Mellon Arena Urban RedevelopmentEnergy Performance SimulationBUILDING | MULTIFAMILY C
Description of the BUILDING                                                                  The project’s objective was t...
Location + CLIMATE data Pittsburgh falls under climatezone 5A as per IECC 2012 and has 5986 Heating Degree Days and 654 Co...
Identification of Thermal Zones                                                                    ANALYSiS of the Buildin...
1                                                                    Defining the SCHEDULES                               ...
BASE CASE | UDA                                          Defining the MATERIALS                               LAYERS      ...
METHODOLOGY                 ENVELOPE: UDA guidelines        CASE 1   GLAZiNG: Simple                 HVAC: Retail: VAV reh...
COMPARISON A | Case 1 + Case 2end uses                                                                                    ...
102000101500                                     37800                                     37600                          ...
HVAC systems ANALYSiS                                                                                      HVAC | Split sy...
HVAC systems ANALYSiS                                    HVAC | VAV                                    CASE 1, 2 4[Variabl...
COMPARISON B | Case 2 + Case 3end uses                                                                                    ...
HVAC systems ANALYSiS                                                                         Setpoint/Setback Temperature...
BASE UDA | PROPOSED                                                  COMPARISON C | Case 1 + Case 4                       ...
COMPARISON C | Case 1 + Case 4end uses                                                                                    ...
99000                                40000                                                                  COMPARISON C |...
Mellon Arena Urban Redevelopment Energy Performance Simulation
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Mellon Arena Urban Redevelopment Energy Performance Simulation

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The project’s objective was the analysis, study and simulation of a multifamily building. The building is a part of the recreation proposal for the Mellon Arena in Pittsburgh.
For the scope of the study, the building was designed in Design Builder, Version 3.0.0.064, and its HVAC systems were studied in Energy Plus, Version 6.0.

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Mellon Arena Urban Redevelopment Energy Performance Simulation

  1. 1. Mellon Arena Urban RedevelopmentEnergy Performance SimulationBUILDING | MULTIFAMILY C
  2. 2. Description of the BUILDING The project’s objective was the analysis, study and simulation of a multifamily building. The building is a part of the recreation proposal for the Mellon Arena in Pittsburgh. It is located in Block F. For the scope of the study, the building was designed in Design Builder, Version 3.0.0.064, and its HVAC systems were studied in Energy Plus, Version 6.0. N BUILDING iNFORMATIONMaster plan of Urban development | Multifamily C on the site Number of Floors 5 Function Residential (Upper 4 Floors) Retail ( First Floor) Orientation NW-SE [27° tilt] Total Building Area 5430.01 sqft Conditioned Building Area 3772.98 sqft Unconditioned Building Area 1657.03 sqftArea of redevelopment of Mellon Arena
  3. 3. Location + CLIMATE data Pittsburgh falls under climatezone 5A as per IECC 2012 and has 5986 Heating Degree Days and 654 Cooling Degree Days. This makes it a predominantly cold climate region. With these climatic conditions, the design emphasis is to maximize the thermal performance of the building envelope.CLiMATE DATAClimate Zone 5ALatitude N 40° 20’Longtitude W 79° 55’Elevation above sea level 380 metersHeating Degree Days 5986Cooling Degree Days 654Heating Dominant Climate
