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Indonesia texbook

  1. 1. TES on In-country Program on TrainingCourse on Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Productivity Management Office kazuteru Chinone Nov.19-23.2012 Bogor Indonesia Productivity Management Office ©
  2. 2. Outline of TPM Productivity Management Office ©
  3. 3. What is TPM TPM T stands for “Total” P stands for “Productive” M stands for “Maintenance” Total means that all workers of a corporation are required to participate in this activity. From TPM to TCM (Total corporate Maintenance) Productivity Management Office ©
  4. 4. Financial Strategy of TPS Business proposition is to secure the cash and Return on Equity improvements ROI (Return on Investment) and ROE (Return on Equity) • ROE=Return/Equity =Sales/Equity × Profit/Sales =Capital Turnover × Profit Margin on Sales ① ② Productivity Management Office ©
  5. 5. The purpose of TPM Survival and development of business by TPM Method Man P.Q.C.D.S.M Machine Service Material TPM aims at “improvement of the corporate culture and mindset through improvement of personnel and machine system” Do everything together as possible Productivity Management Office ©
  6. 6. History of LPS,5S,TQC and TPM1867 1920 1937 1945 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Seiketsu 3S 4S 5S Safety concept from USA Establish Crisis TPS 1961 Deming prize 1990 LPS TOYOTA 1962 KANBAN 1963 Just In Time Dr.Feigenbaum ISO9000 1950 SQC by QC from USA Dr.Deming TQC TQM QC circle by Dr.Ishikawa PM PM TPM TPM Back in 1936, to coincide with the launch of its eagerly awaited first passenger car,Toyoda Automatic Loom Works Ltd. held a public competition to establish a new symbol mark to promote its vehicles. The company indicated that the new design should convey the feeling of speed. Twenty-seven thousand entrants answered the call and submitted their ideas to Toyoda. The winning design led to a change in the name of the automobiles and plants from “Toyoda” to “Toyota.” Productivity Management Office ©
  7. 7. History of TPM Productive maintenance in Japan 50s 60s 1971~ BM PM PM TPM Breakdown maintenance (BM) Preventive Planed maintenance (PM) maintenance Corrective * Only for machine maintenance (CM) Maintenance Prevention (MP) Productivity Management Office ©
  8. 8. Lussers LawLusser’s low (multiplication principle)is a prediction of reliability named afterRobert Lusser.It states that the reliability of a series system is equal to the product of thereliability of its component subsystems, if their failure modes are known tobe statistically independent. This method is similar to the R=R1×R2×R3×R4×R5×・・・・・・・RX Deterioration makes reliability go down. Productivity Management Office ©
  9. 9. Basic concept of TPMElimination of Abnormality in Process Losses Major defect Failure powder, dirt, defective raw materal backlash, leakage, erosion, corrosion, deformation, vibration, high temperature looseness of bolts and nuts, scratch, etc Minor defect Productivity Management Office ©
  10. 10. Assignment of Planed Maintenance Operation Maintenance Breakdown maintenance (BM) Preventive Planed maintenance (PM)maintenance Corrective maintenance (CM) Maintenance Prevention (MP) Productivity Management Office ©
  11. 11. Relation between TPM and Management• TPM supports the achievement to target profit• TPM is the program to support profit control of company Kaizen of machine TPM Kaizen of working Management policy Kaizen of skill Management plan Kaizen of quality Profit policy Kaizen of Q,C,D Loss Kaizen of safety and environment Target profit Management Kaizen of design Cash control Profit control Kaizen of administration Kaizen of communication Productivity Management Office ©
  12. 12. Relation between Failure and PQCDSM P 2 types of Machine failure M Q 1. Loss of function Machine 2. Function deterioration failure S C D 16 major losses and other losses •8major losses of machine •5major losses of man-hour •3major losses of product resource Productivity Management Office ©
  13. 13. Time Management of manufacturing • Tact time Time to have divided time that is able to be produced by ( ) necessary production volume. • Cycle time Time until the next product after one product can be done. ( ) • Pitch time Time to complete one process. ( ) • Lead time Time that will be required by the time product is made or order ( ) to delivery. (exercise)7hours Loading time , product needs 1800p Process1 Process2 Process3 10sec 14sec 11sec Productivity Management Office ©
  14. 14. TPM Implementation(12steps) Productivity Management Office ©
  15. 15. 12 steps of TPM 1.Declaration of resolve to introduce TPM by top management 2.TPM introduction education and campaign 3.TPM promotion organization and manager pilot model 4.Setting basic policy and target for TPM 5.Preparation of TPM master plan 6.Kick off 3 years~ 7.Establish of production efficiency improvement system 8.Establish of initial management system 9.Establish of quality maintenance system 10.Establish of office TPM 11.Establish of safety and environment system 12.Evaluation (TPM excellence award) Productivity Management Office ©
  16. 16. Step1 Declaration of resolve to introduce TPM by top management 1. Declaration of the introduction should always be made by the top management. 2. Decide to spend money and time in achievement of machine and human reformation.Even when TPM is implemented in only some divisions, the Top managementshould declare TPM and let employees know the enthusiasm about it. Productivity Management Office ©
  17. 17. Step2 TPM introduction education andcampaignThe aim of TPM introductory education for each working level ofemployees is to have all employees fully understand the purposeand to provide them with common language to heighten theirchallenging spirit towards TPM. REVISTAS Internal documents Productivity Management Office ©
  18. 18. Step 3 TPM promotion organization andmanager pilot model • TPM Board Committee is established in board meeting • TPM Manager and some stuff help communication between kaizen activity on site and TPM Board Committee TPM Board Committee Top Management TPM Office Member of the board TPM Manager Productivity Management Office ©
  19. 19. TPM pillar Subcommittee • TPM Office organizes TPM Pillar subcommittees and support them. • Each Pillar subcommittee studies how to implement pillar activity and control it. TPM Board Committee TPM Pillar Subcommittee Leader TPM Office Each subcommittee has pillar Leader Small Groups (Autonomous maintenance Gr.) Productivity Management Office ©
  20. 20. Step4 Setting basic policy and target for TPM External needs Internal needs Threat advantage Opportunity weakness Basic policy High priority action PQCDSM target And Bench marking Productivity Management Office ©
  21. 21. Tangible result of TPM (Example) • P Value-added Productivity x1.5~ Number of Unexpected break down 1/100~ Overall equipment efficiency x1.5~ • Q Quality Defect in process 1/10~ • Customer claim ¼~ • C Valuable cost down 30%~ • D Inventory ½~ • S Zero accident zero Environmental pollution zero • M Turnover ½~ Productivity Management Office ©
