For Secondary LevelTWO Days ELT Training Programme Ekata Shisu Niketan Ratnanagar, Chitwan Eka Dev Adhikari NELTA Chitwan Secretary Marigold English Boarding School Janajagriti Higher Secondary School
This training session aims at introducing the skill ofteaching writing in the secondary level. The sessionsheds lights on the types of writing to be included inthe secondary level with specific focus on how toteach essay writing. The session duration is plannedto be of one hour and a half and the sessionintegrates theoretical concept together withapplicable classroom practice.
At the end of the session, the trainees will be able to. Identify the types of writing to be included in the secondary level classroom. Make use of specific procedure of teaching essay in the secondary level Talk about the need and the importance of informing about rubrics of writing to the students before they start they start their writing.
Writing section of Grade 9 and Grade 10 curriculum List of writing types to be used in the secondary level Types of essay writing Practical example of an essay [five paragraph essay] Correction techniques / Rubrics for assessing writing Short Story: Elements and Classroom Strategy Evaluation Rationale for Story Writing News Story: Format and Structure References
PPT Slides or Cutout sheets of Writing section of Grade 9 and Grade curriculum PPT Slides or handout of a Five Paragraph Essay (writing technique and what to be included) PPT Slides or Cutout sheets of Writing rubrics to be considered while assessing writing.
Mother and son talking after son’s first day in a schoolMother: My dear Prince, what did you learn in your school today?Prince: I learnt to write, Mom.Mother: Oh, that’s nice. What did you write then?Prince: I don’t know Mom. I haven’t learnt to read it yet.
What are the different types ofWriting Exercises to be includedin Secondary Level Classroom?
Paragraphs (Both Grades) Describe an Object or Event (Grade 9) Narrating a Sequence of Events (Grade 10) Transfer information from table to prose or vice versa. (Grade 9) Transfer information from tables, charts and diagrams to prose or vice versa. (Grade 10) Making notes on Variety of Texts. (Both Grades) Write about personal experiences creatively (Both Grades) Compose Simple Dialogues (Both Grades)
Authentic Texts Grade 9): (Postcards, Questionnaires, Phone Message, Personal and Official Letters, News Stories, Advertisement, Notice such as Condolence and Congratulation) Authentic Texts (Grade 10): (Personal Official and Business letters, Job Application, CVs / Bio Data, News Stories and articles, Rules and Regulations, Advertisements, Notices such as Condolence Congratulation, Invitation, Greeting )
What are the different types ofEssays to be taught in Secondary Level Classroom?
Expository Essay Expository essay is a type of writing where the purpose is to inform, explain, describe, or define the authors subject to the reader. Expository text is meant to deposit information and is the most frequently used type of writing by students in colleges and universities. Write several paragraphs on Rivers in Nepal Write several paragraphs on Farmers in Nepal Write an essay on Patriotism Write an essay on a pet dog you have.
Cause and Effect Essay A cause and effect essay is a paragraph or essay form which investigates and analyzes into the causes (rationale, reasoning and background reasons) along with the effects (consequences, effects and outcome) for a particular event, happening, condition or behavior” Write an essay on the link of overpopulation and deforestation. Write about the changes taking place in your locality because of urbanization. What is global warming? What things are responsible for global warming and what are its consequences? Write the causes and effects of cigarette smoking.
Comparison / Contrast Essay Compare and contrast essay is one of the numerous essay subtypes. In this case, as we can easily deduce, the main objective of this kind of essay is compare any two items, finding similarities between them, and/or contrast them, i.e. analyze them critically finding and pointing out dissimilarities. Write an essay on City life and Village life Write an essay comparing the hilly regions of the country with the terai region. Your parents are going to move to the village. You strongly object to it. For this purpose you make the comparative and contrast analysis of living in the city with living in the country.
