besides, Farmers can also do live conferencing with experts and can watch live auctioning of vegetables in mandis by using tablets with data access through 3 G technology. This initiative helps saving their time as well as cost of traveling and enables them to exchange information on real time basis. This is a modest effort by For this, ISAP has been actively supported by Wireless Reach Initiative of Qualcomm. Qualcomm’s Wireless Reach initiative is a strategic program that brings wireless technology to underserved communities globally.
    21. 21. Anytime, Anywhere Mobile • Mobile phones are multifunctional devices. • Extension can reach more clients through mobile-based learning platforms—textual or richer platforms, such as video—that provide tips to farmers to improve agri- cultural skills and knowledge. • MMS, GPRS, WAP & GPS can also be utilised effectively for extension.
    22. 22. Various Roles for Mobiles in Agriculture GOAL Education and awareness METHOD Information provided via mobile phones to farmers and extension agents about good practices, improved crop varieties, and pest or disease management Commodity prices and Prices in regional markets to inform decision market information making throughout the entire agricultural process. Data collection Applications that collect data from large geographic regions. Pest and disease Send and receive data on outbreaks. outbreak warning & tracking
    23. 23. Benefits • • • • • Get you connected To markets Getting better prices Increasing yield Getting advices from experts Get connected to Kisaan call centres Impact on adoption (Fischer, 2009); De Silva (2010) •Important role to improve adoption of technologies at early stage •  Improves social and business network and help in faster spread of knowledge and technology.
    24. 24. • Rapid expansion of Mobile phone penetration in rural India(1.4 units per 100 people in 1995 → 51 units, or 1 per 2 persons, currently). • initiatives using mobiles to communicate information directly to farmers; – IKSL (IFFCO Kisan Sanchar Ltd. in collaboration with Airtel) – Mandi on Mobile (BSNL and Uttar Pradesh Marketing Board) – Reuters Market Light & – Nokia Life Tools.
    25. 25. Contd.. Most of these approaches provide market information through SMS or voice messages, or question-and-answer capabilities. To date there has been little evaluation of the impact of these services on farm production. • Other projects, such as e-Sagu and Lifelines, also use mobile phones in combination with computing technology to provide expert advice based on farmer queries.
    26. 26. Nokia life Tools : Agriculture • Agriculture information in 18 local languages providing • market prices (up to 3 crops in 1-3 nearby markets per subscription), • daily weather forecasts, • news and • advice (including agronomy advice for select crops, best practices, location-based agriculture news, hyper-localized advice, and other information). • Market prices are collected from over 9,000 local markets on a daily basis for over 400 crops & commodities and crop advice is managed by a team of agricultural experts.
    27. 27. • Photojournalism is an area of photography dedicated to taking accurate shots of current events. • The basic mission of a photojournalist is to take pictures to accompany a news story (whether it is broadcast or published in a newspaper).
    28. 28. is the documentation of events or people through photographs that tell a story. can fall under all subjects of photography but the image needs to be news worthy to end up being published.
    29. 29. Two Types of Photojournalism • The first type is where an image is used to illustrate a story. • The second is where an image is used to tell a story without any words. One single image may be used or as many as ten images are often used in magazines.
    30. 30. Goal of Photojournalism • Selecting story telling photographs that can convey the fullest, most accurate sense of the situation photographed • Engage the heart and mind of a viewer with a compelling version of truth that results from bearing witness or a situation or event. • Photojournalism pictures attempt to capture the viewer’s attention and emotion to entice him to continue listening to or reading about the story.
    31. 31. • The picture in the news attracts the readers & arouses much interest on the special subject or the event. • A picture always speaks for itself & when it is published in the newspaper/ journal with a Suitable caption, it creates beauty of the same. • “One picture is worth thousand words” • Helps to cut down the length of the article. • Those who read slowly can easily grasp the meaning with the help of the pictures. • Pictures are a universal language & help all get the meaning correctly. • Realistic; Communicate emotions mainly. • Makes the layout attractive
    32. 32. • Must tell a story • Should have one central or dominating point of interest • Should be pleasing to the eye • Should be clear in details & have contrast. • Should not have meaningless background. • Caption must be given the present tense. But if the reference is to some past action, then it can be given in past tense. • Should be carefully planned & selected to form an interesting story having a great communication value. • A meaningful picture story must be planned with a central theme or idea. In Agriculture & allied field Extension, a picture story can be used to describe ‘then & now’ and ‘with & without’ type of subjects
    33. 33. Photo Captions or Cutline or Legends Cutline are a few lines of text used to explain or elaborate on published photograph. • Photos engage the eye, captions should engage the mind • A way to go beyond what the viewer can already see • It all starts with the photographer who was there and captures the moment
    34. 34. photojournalist v/s photographer • Photographers take pictures of nouns (people, places and things). • These nouns can be standard photos of people (portraits), places (proposed zoning areas or construction sites) and things (name it). • A journalist tells stories. • Photojournalists shoot action verbs ("kicks," "explodes," "cries," etc.) • Photojournalists do shoot some nouns • A photojournalist takes the best of both and locks it into the most powerful medium available frozen images.
    35. 35. Noun
    36. 36. The Most Important Skill for a Photojournalist Anticipate • • • • • • • • • which picture will tell the story best. whom you need to focus on. when the best picture will emerge. where the main action will go or take place. your positioning. the emotion how you will capture the image. the personal preparation you’ll need the time you have.
    37. 37. “It is one thing to photograph people. It is another to make others care about them by revealing the core of their humanness.” - Paul Strand (American Photographer, 1890-1976) Photo taken by ZORIAH photojournalist
    38. 38. concl usion
    39. 39. References • Mitra P. K and Jana L. B; Farm Journalism, 2005. Agrotech Publishing Academy, Udaipur. • Kumar Dileep,Kadian S. K and Garhwal P. O; Mass Communication in Agriculture Extension,2012. Satish serial publishing House, Delhi.