  22. 22. How to find out Losses• Loss is some opportunity to get profit and prevent losses in future through kaizen activity.• It is necessary to consider to prevention about past losses and future losses.• There are two types future opportunity, one is past opportunity loss and another is future opportunity loss.• There are two types losses, one is easy to forecast another is difficult to do. Actual happened Future possibility actual Past loss Forecast loss opportunity Past opportunity Future Opportunity loss loss Productivity Management Office ©
  23. 23. Step5 Preparation of TPM master plan• Prepare the schedule of the 12 steps in TPM development program, it covers the introductory stage , the implementation stage and the award screening.• Prepare detailed schedules for each pillar and department.• Check schedule and actual result every years and rescheduled when necessary. pillar Year1 Year2 Year3 Year4 Model activity screening AM Kick off FI Set up Goal PM ET Implementation Implementation IM steps Steps (mile stone) OFFICE S&H scheduling Productivity Management Office ©
  24. 24. Step6 Kick offAfter the TPM pre-implementation stage has been completed, it is the time toappeal launch TPM activity. 1. Explanation of TPM promotion mechanism. 2. Policy, target and master plan. 3. Introduction of model activity. 4. Encouragement of guests. Productivity Management Office ©
  25. 25. Step7-11 8 pillars activity 1. Autonomous maintenance (Jisyu-Hozen) 2. Focused improvement (Kobetsu-Kaizen) 3. Planned maintenance (Keikaku-Hozen) 4. Education and training(Kyouiku Kunren) 5. Initial management (Syoki-Kanri) 6. Quality maintenance (Hinshitsu-Hozen) 7. Office TPM (Kanri, kansetsu-bumon) 8. Safety and environment(Anzen Eisei) Productivity Management Office ©
  26. 26. Relationship between AM and others FI PM QM IM ET OT SEAutonomous maintenance 7steps • Step0 Preparation • Step1 Initial cleaning • Step2 Countermeasures for source of contamination and hard to access • Step3 Tentative CIL standard • Setp4 General inspection • Step5 Autonomous inspection • Step6 Standardization • Step7 Autonomous management Productivity Management Office ©
  27. 27. TPM Tools (QC tools ) 1 2 3 4 5 Dirt Grasp existing Break situation Clog Others Total ① Check sheet ② Stratification ③ Histogram Clarify the Grasp the problem cause and effect relation ④ Pareto diagram ⑤ Cause and effect diagram • Take measures UL Investigate •• •• • and confirm • •• the cause • • •••• • the result • LL • ⑥ Scatter diagram ⑦ Control chart Productivity Management Office ©
  28. 28. Step12 TPM Award 1st Stage Assessment: May - July 201x + 2nd Stage Assessment: October - December 201x 1)Award for TPM Excellence, Category B The applicant must score a minimum of 70 points on 100-point Checklist C. 2) Award for TPM Excellence, Category A The applicant must score a minimum of 70 points on 100-point Checklist C. 3) Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment The applicant must score a minimum of 80 points on 100-point Checklist C. 4) Special Award for TPM Achievement The applicant must score a minimum of 70 points on 100-point Checklist B. 5) Advanced Special Award for TPM Achievement The applicant must score a minimum of 80 points on 100-point Checklist A. 6) Award for World-class TPM Achievement The applicant must score a minimum of 80 points on 100-point Checklist S. Productivity Management Office ©
  29. 29. Checklist C exampleTPM Policies and Objectives1. TPM policies are planned in relation between company policies and plant/factory policy.2. The relation between TPM target values and management target results are clear.3. The master plan is in an appropriate order as an action plan to achieve TPM.4. TPM policies and objectives are checked using methods such as benchmarking that all sections of PQCDSME are displayed corresponding to 8 pillars.5. TPM policies and objectives have been set forth and observed by all the departments and sections.6. The achievement status of TPM policies and objectives is available in a time line using objective data.7. Overlapping small groups, the TPM promotion committee, and other special committees are organized in a way that leads to TPM activities.8. TPM promotion units help facilitate TPM activities within departments/sections.9. Small groups on the front line have been vitalized.10. TPM Policies11. and Objectives12. The achievement status of TPM objectives is confirmed and necessary actions are taken for unachieved indexes. Productivity Management Office ©
  30. 30. Final assessment Productivity Management Office ©
  31. 31. Key of success 1. Clear TPM policy of top management 2. Alignment between Business plan and TPM plan 3. Management of plan ,targets and results 4. Priority themes and model activities 5. Incentive for full participation 6. Leadership of each level 7. Budget for TPM activity Productivity Management Office ©
  32. 32. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (Efficiency) Productivity Management Office ©
  33. 33. Overall equipment efficiency (OEE) (working time) Valued operating time SD losses Loading time OEE= Loading time Downtime losses Operating time Availability Performance Net operating losses Performance rate time Valued Defect losses operating Quality products rate time Performance Quality products OEE = Availability × × rate rate Productivity Management Office ©
  34. 34. 8 Major Equipment lossesFabrication & assembly industry Process industry1. Machine failure loss 1. Machine failure loss2. Set up & Adjustment loss 2. Process failure loss3. Cutting blade loss 3. Production adjust loss4. Start up loss 4. Normal production loss5. Minor stoppage loss 5. Abnormal production loss6. Speed loss 6. Reproduction loss7. Defect & rework loss 7. Defect & rework loss8. Shutdown loss 8. Shutdown loss OEE: Overall Equipment Efficiency OPE: Overall Plant Efficiency Productivity Management Office ©
  35. 35. 8 Major losses in fabrication & Assembly1.Shutdown loss Loss of scheduled stop of rest, cleaning, meeting, and maintenance work, etc.2. Defect & rework loss Time Loss of equipment according to making of defect products and grade down products. If the number of defects increases, the loss time grows.3. Speed down loss Depression loss of equipment by the fact that speeds are slower than ratings speeds. It drops ones speed intentionally or it falls by the decreased functional status.4. Minor stoppage loss Depression losses of equipment such as temporary stops and idling by sticking work etc. The depression grows when there are a lot of sticking or are a lot of idling.5. Start up loss Depression loss of equipment generated when beginning to produce to drive of equipment steady When the time to the stable driving is long, the function decrease grows.6. Cutting blade loss Loss of equipment stop by tool exchanges of whetstone, cutter, and byte, etc. When there are a lot of exchange frequencies or the exchange time is long, the stop time becomes long.7. Set up & Adjustment Loss of equipment stop by set up.loss When there are a lot of frequencies of set up or the adjustment work is long, the stop time becomes long.8. Machine failure loss Loss of machine stop due to function stop type breakdown if there are a lot of breakdown or it takes time to recover, the stop time becomes long. Productivity Management Office ©