  4. 4. Identification of Thermal Zones ANALYSiS of the Building Design Builder Version 3.0 5_K1 1_R1 1_R75_K6 5_B1 5_B6 1_S1 5_S1 1_SC1 5_SC1 1_R2 1_R5 1_R6 5_K5 5_B2 5_B5 5_K2 1_SC2 5_SC2 1_S2 5_S2 5_B3 1_R3 5_B4 5_K3 1_R4 5_K4 Res_Bedroom N Res_kitchen Adiabetic Zones Retail Stairs / Corridors Service Cores
  5. 5. 1 Defining the SCHEDULES Weekday0.80.6 RETAiL Occupancy0.4 Lighting0.2 Equipment 0 RES_KiTCHEN0.70.60.50.4 Weekday Occupancy0.30.2 Lighting0.1 Equipment 0 Lighting and Equipment Densities Retail Residential Standard W/m² W/ft² W/m² W/ft² DOE Stand Alone Retail, New Construction 2004, Version 5, 15.05 1.4 6.45 Lighting 0.60 Space Considered: Core Retail Front Equipment 3.23 0.30 5.335 0.50 Mid Rise Apt, New Construction, 2004 Occupancy Densities Retail Residential Standard people/m² People/ft² People/m² People/ft² Retail-ASHRAE 62.1.2004 Occupancy 0.326 0.0326 0.0375 0.00375 Residential-Derived
  6. 6. BASE CASE | UDA Defining the MATERIALS LAYERS THICKNESS (in)EXTERiOR WALL Brickwork, Outer leaf 3.937RETAiL Air Gap 0.197 Polyethlene, Polythene 0.004 ASHRAE 90.1 EPS Expanded Polystrene 2.362 U Values Concrete Block (Heavyweight) 5.906 [BTU/hr ft² F] Gypsum Board 0.512 U Value: 0.078 BTU/hr ft² F 0.09EXTERiOR WALL Brickwork, outer leaf 3.937RESiDENTiAL Air gap 0.197 Polyethylene, Polythene 0.004 EPS expanded polystrene 0.984 Mineral fibre / wool 5.906 Woods softwood (25% bridging) Gypsum Plaster 0.512 U Value:0.051 BTU/hr ft² F 0.064ROOF | SEMi Roofing Felt 0.039EXPOSED Loose fill / powders cellulose 7.283 Mineral fibre / wool 3 GLAZING & WINDOW PROPERTIES Woods Softwood (15% bridging) BASE CASE (UDA) Airgap (25 mm) 0.984 Double Low E Tint Gypsum Plasterboard 0.512 Window Type 6mm/13mm Air Roofing Felt 0.039 SHGC 0.38 Light Transmission 0.444GROUND SLAB U Value: 0.027 BTU/hr ft² F 0.027 Sand & gravel 3.937 Total U value EPS Expanded Polystrene 1.181 (btu/hr ft2 F) 0.31 Concrete cast - heavyweight 5.906 Rubber tiles 0.276 Glazing % - 30% U Value: 0.159 BTU/hr ft² F R4 as per DOE energy standards
  7. 7. METHODOLOGY ENVELOPE: UDA guidelines CASE 1 GLAZiNG: Simple HVAC: Retail: VAV reheat A Residential: Split system ENVELOPE: UDA guidelines CASE 2 GLAZiNG: Spectral HVAC: Retail: VAV reheatC Residential: Split system B ENVELOPE: UDA guidelines CASE 3 GLAZiNG: Spectral HVAC: Retail +Residential: Constant Volume DX ENVELOPE: Proposed CASE 4 GLAZiNG: Simple HVAC: Retail: VAV reheat Residential: Split system
  8. 8. COMPARISON A | Case 1 + Case 2end uses Annual Energy | EUI | End Uses 0% 1% 4% 0% 1% 4% 4% 7% 4% 6% [SiMPLE] vs [SPECTRAL]Heating 17% 18% 13% 13%CoolingLightingEquipmentFansPumpsHeat Rejection Energy Use IntensityService Water Heating 54% 44 Total area 54% kBTU/ft² Case 1 Case 2 42 [SiMPLE] [SPECTRAL] + 0.26% 40 Annual Energy Use Intensity 220 consumption Conditioned Area 65 38 MMBTUs kBTU/ft² 215 210 205 60 200 36 55 34.03 195 33.94 190 170,442 170,887 50 185 34 180 45 175 170 40 165 32 160 1 35 155 150 2 30 30 CASE 1 CASE 2 CASE 1 CASE 2 CASE 1 CASE 2
  9. 9. 102000101500 37800 37600 COMPARISON A | Case 1 + Case 2101000 37400 HVAC Sizing User Design Loads100500 37200100000 37000 Hours Time Set-Points Not Met 99500 36800 99000 36600 98500 36400 HVAC 98000 36200 sizing 97500 36000 97000 35800 factor Cooling CASE Cooling CASE Heating CASE Heating CASE 1.2 1 2 1 2 HVAC Sizing UserEnd Use Consumptions Design Loads 1200 1105.93 1094.22 Case 1 Case 2Time Set Point Not Met During 1000 901.81Occupied Heating 22.33 20.83 802.87 800Time Set Point Not Met DuringOccupied Cooling 29.5 27.5 kBTUs/hr 600Time Set Point Met During 8708.17 8711.67Occupied Hours (99%) (99%) 400Time Not Comfortable Based 200on Simple ASHRAE 55-2004 6987 6611.33 1Time Comfortable Based on 1773 2148.67Simple ASHRAE 55-2004 (28%) (33%) 0 2 Heating Cooling
