Mobile Technologies

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  • Using TDMA, a narrow band that is 30 kHz wide and 6.7 milliseconds long is split time-wise into three time slots. Narrow band means channels in the traditional sense. Each conversation gets the radio for one-third of the time. This is possible because voice data that has been converted to digital information is compressed so that it takes up significantly less transmission space. Therefore, TDMA has three times the capacity of an analog system using the same number of channels.
  • If you travel in Europe and many other parts of the world, GSM is the only type of cellular service available.
  • CDMA: Privacy protection in Spread Spectrum CDMA due to anti-jamming capabilities of PN sequences
  • Mobile Technologies

    1. 1. Mobile Technologies<br />
    2. 2. Introduction<br />Mobile technology devices are a combination of hardware, operation systems of telecom providers , networking and software. <br />So Mobile Technology would encompass following discussions:<br /><ul><li>Generations of mobile communications
    3. 3. Comparison of various operations and networking concepts
    4. 4. Upcoming and future technologies </li></li></ul><li>Agenda<br /><ul><li>Evolution: Generations of Mobile communications
    5. 5. Wireless Technology Platforms
    6. 6. Mobile Phone Access Technologies
    7. 7. Mobile Technologies to watch for in future
    8. 8. Conclusion </li></li></ul><li>Evolution of Mobile Technology<br />First analog cellular systems based on IMTS<br />GENERATIONS :<br />1G: Analog cellular networks for voice communication <br />2G: Digital wireless networks, primarily for voice communication; limited data transmission capability <br />2.5G: Interim step toward 3G<br />3G: High-speed; mobile; supports video and other rich media; always-on transmission for e-mail, Web browsing, instant messaging<br />
    9. 9. 1G<br />Analog cellular technology<br />Started in the early to mid 1960’s offering simple wireless voice services based on analog technology<br />Were very limited in capacity and did not extend across geographic areas<br />Systems using 1G : <br />AMPS, TACS, and NMT<br />
    10. 10. 2G<br />Digital cellular technology<br />Developed in Europe and the US to provide better voice quality, higher capacity as well as lower power consumption<br />Offer support for simple non-voice services like SMS (simple messaging service)<br />Difficult roaming between countries using different systems<br />Types - GSM, TDMA and CDMA<br />
    11. 11. 2.5G<br />Packet Based Cellular that have been enhanced to provide for advanced communication applications<br />Also known as Interim Generation<br />Includes GPRS (General Packet Radio service) & EDGE (Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution)<br />
    12. 12. 3G<br />Third Generation Wireless Systems <br />New generation of systems that offer high bandwidth and support digital voice along with multimedia and global roaming.<br />Globally, different systems are being used, so, to migrate to globally acceptable systems, numerous standardization activities were carried out and three systems emerged: W-CDMA, CDMA2000 <br />
    13. 13.
    14. 14. 4G<br />IP based heterogeneous networks that allow users to use any system at any time and anywhere<br />Provides data and multimedia services along with telecommunication services<br />Personalized service by this new-generation network<br />Provide facilities for integrated services(multiple networks including Global Positioning System(GPS), LAN and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) that differ in quality of service (QOS) levels, security policies, device settings, charging methods, and applications<br />
    15. 15. 4G<br />REASONS TO HAVE 4G –<br />Support interactive multimedia services: teleconferencing, wireless internet, etc.<br />Wider bandwidths, higher rates.<br />Global mobility and service portability.<br />Low cost.<br />Scalability of mobile networks.<br />Personalization.<br />Application adaptability and highly dynamic.<br />
    16. 16. OVERVIEW OF MOBILE TELEPHONE TECHNOLOGIES<br />
    17. 17. Wireless Technology Platforms<br />GPRS<br />EDGE<br />WAP<br />
    18. 18. GPRS<br />General Packet Radio Service<br />A mobile data service which improves wireless access to networks like the Internet.<br />adds (defines) new packet channels and switching nodes within the GSM system<br />Data rates can go up to 128 kbps, faster than conventional GSM which has a rate for data transmission restricted to 14.4 kbps[7]. <br />GPRS - a package switched service, so data transfer is charged per kilobyte - user can be online for a long time and will only be billed for the transmitted data<br />
    19. 19. EDGE<br />EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Evolution) has an increased data transmission rate and reliability. <br />provides up to three times the data capacity of GPRS, namely 384 kbps. <br />Allows downloading video and music clips and e-mail on the move. <br />An add-on for GPRS networks, also called EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS). <br />Each phone with GPRS can also use EDGE<br />
    20. 20. WAP<br />Wireless Application Protocol - a standardized way for delivering Internet data over wireless networks. <br />Principal application is to enable access to the Internet from a mobile phone or PDA.<br /> A WAP browser provides all of the basic services of a computer based web browser but simplified to operate within the restrictions of a mobile phone.<br />The first step to Internet access on mobile devices<br />