  36. 36. 8 major losses that impede OEE Maintenance time, etc.Working hours 1. Failure SD lossesLoading time 2. Setup & adjustment Kaizen Downtime 3. Cutting bladesOperating time losses 4. Start-up Themes PerformanceNet operating 5. Minor stoppages lossestime 6. Speed lossesValued Defect lossesoperating 7. Defect/reworktime Operating time Net operating time Valued operating time Operating time OEE = × × Loading time Operating time Net operating time Productivity Management Office ©
  37. 37. Calculation of OEE (example)• Working time per day: 8hours×60min=480min• SD loss: 30min• Loadong time: 450min• Equipment stoppage time: 75min Failure.…..........30min Setup.…….........20min Ajustment.........25min• Operating time: 375min• Standard cycle time: 0.5min/unit• Processing quantity: 440 units/day• Defects: 23 units Productivity Management Office ©
  38. 38. Calculation of OEE Operating time• Availability = Loading time Loading time – Downtime losses = ×100 Loading time 450min - 75min = ×100 = 83.3% 450min Productivity Management Office ©
  39. 39. Calculation of OEE Net operating time• Performance rate = Operating time Standard cycle time × Processing quantity = ×100 Operating time 0.5min/unit×440units = ×100 = 58.7% 375min Productivity Management Office ©
  40. 40. Calculation of OEE Valued Operating time• Quality products rate = Net operating time Processing quantity – Defective quantity= ×100 Processing quantity 440units - 23units = ×100 = 94.8% 440units × ×• OEE = 0.833×0.587×0.948 = 0.464 = 46.4% Productivity Management Office ©
  41. 41. Calculation of OEE (exercise) • Working time per day: 8hours • Machine cleaning time: 30min • Lunch time: 60min • Equipment stoppage Failure ......... 30min Setup ........ 40min Minor stops .... 36times • Standard cycle time: 0.7min/unit • Processing quantity: 440 units/day • Defects: 23 units Productivity Management Office ©
  42. 42. Calculation of Availability Loading time – Downtime losses • Availability = ×100 Loading time min – ( )min = ×100 = % min *Loading time =Working hour – Schedulde downtime Productivity Management Office ©
  43. 43. Calculation of Performance rate• Performance rate = Standard cycle time × Processing quantity ×100 Operating time min/unit× units = ×100 = % min *Operating time = Loading time – Downtime losses Productivity Management Office ©
  44. 44. Calculation of Quality products rate • Quality products rate = Processing quantity – Defective quantity ×100 Processing quantity units - units = ×100 = % units • OEE = × × = % Productivity Management Office ©
  45. 45. Calculation of OEE • OEE = × × = % Productivity Management Office ©
  46. 46. Kaizen Strategy by OEE No. of products Target 557 440-23 =417 291 390 480 min OEE:74.84% Productivity Management Office ©
  47. 47. Calculation Gap of OEE The calculated value from a standard value and a theoretical figure There is a problem in a setup of a standard value and a theoretical figure. Generating of a gap An inquiry of a loss has an omission. The loss is hidden. The calculated value by investigation of the loss information from the process Productivity Management Office ©
  48. 48. Manpower and production resource losses5major Manpower losses• Management losses Total effectiveness =• Operating motion losses Processing quantity × Standard man-hour• Line organization losses loading man-hour• Logistics losses• Measurement losses3major production resource losses Improvement ratio =• yield losses• energy losses After improvement input• Die, jig (tools and sub-material) losses Present input Productivity Management Office ©
  49. 49. Focused Improvement(Kobetsu Kaizen) Productivity Management Office ©
  50. 50. Basic concept of FI• Establishment of constitution that makes profit in process (Business system restructuring/ human growing)• Realizing of High Productivity Manufacturing• Kaizen activity by total participation (use overlapping small groups)• Prevention of Losses by Loss management• Principle of 3Gen(genba,enbutsu,genzitsu) actual site, actual ,reality We always should know what we have to do next through this activity. Productivity Management Office ©
  51. 51. Focused Improvement 7steps• step0 Establish of promotion system and trying model activity strategy making of kobetsu-kaizen (• step1 Loss analysis(survey of kaizen themes))• setp2 Setting Kaizen target and kaizen plan• step3 Arrangement kaizen themes• step4 Action of kaizen (use 7steps program of Theme kaizen)• step5 Confirmation of results• step6 Horizontal development of kaizen results.• step7 feedback Kaizen information to design and check other themes still exist (step1~step7 will be repeated every year) ) Productivity Management Office ©
  52. 52. Kaizen scenario of sales growth• Cooperation is significant between sales and manufacturing• Can make but can not sale , can sale but can not make• Which production system is better A or B? Opportunity loss• Which product is better for kaizen A or B? sales Opportunity sales loss Contrary Contrary for cost for profit P2 P1 a b s volume 0 1 2 3 4 Productivity Management Office ©
  53. 53. Kaizen scenario of cost down• It should be Improved difference of cost and aimed for Real standard cost.• ) It should be considered Ideal standard cost (long term) and Real standard cost ) (short term) Actual cost Actual loss (difference of cost) = Actual cost -standard cost Ideal standard cost Level3 : Target cost in future Standard cost Real Standard cost Level2 : Target cost after kaizen Present Standard cost Level1 : Target cost at present Productivity Management Office ©
  54. 54. Loss analysis (Loss tree)• It makes clear loss structure and plan strategy. Production losses Production Production cost cost loss loss Past loss Forecast loss Stock loss Indirect Total production loss losses Past opportunity Claim loss loss Opportunity Sales Target loss management loss Productivity Management Office ©
  55. 55. Management of Kaizen theme• Team leader manages individual kaizen theme and Focused improvement subcommittee manage whole themes by matrix as below. Date of Date achiev Large theme Middle theme Small theme initial target actual parson begin of end ement Theme1-1-1 Theme1-1 Theme1-1-2 Theme1-2-1 theme1 Theme1-2-2 Theme1-2 Theme1-2-3 Theme1-2-4 Theme1-3-1 Theme1-3 Theme1-3-2 Productivity Management Office ©