Argumentative (Pro / con) Essay Pros and cons are arguments for or against a particular issue. Pros are arguments which aim to promote the issue, while cons suggest points against it. Why do you think it is good for the students to go to school. Dowry system is an evil of the society. It must be abolished. Give your opinion about it. Others (Literary Analysis, Character Analysis)
1. The Essay in the Examination is the part of Writing Skill. The question carries 12 marks and a maximum of 25 minutes can be allotted to it during the examination (more precisely 22 minutes)2. If the pupils saved some more time from other reading section, they can give a bit more time for it.3. The essay is about an issue or a subject of general interest and more possibly contemporary issues (like Tourism year 2011). The essay topic will require you to present your opinion or explain your views about the assigned topic.4. You have a maximum of 25 minutes to plan, and write, your essay. You can use rough paper for the outline or mind map the outline yourself by brainstorming it. You are required to write the essay neatly in the paper provided.
1. Your Writing will be evaluated on the basis of Range of vocabulary, Sentence building, Completion of content, Cohesion and Coherence, Errors in Spelling Grammar and Punctuation. So, you must be careful in these fields.1. Though the full marks of your essay is 12 marks, the marks are divided under different sub headings and so if you are able to make sure what the division will be then you can plan and design your essay as per the need.
1. Read the question carefully until you are sure that you know what the question asks.2. Decide what your answer will be.3. Brainstorm your ideas and the outline of the essay. Use rough paper to jot down notes, ideas, a basic outline, or any other interesting things that you wish to include in your essay.4. Check your notes / ideas for the content and the organization of the essay. Scratch out anything that is off topic. To be on topic, everything must answer, explain, or support your answer to the essay5. Now organize your notes and ideas. Organize your essay in at least in a 4 – 5 paragraph plan. Eka Dev Adhikari
1. Once you like the look of your plan, write it neatly into an actual essay. Expand your notes and outline by using complete sentences and by adding complete explanations that include specific details and examples. Be sure that all the details and examples you provide in your essay are directly relevant to your response to the essay topic. In other words, stay on topic!2. Once you have finished your essay, check for errors and make corrections by crossing out with a single line (and write the correction above the line if necessary).
Is the entire essay on topic? Did you write in complete sentences? Every sentence should have a subject and verb. Make sure your essay is about a page to two pages in length. Your essay should not be shorter than 200 words, or way too long essay is also not desirable. Check for errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and everything else you have that might make the writing less specific.
1. First paragraph (Introduction): This introductory paragraph must include your ANSWER to the question. It’s a great idea to include the essay topic/question in your answer. For example, if the essay question asks you if you prefer to live in the city or the country, you could start your essay by writing the following: If I had to choose between living in the city or the country, I would choose the country………..Now add three supporting ideas. Again, just list them briefly. This paragraph does not have to be too lengthy. four to five sentences would be fine.2. Second paragraph (body): This paragraph is all about the first supporting detail that you mentioned in paragraph one. It should be, at least 5-6 sentences in length.
3. Third paragraph (body): This paragraph is all about the second supporting detail that you mentioned in paragraph one. Again, it should be, at least, 4-6 sentences in length.4. Fourth paragraph (body): This paragraph is all about the third supporting detail that you mentioned in paragraph one. Try to write 4-6 sentences.5. Fifth paragraph (conclusion): Your concluding paragraph will be very similar to your introductory paragraph. Include your answer to the question and your 3 supporting ideas. This paragraph can be very short.
Essay Topic: Tell about a hobby that you haveand why it is important to you. Use yourpersonal observations, experience, andknowledge to support your essay.
Blue = topic sentence Pink = 1st subtopicGreen = 2nd subtopic Purple = 3rd subtopicOrange = conclusionI started collecting teddy bears when I was alittle girl. My grandfather bought my first bearfor me. Each one reminds me of a differentpart of my life. I have passed my collection onto my daughter. Collecting teddy bears hasreally brought out a lot of joy to my life.
Pink = 1st subtopic Black = supporting detailsMy grandfather started my teddy bearcollection. He had just returned from Italywith a big red box for me. Inside was abeautiful Mohair bear with a pink bowaround its neck. Since that day, Ive addedmany bears to my collection.
Green = 2nd subtopic Black = supporting detailsach time I look at one, it reminds me of differenttimes in my life. I remember a time that my dadspent forty dollars at the fair trying to win me a bearworth about two dollars. Every Christmas there wasalways a teddy bear sitting under the tree. Collectingbears has also helped to collect memories.
Purple = 3rd subtopic Black = supporting details have passed my teddy bear collection on tomy daughter. Ive also added a few since shewas born. I hope they bring her the samehappiness theyve brought me. When she getsolder, collecting could be something we canshare.