    21. 21. Mobile Phone Access Technologies<br />Radio spectrum is a limited resource and has to be shared by all users<br />Hence many techniques have been devised to allow multiple access of same frequency band by different mobile users. They are: <br />TDMA (Time division multiple access),<br />CDMA (Code division multiple access) and<br />FDMA (Frequency division multiple access).<br />
    22. 22. FDMA<br />Not a popular Access Technology<br />FDMA gives users an individual allocation of one or several frequency bands, or channels. Multiple Access systems coordinate access between multiple users.<br />It has many disadvantages such as:<br /><ul><li>Crosstalk
    23. 23. Requires high-performing filters in radio hardware
    24. 24. Transmission not that effective and may get disrupted easily</li></li></ul><li>TDMA<br />It is more popularly known as GSM (Global System for Mobile)<br />Uses narrow band that is 30KHz wide and 6.7ms long split into 3 time slots<br />Voice data converted digitally is compressed and hence TDMA provides more capacity and requires less transmission space<br />
    25. 25. TDMA: Features<br />Both signaling and speech channels are digital; hence GSM is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system technology<br />GSM is used by over 3 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories!!! A truly global technology<br />Ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators<br />
    26. 26. TDMA: India 2009<br />Additions in India’s GSMsector fell in September ‘09 to 9.03 million connections as compared to 9.75 million in August and 9.47 in July; the total number of GSM connections in India is now 344.4 million.<br />
    27. 27. CDMA<br />The words &quot;code&quot; and &quot;division&quot; are important parts of how CDMA works. <br />CDMA uses codes to convert between analog voice signals and digital signals. <br />CDMA also uses codes to separate (or divide) voice and control data into data streams called &quot;channels.&quot;<br />
    28. 28. CDMA: Features<br />Has CDMA one (2G, 1995) and CDMA 2000 (3G, 2000) with the latter more popular with 12% of global market share<br />Has limited roaming<br />Better security<br />Higher power requirements<br />Generally better reception and transmission<br />
    29. 29. CDMA: India 2009<br />CDMA subscribers are at 94.5 million as of September ’09<br />Market share (Subscriber-wise):<br />
    30. 30. GSM vs CDMA<br />Advantages of GSM<br /><ul><li> Lesser Installation Cost
    31. 31. Lesser Power consumption
    32. 32. Higher Site Coverage</li></ul>Advantages of CDMA<br /><ul><li> More Secure
    33. 33. Efficient Practical utilization of Spectrum</li></li></ul><li>Mobile Technologies in the Future<br />We consider 3 upcoming mobile technologies. <br />Will impact short-term mobile strategies and policies<br />These technologies will evolve quickly in life span of each strategy that Telcos, Handset providers and other Electronics companies implement.<br />
    34. 34. The Big 3<br />Some upcoming mobile technologies are:<br />Bluetooth 3.0<br />Mobile Phone UIs<br />Mobile Web and widgets<br />Location sensing<br />802.11n boosts Wi-Fi data rates<br />Display technologies<br />Cellular broadband<br />We shall consider the first 3<br />
    35. 35. Bluetooth 3.0<br />Bluetooth 3.0 Specification adopted on April 21 , 2009<br />Devices supporting this will start arriving from 2010<br />Bluetooth 3.0 is intended to support three bearers: Classic Bluetooth, Wifi and UltraWideBand<br />Added features: ultra-low-power mode enabling new devices and New Applications such as health monitoring.<br />
    36. 36. Mobile Phone UIs<br />Predicted to be an area of Intense competition in 2010<br />Differences in handsets of Nokia, Sony-Erikkson, Motorola etc<br />Companies expect more demands for support of specific models driven by interface preferences<br />More expectations of Mobile Apps<br />Better Interface  Web more accessible<br />
    37. 37. Mobile Web and Widgets<br />Mobile Web is emerging as a low-cost way to deliver simple mobile applications to a range of devices.<br />Limitations to address: No Universal standards for browser accessto handset services like camera or GPS<br />Widgets supported by many mobile browsers<br />Provide a way to stream simple feeds to handsets and small screens<br />Will be part of most B2C mobile strategies in the future<br />
    38. 38. Current scenario of Mobile Technology<br />3G Wireless Systems are the new generation of systems that offer high bandwidth and support digital voice along with multimedia and global roaming.<br />Globally, different systems are being used, so, to migrate to globally acceptable systems, numerous standardization activities were carried out and three systems emerged: W-CDMA, CDMA2000, and TD-SCDMA<br />
    39. 39. Conclusion<br />The innovation of mobile communication standards has been a very active area over the last 10 years<br />There is a shift from paying per minute (1G and 2G) to paying per MB (2.5G, 2.75G and 3G) to flat rate payment (4G).<br />Evolution, Platforms and Access Technologies<br />Technical as well as Business perspective<br />

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