  56. 56. 7steps implementation of kaizen themestep1 preparation activity board and reconfirm ideal condition of scene set theme, initial investigation, and understanding actual conditionstep2 plan kaizen schedule and set targetstep3 inspection defects of 4M and restoration for themIn case of outstanding problem on step3, it is going to step4 (step4 analysis(Why-why analysis, PM analysis, FMEA, FTA)step5 onsite investigation based on step4 analysisstep6 restoration and improvement of defects which was foundstep7 confirmation of result, relapse prevention and horizontal development Productivity Management Office ©
  57. 57. Activity Board of Kaizen• Kaizen management will be visualized by using activity board and data base etc..• Confirm ideal condition by draw and specification. (Activity board is actual board attached control documents) PDCA cycle Loss theme Team Root Cause analysis • Plan • Do Outline of process problem Investigation of cause • Check and restoration • Action Control graph Target & Schedule Improvement and relapse prevention Initial investigation and result of restoration Horizontal development Productivity Management Office ©
  58. 58. Visualization of problems(Map) 1 3 2 4 Without machine stopping With machine stopping Productivity Management Office ©
  59. 59. Collect data and organize Number Number 40 35 30 25 1 2 20 3 15 4 10 5 0 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 Stratificationnumber number by point Stratification by Zero achievement phenomenon Productivity Management Office ©
  60. 60. Inspection of cause Check machine mechanism Check ideal condition Cause1 Cause2 Check Causes Think about countermeasure Productivity Management Office ©
  61. 61. Evaluation of countermeasure • In case of finding out root cause, examine countermeasures and evaluate them.Break down of sensor by dust 3p 2p 1p 0p Operability adoption effect difficulty cost safety pointCountermeasure of dust How1 How2 How3 Increase internal 15 Exhaust from vent Obstruct panel pressure 13 Use U type vent Improvement of chute Set up tray 10 Use Funnel 10 shaped vessel Stop aeration 8 Isolation of dust Set up dust collector 6 6 Set up impact roller 8 Change type of belt Productivity Management Office ©
  62. 62. Confirmation of result & relapse prevention• Draw up Kaizen sheet and then confirm the result of loss reduction with comparison between before and after kaizen• Revise Kaizen point of drawing, standard and working procedure• Draw up one point lesson about operator’s skill what was be clear through kaizen activity.• After kaizen activity, it needs to install visual control to necessary point. Kaizen sheet One point lesson sheet 担当者 チーム名 所属 作成者 所属 作成日 実施日 提案日 テーマ 分類 ライン名 工程名 テーマ ロスの分類 改善効果 改善費用 OK NG 改善前 • 目で見る管理とは異常と 正常の状態が現場ですぐ 改善後 にわかる仕組みづくりのこ と。 日付 伝達者名 Productivity Management Office ©
  63. 63. Matrix of horizontal development theme• Control possibility of horizontal development for expansion of individual kaizen result. possibility completed Develop point Item countermeasure point1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1ー1 1ー2 Item1 1ー3 1ー4 2-1 Item2 2-2 Productivity Management Office ©
  64. 64. Why-Why Analysis • This is an analysis that repeat why about 4M root causes of problem several times. 4M(Machine,Material,Method,Man) • First of all, investigate phenomenon and scene to find out cause of problem and then try to do why-why analysis. • It is useful not only for production field but also different field. • The important point for analysis is to be clear what is problem. • Examine human cause at the end of analysis.example phenomenon why1 why2 why3 吸着アームがトレーを 吸着位置がず 吸着アーム センサの反 吸着できない れている ずれている 応が遅れる Gap of vacuum Gap of response of sensor lift arm can not position Vacuum arm pick up tray 吸着能力が足 トレイがず 位置決め精 りない れている 度が悪い Vacuum power is small Gap of tray accuracy of stopper ・・・・・what is problem and what Example ) He slipped and fell, then broke his leg ・・・・・ ? should be analyzed? Productivity Management Office ©
  65. 65. PM Analysis phenomenon physical viewing Contributing condition 4M cause 吸着アームがトレー 吸着力より重量が F1が基準より 吸引力が Vacuum power is small を吸着できない 大きい 小さい 小さい lift arm can not Vacuum power is F1 is small less 吸着面が Vacuum area pick up tray small less than than standard is small falling power 小さい lift arm Lifting power 持ち上げる is small 力が小さいVacuum pad F1 F3 F2が基準より トレーの重 Tray is heavy tray 大きい さが大きい F2 F2 is heave more than standard F1>F2 and F3=0 ideal condition F3がゼロで Gap of vacuum 吸着位置 positionF1>F2 or F3≠0 Actual condition ない のズレ F3 is not zero Productivity Management Office ©
  66. 66. Zero concept and model Zero injury Zero pollution Zero machine failure • Zero model machine Zero minor stops • Zero model line Zero quality defect • Zero model area Zero cleaning Etc. Productivity Management Office ©
  67. 67. "Why Why Analysis" exercise• Your company has recently opened a new office in the 35th floor of a skyscraper. However, after a period of time, it begun complaints from employees and visitors to the office about the elevator. elevator operation interval was about 2 minutes on investigation. Please "Why Why Analysis" will be conducted and make measure up to this issue. * This building is not of its own. What is our What Why dose that why why countermeasure problem phenomena phenomena happens happens *it is possible to do why three times more Productivity Management Office ©
  68. 68. PM Analysis exercise• Exercise of physical viewing You poured cups full of tea and then you could recognize some kind of phenomena of defect. Kindly examine with drawing picture what physical parameter is problem when each type defect happens? Normal defect1 Defect2 defect3 Physical Parameter Condition Productivity Management Office ©
  69. 69. Seven Steps of Improve SetupStep 1 Grasp the contents of setup work and each time.Step 2 Distinguish internal-setup and external-setupStep 3 Carry out external-setup.Step 4 Improve internal-setup to become external-setup.Step 5 Improve to reduce internal-setup time.Step 6 Improve to eliminate internal-setup.Step 7 Execute skill-up training and make standard worksheet. Genba actual site Genbutsu actual item Investigation Genzitsu reality Productivity Management Office ©
  70. 70. Kaizen for Setup Find out Kaizen points of setup. *Other information 1. Use a forklift to convey both two materials.Order Work contents min 2. Both jig1 and jig2 is 30kg and use dolly to carry them. 3. There are 12 points for setting up Bolts. 1 Operation and confirmation for machine stopping. 1 4. The work is performed by one person. 2 Check safety and take out work1. 3 5. Quality check is to confirm the standard dimensions by using calipers. 3 Prepare tools and take out jig1 after remove bolts. 5 6. average occurrence of changeover is Twice per day. 4 Inspect jig1 and put it away and then find out jig2 and take out. 13 7. The goal of this changeover is less than 10 minutes. 8. Occasionally, failures or quality defects happen because 5 Clean up around before set up jig2. 10 of making the mistake during setup. 6 Set up jig2 and then put away tools. 6 7 Take out material1 and then bring material2 from storage area. 1 8 Set up material2 with rechecking step by step of standard work sheet. 3 9 Check safety by eyes and then start up the machine. 1 10 Do trial processing of product and then check the quality. 5 (the case of NG) 11 Operation and confirmation for machine stopping. 1 12 Adjustment work of jig2. 3 13 Check safety by eyes and then start up the machine. 1 (the case of OK) 14 Continue operation Productivity Management Office ©