  10. 10. HVAC systems ANALYSiS HVAC | Split system CASE 1, 2 4Setpoint Temperature Thermostatic Zones - Degrees (deltaC) Tolerance for Time Heating Setpoint Not Met 0.56 Degrees Degrees Tolerance for Time Cooling Setpoint Not Met 0.56 Retail Heating 64 Residential Heating 69 Setback Temperature Retail Cooling 73 Residential Cooling 77ASHRAE Standard – 68-78 F Cooling 82 Heating 53 [Split System – No Fresh Air]
  11. 11. HVAC systems ANALYSiS HVAC | VAV CASE 1, 2 4[Variable Air Volume with reheat]
  12. 12. COMPARISON B | Case 2 + Case 3end uses Annual Energy | EUI | End Uses 4% 0% 1% 2% 4% 4% 6% 19% 13% 18% 25%HeatingCoolingLighting 10%EquipmentFansPumps Energy Use IntensityHeat RejectionService Water Heating 54% 40% 44 Total area kBTU/ft² Case 2 Case 3 42 [VAV+split] [Constant DX] + 27% Annual Energy Use Intensity 40 consumption Conditioned Area 43.10 65 kBTU/ft² 220 38 MMBTUs 215 60 210 216,414 205 200 55 36 34.03 195 190 50 170,887 185 34 180 45 175 170 40 32 165 160 2 35 155 150 3 30 30 CASE 2 CASE 3 CASE 2 CASE 3 CASE 2 CASE 3
  13. 13. HVAC systems ANALYSiS Setpoint/Setback Temperature CASE 3Setpoint Temperature Thermostatic Zones - Degrees (deltaC) Tolerance for Time Heating Setpoint Not Met 0.56 Degrees Degrees Tolerance for Time Cooling Setpoint Not Met 0.56 Retail Heating 64 Residential Heating 69 Setback Temperature Retail Cooling 73 Residential Cooling 77ASHRAE Standard – 68-78 F Cooling 82 Heating 53[Constant Volume DX]
  14. 14. BASE UDA | PROPOSED COMPARISON C | Case 1 + Case 4 LAYERS THICKNESS (in) Proposed MATERiALSEXTERiOR WALL Brickwork, Outer leaf 3.937RETAiL Air Gap 0.197 Polyethlene, Polythene 1.500 EPS Expanded Polystrene 3.937 Concrete Block (Heavyweight) 5.906 Gypsum Board 0.5120.078 BTU/hr ft2F U Value: 0.051 BTU/hr ft² FEXTERiOR WALL Brickwork, outer leaf 3.937RESiDENTiAL Air gap 0.197 Polyethylene, Polythene 0.004 EPS expanded polystrene 3.937 Mineral fibre / wool 5.906 Woods softwood (25% bridging) Gypsum Plaster 0.512 0.051 BTU/hr ft2F U Value:0.031 BTU/hr ft² FROOF | SEMi Roofing Felt 0.039EXPOSED Loose fill / powders cellulose 7.283 Mineral fibre / wool 3.937 Woods Softwood (15% bridging) Airgap (25 mm) 0.984 Gypsum Plasterboard 0.512 GLAZING & WINDOW PROPERTIES Roofing Felt 0.039 BASE CASE (UDA) 0.027 BTU/hr ft2F U Value: 0.024 BTU/hr ft² F Triple Low E TintGROUND SLAB Sand & gravel 3.937 Window Type 3mm/13mm Air EPS Expanded Polystrene 3.937 SHGC 0.303 Concrete cast - heavyweight 5.906 Light Transmission 0.455 Rubber tiles 0.276 Total U value 0.159 BTU/hr ft2F U Value: 0.044 BTU/hr ft² F (btu/hr ft2 F) 0.213
  15. 15. COMPARISON C | Case 1 + Case 4end uses Annual Energy | EUI | End Uses 0% 1% 4% 0% 1% 4% 7% 1% 4% 5% 18%Heating 17% 13%Cooling 14%LightingEquipmentFansPumpsHeat Rejection Energy Use IntensityService Water Heating 54% 57% Total area 44 Case 1 Case 4 kBTU/ft² [UDA guidelines] [PROPOSED] 42 Annual Energy Use Intensity 40 220 consumption 65 Conditioned Area -6% MMBTUs kBTU/ft² 215 210 60 38 205 200 55 33.94 195 36 190 50 170,442 185 180 45 34 160,323 31.92 175 170 40 165 32 160 1 35 155 150 4 30 30 CASE 1 CASE 4 CASE 1 CASE 4 CASE 1 CASE 4
  16. 16. 99000 40000 COMPARISON C | Case 1 + Case 498500 35000 HVAC Sizing User Design Loads98000 30000 Hours Time Set-Points Not Met 2500097500 20000 HVAC97000 15000 sizing 1000096500 factor 500096000 0 1.2 Cooling Cooling Heating Heating CASE 1 CASE 4 CASE 1 CASE 4 HVAC Sizing UserEnd Use Consumptions Design Loads 1200 11051076 Case 1 Case 4 1000Time Set Point Not Met DuringOccupied Heating 22.33 0 802.87 814.88 800Time Set Point Not Met During Kbtu/hrOccupied Cooling 29.5 29.17 600Time Set Point Met During 8708.17 8730.83Occupied Hours (99%) (100%) 400Time Not Comfortable Based 200 1on Simple ASHRAE 55-2004 6987 6204.5Time Comfortable Based on 1773 2555.5 0 4Simple ASHRAE 55-2004 (28%) (40%) Heating Cooling

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