  71. 71. Planned Maintenance(Keikaku-Hozen) Productivity Management Office ©
  72. 72. Target of Planned Maintenance Expected maintenance Unexpected maintenance Maintenance of Machine function Purpose of Planed maintenance Minimum maintenance cost (LCC of machine) Regular cost Irregular cost Productivity Management Office ©
  73. 73. Preventive maintenance (PM)Preventive maintenance is to check and repair the machineduring in use periodically or based on the result of diagnosisto avoid a failure. Scheduled maintenance Preventive Time based Daily maintenance maintenance maintenance Condition based Predictive maintenance maintenance Productivity Management Office ©
  74. 74. Index of machine failures• Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) An average time between a machine failure and the next failure. It is calculated by dividing total operating time by the number of failures• Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) An average of the time needed for repairing a machine Productivity Management Office ©
  75. 75. Exercise(Condition)24hours 31days continuous operation machine Date Stop time (1) MTBF02/03/2011 08:15 – 09:4507/03/2011 01:12 – 04:3014/03/2011 13:15 – 13:50 (2) MTTR17/03/2011 09:12 – 14:2028/03/2011 07:45 – 09:05* Blue means Scheduled maintenance Productivity Management Office ©
  76. 76. Planned maintenance 7steps Step1 Recognition of current maintenance system Step2 Set up purpose , policy ,target Step3 Organization formation and clarification Step4 Clarification of implementation activities Step5 Study of specific implementation for each activity Step6 plan framing for implementation with autonomous maintenance Step7 Result verification and establishment of maintenance system Productivity Management Office ©
  77. 77. Example of implementation activities1. Support activity of Autonomous maintenance2. Zero failure activity3. Lubrication management activity4. Spare parts management activity5. Maintenance skill up and new technology activity6. Maintenance cost down activity7. Maintenance management system activity8. Maintenance project management activity Visualize maintenance procedure Productivity Management Office ©
  78. 78. Four phases for zero failure •Phase 1 Reduction of unexpected break down •Phase 2 Life span extension •Phase 3 Time based restoration •Phase 4 Predict deterioration and restoration FTA Forced deterioration 事象 AND OR AND natural deterioration 基本事象 Productivity Management Office ©
  79. 79. Five measures for zero failure • Fulfill the basic requirements. Cleaning / Lubrication / Retightening / Dynamic and static accuracy • Observe the usage condition. Current / voltage / speed / temperature / etc. • Restore deterioration. control of natural deterioration. • Improve the weak points in design. Kaizen of reliability and maintainability. • Improve Technical skills. operating and maintenance personnel. Productivity Management Office ©
  80. 80. Machine element management • bolt / nut • key 1. Cleaning • pin / cotter • bearing 2. Inspection • shaft / coupling 3. Lubrication • Seal (packing / gasket) • chain / belt 4. Retightening • brake / spring / cam / link • gear • Gear box • Pipes / joint Productivity Management Office ©
  81. 81. Utility management • Compressed air • Hydraulic oil • Coolant (Cutting fluid) • Steam • Water , Water treatment • Gas , Chemical gas • Voltage , Frequency • Private power generator Productivity Management Office ©
  82. 82. Inspection of Machine Operation Maintenance Skill Level people people Operation Daily checking Condition surveillance technique Precise diagnosis technique High Productivity Management Office ©
  83. 83. Condition surveillance technique• It is the technology for surveying the state of equipment efficiently and quickly. Moreover, the check of 5 senses is also included in this. There is the following feature.• It can measure in a short time.• Anyone can measure.• It can know the result of measurement soon.• Apparatus should be cheap. Stick to listen to the sound vibration Purpose • Trend analysis of a deterioration state. • Discovery and prediction of failure. • Selection of precise diagnosis point. Portable thermometer Productivity Management Office ©
  84. 84. Precise diagnosis technique• In order to carry out, advanced signal analysis technique, chemical analysis technique, etc. are needed. Purpose 1. Getting to know the part and generating point of abnormalities. 2. Getting to know the cause and its removal method of abnormalities. 3. Getting to know the degree of severity and predict the advance. 4. Getting to know the optimal restoration method and its time. Productivity Management Office ©
  85. 85. Overview of vibration analysisvibration Pick up Signal processing Waveform analysis• Proximity pick up (non-contact type) ~ Number of 10kHz• Electrodynamic pick up (contact type) few Hz ~ 1kHz• Piezo-electric pick up (contact type) few Hz ~ Number of 10kHz How to install a contact-type Frequency measurement limit (Hz) rod attachment 800 ~ 1000 magnet 2000 ~ 3000 adhesive 8000 ~ 12000 screw 10000 ~ 13000 Productivity Management Office ©
  86. 86. 5steps Vibration measurement techniqueStep1 Understanding of the characteristics of the equipment• Specification, structure, historyStep2 Preparing the instrument of measurementStep3 Determination of measurement point and direction of measurement• Sketch , block diagramStep4 Implementation of the measurement and recording• Observation of situationStep5 Verification of data and checking abnormality• Trend data control chart (Vibration velocity, displacement, acceleration) Common measurement position of the pump Productivity Management Office ©
  87. 87. Other example of equipment diagnosis Heat thermograph diagnosis Ultrasonic flow detection by Azbil Co. Simple insulation diagnostic meter High voltage Cable insulation diagnosis by JFE mechanical Co. by Mitsubishi cable Co. Productivity Management Office ©
  88. 88. Equipment diagnosis system Center staff CMMS Technical staffFactory LAN Company LAN Network camera monitor monitor PC Data vibration collector diagnosis Moving machinery Example of NIPPON STEEL & SUMITOMO METAL Productivity Management Office ©
  89. 89. Tool management Efficient employment of tools.• Storage condition of tools.• Inventory control of tools.• Supply and arrangement of tools.• Destination management of tools based on a processing plan.• Life management and improvement of tools.• Cost Management of tools. Productivity Management Office ©
  90. 90. Support activity of Autonomous maintenanceStep0 Step1 Step2 Step3 Step4 Step5 Step6 Step7Train AM skill Train General Train Basic maintenance skill inspection skillSupport of detaching Tags (Red Tag) Support of Kaizen for Support of Kaizen for contaminations and difficult places reduction of CIL time Support visual control Support making standard Productivity Management Office ©
  91. 91. Lubrication management Why Lubrication is important ?• Decrease of friction and reduction of power loss.• Smoothness of friction movement.• Prevention of abrasion.• Prevention of heat generating and sintering.• Cleaning of dirt and foreign substance.• Rust and corrosion proofing. 1. Inventory 2. Storage condition 3. cost Productivity Management Office ©
  92. 92. Lubrication techniqueStudy and understanding of Tribology. (In 1966, it was officially announced to Britains Jost report.)• Selection and the operation method of lubricant Liquid lubricant, half-liquid lubricant (Grease), solid lubricant• The lubrication method and lubrication device• Tribology of a machine element (Tribo-element)• Maintenance management of a hydraulic system• Contamination management• Lubrication management by computer Productivity Management Office ©
  93. 93. Lubrication oil working oil analysis Moisture, contamination, total acid number Potable Lubricating oil analysis Typical wear particle form by Nippon steel mechanical Co. Normal wear particle Cutting type wear particle Spherical wear particle Monotonous type wear particle Automatic Lubricating oil analysis Heavy wear particle other particle by Nippon steel mechanical Co. Productivity Management Office ©
  94. 94. Spare parts managementIt is better that visualization starts after seiri and seiton activity of 5S.1.Simplification of confirmation of actual parts.2.Address control(visualize of position). A1 B1 C13.Area indication, storage indication board. A2 B2 C24.Indication label of parts. A3 B3 C3(number、name 、max volume). Address5.Order point control.(double bin, bar cord control, etc.). double bin6. Indication of Delivery schedule.7. Prevention of deterioration and contamination of parts. Order point8. Inventory and cost management. (Communalization, domestic production) Productivity Management Office ©
  95. 95. Practical use of EAM / CMMS• EAM = Enterprise Asset Management (system)• CMMS = Computerized Maintenance Management System •Equipment master data record and history •Work order management •Construction scheduling •Purchasing management •Materials / spare parts warehouse management •Reporting module (standard and customized reports) •Cost management •Index management •Others SMART TPM By Technical in Nagano Example of system : Maximo , MP2 , SAP Productivity Management Office ©
  96. 96. Formation of maintenance organization Maintenance operation Maintenance operation Type1 Type2 Maintenance operation Type3 Productivity Management Office ©
  97. 97. View points of maintenance cost reduction1. Review of maintenance cycle.2. Review of Lubrication management.3. Review of spare parts management.4. Review of subcontractor’s construction.5. Removal of maintenance downtime and transportation loss.6. Kaizen of maintainability and simplification of machine.7. Effective recycling parts and tools.8. Reduce resource and energy loss.9. Reduce of machine losses. Productivity Management Office ©
  98. 98. Initial management(Syoki-Kanri) Productivity Management Office ©
  99. 99. Initial Management 7stepsInitial management is an abbreviation of Initial phase managementsystem of new products and new machines. Implementation 7steps • Step1 Check current IM system. • Step2 Clarify current problems. • Step3 Set the target. • Step4 Find out malfunctions and restoration. • Step5 modification of the IM system. • Step6 Debugging new system. • Step7 Check the result, standardization and education. Productivity Management Office ©
  100. 100. Kaizen of Initial management processInitial-phase product management Initial-phase equipment management Initial-phase flow management Design Review start up Total lead time Productivity Management Office ©
  101. 101. Basic concept of Initial Management• Contents of design and engineering • LCP maximum • LCC minimum Prevention of Investment losses Low cost automation• Process improvement of design and engineering • Vertical start up • MP information • Simultaneous engineering • Scheduling tool (PERT, etc.) Use Office TPM 7steps Productivity Management Office ©
  102. 102. Economic engineering• Economic engineering can be used when making investment decisions• LCC, LCP calculation is useful for checking relative merits of investment plans LCC= IC + RC• Starts with the moment, do consider future investments (sunk costs are considered to eliminate) (Investment Quiz) Amount on hand $200 Plan A Plan B Horse Purchase price of the foal $200 Pig Purchase price of piglets $100 Monthly Stage $30 Monthly Stage $10 Feeding period 2years Feeding period 1years Sales price $2500 Sales price $300 Productivity Management Office ©
  103. 103. MP Information System• successful Improvement is necessary of feedback to the design department as preventative for next design. MP (Maintenance Prevention) information• In particular, If there is some defect in the original design it would be important information. design operation Kaizen Loss Loss Loss kaizen prevention occurrence MP information Productivity Management Office ©
  104. 104. Autonomous maintenance(Jishu-Hozen) Productivity Management Office ©
  105. 105. Basic idea of AM Operation Maintenance Breakdown maintenance (BM) Preventive Planed maintenance (PM)maintenance Corrective maintenance (CM) Maintenance Prevention (MP) Productivity Management Office ©
  106. 106. Autonomous maintenance (AM)7 Steps• Step0 Preparation• Step1 Initial cleaning• Step2 Countermeasures for source of contamination and hard to access• Step3 Tentative CIL standard• Setp4 General inspection• Step5 Autonomous inspection• Step6 Standardization• Step7 Autonomous management Productivity Management Office ©
  107. 107. Step0 Preparation1. Basic education for AM , safety and maintenance with some manual2. Set up activity board3. Prepare Tags (blue and red)4. Prepare Documents5. Prepare audit system6. Prepare basic maintenance tools for cleaning, lubrication and inspection.7. Organize small groups8. Set the schedule (Select the model machine or line)9. 3S activity around the machine Productivity Management Office ©
  108. 108. Activity board-1 Size around 1.5m-2m x 1m (material wood metal etc )Common contents through all steps• Group introduction• Activity area, machine, line and Loss analysis (loss map)• OEE Calculation (if possible) and graph• Activity master schedule and individual action plan• Activity time (man-hour)• Meeting minute• Number of tag attach and detach (use graphs)• Tagging map• Kaizen sheet (before and after)• One point lesson Productivity Management Office ©
  109. 109. Activity Board-2Factory Autonomous maintenance Focused improvement Office TPM Productivity Management Office ©
  110. 110. Step1 Initial cleaning in detail•Meeting for step1•Check the past machine troubles•Reconfirm the safety•Arrengements around the machine•Removal on unnesessary parts from the machine•Understanding the machine sutructure•Cleaning and inspection(tagging) by 5senses•List up Fuguai(defects) and mapping•Classify fuguai by location and type•Restore the fuguai(defects) as soon as possible•Lublication (list up points and type of oil)•Retighting (list up checking bolt you need) and match marking Productivity Management Office ©
  111. 111. Tagging •Attach blue tags on the points that operators can restore. •Attach red tags on the points that require restore by maintenance team or others. •Detach tags after restoration. Autonomous maintenance step No. Location of defectName of machineControl No.Date of attachmentName of operator Contents of defect Attach this tag to the machine Productivity Management Office ©
  112. 112. Audit•Perpare of audit (make some audit sheets)•Auditors should be top manegement and highlevel managers•Presentation of step activity on the activityboard by AM group(15min)•Presentation of step activity at the machine by AM group(15min)•Assessment and meeting by auditors(15min)•Announcement of the result and comment from top management•Audit has to be executed by each step of AM Top Section management manager audit auditSelf audit Productivity Management Office ©
  113. 113. Step2 Countermeasures for source ofcontamination and hard to access•Meeting for step2 and review step1•Reconfirm the safety•Check the contamination point ,kind and volume•Check the hard to access area•Make graph (Cleaning,inspection,lublication time)•Mesurement of initial time for each•Make some plan to reduce each time by kaizen sheet1. eliminate or reduce contamination by kaizen 2.change machine design or make some tool by kaizen to reduceCIL time•Plannig of countermeasures schedule Productivity Management Office ©
  114. 114. Step3 Tentative CIL standard•Make tentative CIL(cleaning,Inspection,lubrication)standard for machineby AM group•Make Daily CLI chechsheet•Traial and adjustment•Utilize Visual contrl tentative CIL(cleaning,Inspection,lubrication)standardindicator good NG Easy to find out Productivity Management Office ©
  115. 115. Visual ControlVisualization of Machine Visualization of process area by local coverIt is better that Operation andmaintenance activity will be efficient1.Visualization of working point2.Level of inspection and lubrication Machine side3.V belt、chain indication Management (direction, type, etc. ) by colors4.Fluid distinction, valve condition Indication of level by(open ,close) arrow mark 月 週 Oil store5.Notice of dangerous area monthly weekly Indication frequency by shape6.Operating condition, abnormality, Information Tagnumber of output Type Indication of Direction Clear cover Productivity Management Office ©
  116. 116. Visual control(exercise) • visual control without any sensor 1.level 2.flow(liquid) 2.flow(air) 4.vibration Productivity Management Office ©
  117. 117. Step4 General Inspection•Preparation for education and training in general inspection•Implementation of general inspection and training•Implementation of General inspection•Prevention of irregularities in general inspection items General inspection items •Machine elements •Pneumatic system •Lubrication •Drive system •Hydraulic system •Electrical system Productivity Management Office ©
  118. 118. Step5 Autonomous InspectionCIL standard should be reexamined to accomplishhigher inspection efficiency and eliminated errors.•Reexamine from zero failures and zero defect viewpoint•Reexamine from inspection efficiency viewpoint•Reexamine from inspection workload balance viewpoint•Reexamine from visual control viewpoint Productivity Management Office ©
  119. 119. Education and training(Kyouiku-kunren) Productivity Management Office ©
  120. 120. Education and Training 7steps Implementation 7steps • Step1 Establish Basic Training Policy and strategy • Step2 Evaluation of current education system • Step3 Making implementation plan • Step4 Preparation of Education system • Step5 Implementation of education and training • Step6 Check the result of skill up• Instructor OJT • Step7 Review education system and study future approach• method• Material Off-JT• Place Productivity Management Office ©
  121. 121. Skill Matrix • What kind of job Large middle small • What kind of skill Can unknowing train • Training through working Use of One point lesson Can do Knowing Use of outside trainer Skill evaluationLarge item is approach from management Screening of skillsSmall item is approach from job site Training working training working Target Annual plan check Productivity Management Office ©
  122. 122. Autonomous maintenance step4 trainingExample of Training menu Lecture Check On site• Bolts and nuts management• Lubrication system Hands on• Hydraulic system Check• Pneumatic system Practice Off site• Drive system Check• Electrical system• Utility system Productivity Management Office ©
  123. 123. Preparation of General inspection• Instructor• Training room• Training program• Training material • System flowchart • Cut model • Inspection List • Sample of failure and deterioration • Schematic diagram • Training kit Productivity Management Office ©
  124. 124. One point LessonTheme of Lesson One Point Lesson1. Basic Knowledge Theme Control number2. Improvement Cases Date signature3. Trouble Cases Basic knowledge of drawing Plane figureUse minimum sentenceUse pictures a lot as possible Side figure Front figure Lesson dateStudent will be Teacher signature Productivity Management Office ©
  125. 125. Quality maintenance(Hinshitsu-Hozen) Productivity Management Office ©
  126. 126. Quality Maintenance 7steps Implementation 7steps • Step1 Check current QA system • Step2 4M condition analysis • Step3 Find out malfunctions and restoration • Step4 Analysis of quality defects • Step5 Find out malfunctions and improvement • Step6 Check the result and standardization. • Step7 Reduce QA cost Zero quality defect Good customer service Quality satisfaction Purpose of Quality = maintenance Quality assurance cost Regular cost Irregular cost Productivity Management Office ©
  127. 127. Key point of countermeasures for Quality Defect• Disposal, rework and grades drop occurs because of defects in product quality.• Basic idea of countermeasures for quality defects. Phase1 Reduce sporadic quality defect. Phase2 Reduce chronic quality defect. Phase3 raise process capability. Phase4 make good use of SQC (statistical Quality Control) Check points on site QC process chart Investigation of defect QA matrix Standard work sheet QC control chart Phenomenon of quality defect etc. Productivity Management Office ©
  128. 128. Maintenance for Quality management1. Investigate the relevance between Degradation of equipment and of quality.2. Investigate the relevance between Degradation of tool and of quality.3. The point which should be managed is clarified. Q component4. The measuring method of degradation and the standard of management are decided. QM matrix5. The management system by Autonomous maintenance and planned maintenance is established.6. Maintenance of Measuring instrument (Slide-calipers, micro meter, etc.) Productivity Management Office ©
  129. 129. Measurement of dynamic precision•Static precisionPrecision which is measured after equipment has stopped.•Dynamic precisionAccuracy measured after equipment has operated.Practical use of Equipment diagnosis technique (ex. vibration analysis)Practical use of SQC:Statistical Quality Control Productivity Management Office ©
  130. 130. Poka-yoke(fail-proof)• Standard is necessary and it is difficult to prevent completely human mistake by it.• It is necessary to establish fail-proof system. OK NG Mixing proof Setting mistake proof Productivity Management Office ©
  131. 131. Safety & Environment(Anzen,Kankyou) Productivity Management Office ©
  132. 132. Safety and Environment 7steps Implementation 7steps• Step1 Check current S&E system• Step2 Find out malfunctions and restoration• Step3 Check the result and standardization• Step4 Analysis of injury, disaster and environmental pollution• Step5 Find out malfunctions and improvement• Step6 Check the result and horizontal development• Step7 Rebuild assessment and prevention system • Restoration Disturbance • Visualization from outside • Countermeasure of source of contamination condition • Safety & skill training • MP Information • Mistake proof action design • Intrinsically safe design Productivity Management Office ©
  133. 133. Heinrichs Law• One empirical finding from his 1931 book became known. In a workplace, for every Lost-time accident that causes a major injury, there are 29 minor accidents that cause minor injuries and 300 near- miss that cause no injuries. Lost-time Accident 1 Miner Accident 29 Near-miss 300 Productivity Management Office ©
  134. 134. S & E Kaizen by Tagging Before After Near-miss report situation cause solution Productivity Management Office ©
  135. 135. S & E Kaizen by Hazard Analysis Hazard record Potential hazard Near miss report Hazard Analysis Kaizen Skill training Design change Productivity Management Office ©
  136. 136. S & E skill Training and Action Hazard Prediction Training Point and check off aloud 4Round Training 1 pick up potential risk. 2 focus on main risk. 3 analyze root cause and countermeasure. 4 setting Target as action. Productivity Management Office ©
  137. 137. Safety and Sanitary gearIt is important to clarify the safety standards of each process.• Helmet Blood type• Safety glasses• Earplug• Mask• Work clothes• Gloves• Safety footwear• Others Productivity Management Office ©
  138. 138. Kaizen of Environment (quantitative) Area1 Area2 Area3 Evaluation temperature A A B (qualitative) Lighting A B C Mapping Contamination C B C Setting target Noise C B C Ergonomics B A C Kaizen Safety gear A A B Waste B B C Re-evaluation energy A A C ABC ranking by each area Productivity Management Office ©
  139. 139. Comparison of the lamp (example) Mercury Lamp Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp LED Lamp Low Voltage Discharge Lamp Price ¥28,000 ¥25,000 ¥150,000~¥190,000 ¥87,000 (including ballast) (including ballast) (including ballast) (including ballast) Life time 12000h 9000h~18000h 40000h 60000h Power consumption 300W 170W 100W~130W 100W Ultraviolet emission some Half of Mercury Lamp trace trace Lighting time 10~15min 10~15min soon soon Temperature 300~400℃ 300~400℃ 60~80℃ 80~100℃ Total luminous flux 15800Lm 20000Lm 10000Lm 7500Lm Amount of mercury used much few none none Flicker some some some trace Color temperature 3900K 4200K 3500~6000K 6400KImpact on the environment and some some some none human precision equipment Productivity Management Office ©
  140. 140. Office TPM(kanri,Kansetsu-bumon) Productivity Management Office ©
  141. 141. Concept of Office TPM Key word: Information factory Reduce processing cost of Reorganize information information and speed up Cut the peak of processing time Reduce the lead time of processing Introduce automation and network system Skill up of professional Productivity Management Office ©
  142. 142. TPM for Sales GrowthProduction activity is a part of whole business, product is even a part of Production activity. Marketing Strategy Sales Plan Inventory Plan Production Logistic Plan Plan The key to success is to sell as a whole system. Productivity Management Office ©
  143. 143. Office TPM 7stepsImplementation 7steps• Step1 Initial clean up 5S Activity• Step2 Defect finding• Step3 KAIZEN of defects• Step4 Standardization• Step5 Loss analysis of Indirect-department• Step6 KAIZEN of losses• Step7 confirmation of result, relapse prevention and horizontal developmentWork process improvement • It is a technique to make the flow of the business visible like the line of the factory to make the loss of an indirect business actualized. • The flow of the entire work is written down based on the actual documents, the problem is examined based on it, and the improvement is advanced. • Examine by the third party and the other business segment is easy and objective improvement becomes possible by making to visible. Productivity Management Office ©
  144. 144. 5S Activity 5S Activity board Logistics Kaizen The environment of a warehouse has influence on quality of raw material and products. 5S MAP Before After Productivity Management Office ©
  145. 145. Problem finding of office (exercise) Productivity Management Office ©
  146. 146. What is Makigami Analysis• It is a technique to make the flow of the business visible like the line of the factory to make the loss of an indirect business actualized.• The flow of the entire work is written down based on the actual documents, the problem is examined based on it, and the improvement is advanced.• Examine by the third party and the other business segment is easy and objective improvement becomes possible by making to visible. Productivity Management Office ©
  147. 147. Features of analysis• It is easy for employee to improve the subject by making it to visible and the actual document etc. and It differs from the job analysis that uses the IE technique.• It is easy to use it for the review and the improvement and to know not only the flow of the business but also the relation between document, standard, check sheet and skill control document.• It is easy to use it to analyze a fixed form business. It makes to the pattern and the main stream is analyzed as possible when the business of the branch (irregular) exists together with the main stream (regular).• It is necessary to think the number of branches is decreased when there is a branch business. Moreover, the branch can be improved if necessary as a target of the analysis. Productivity Management Office ©
  148. 148. 6steps Implementation of Makigami• STEP0 Preparation• STEP1 Current situation review• STEP2 Checking of defects• STEP3 Making Improvement idea• STEP4 Improvement• STEP5 Effects review• STEP6 Building workstation Productivity Management Office ©