Orange = Conclusion Black = supporting detailsMy grandfather had no idea what he startedwhen he brought that first bear home. AnytimeIm feeling down, I can just pick up a bear and Ican be reminded of a happier time. I hope thatsomeday my daughter will pass them on to herown daughter as I have passed them to her.
I started collecting teddy bears when I was a little girl. My grandfather boughtmy first bear for me. Each one reminds me of a different part of my life. I havepassed my collection on to my daughter. Collecting teddy bears has reallybrought out a lot of joy to my life.My grandfather started my teddy bear collection. He had just returned fromItaly with a big red box for me. Inside was a beautiful Mohair bear with a pinkbow around its neck. Since that day, Ive added many bears to my collection.Each time I look at one, it reminds me of different times in my life. I remembera time that my dad spent forty dollars at the fair trying to win me a bear worthabout two dollars. Every Christmas there was always a teddy bear sitting underthe tree. Collecting bears has also helped to collect memories.I have passed my teddy bear collection on to my daughter. Ive also added a fewsince she was born. I hope they bring her the same happiness theyve broughtme. When she gets older, collecting could be something we can share.My grandfather had no idea what he started when he brought that first bearhome. Anytime Im feeling down, I can just pick up a bear and I can bereminded of a happier time. I hope that someday my daughter will pass them onto her own daughter as I have passed them to her. [252 words]
PatriotismPatriotism means love of mother country. People do have patriotic feelings tothe nation for a long time in history. A patriot loves his mother-land and thesepatriots are loved by the whole country. Extreme patriotism sometimes mightbring a nation into trouble. There were great patriots in our country whosacrificed their lives for the sake of country. Patriotism is considered as acommendable quality that everyone should have within him.Since the French Revolution the idea of nation and nationalism has occupied themind of people. Since, the beginning of nation and nationalism patriotism, ishailed as a lofty quality with a person. The patriots sometimes sacrifice theirlives for the good of their respective countries. This spirit of sacrifice has madepatriotism a highly noble quality. Since there is the spirit of sacrifice inpatriotism, patriotism is certainly justified. We have some duty towards thecountry in which we are born and live. So, the poet. S.W. Scott has said – "Breathes there the man with soul so dead Who never to himself hath said. This is my own, my native land".
Patriotism is no doubt useful in the interest of the country and the nation. Thenation is strongly built upon the sacrifice of the patriots. The patriots give theirmoney, time, energy and life for the good of the country. A patriot think of hiscountry. He wants that his country should be great and prosperous. He wants thathis country should be ideal in every field. So, patriotism is highly useful. Becauseit makes the people to think of their own country.The extreme form of patriotism is not desirable. Because the blind patriots do notcare for the humanitarianism. They forget that they are the members of a greatersociety which is called the human society. They forget the interest of the humanbeings as a whole. They forgets justice when they think of their countrys interest.They believe in the principle My country, right or wrong. He might commit manywrong things in the interest of his country. It is really not good. We should think inthe term of one world and one human society. We should contemplate a world-Government.We had great patriots in our country like Dasharath Chand, Dharmabhakta,Sukraraj Sastri and Gangalal Shrestha. Their sacrifice is now proverbial. But theywere also thinking of the world as a whole. They have sacrificed their entire lifefor the benefit of the country for the freedom of people and for the good of thenation rather than their personal benefit.Patriotism is no doubt a good quality. But we should always avoid the dark side ofpatriotism. We should not forget justice and fair play when we think the interest ofour own country. A patriot should be a humanitarian first and foremost, then onlyhe can be a true patriot.
Outline of the Essay Patriotism First Paragraph: Introduction Second Paragraph: Justification Third Paragraph: Usefulness Fourth Paragraph: Dark side of patriotism Fifth Paragraph: Great patriots Sixth Paragraph: Conclusion:
1. WHY Essay: explain with 3 reasons2. HOW Essay: explain 3 ways how something can be done3. WHY and HOW Essay: Make sure you include both reasons why and ways it can be done. You may want to just include 2 longer paragraphs in the body of this essay. That would make this one a 4 paragraph essay (introduction, why paragraph, how paragraph, conclusion).
1. COMPARE AND CONTRAST: You are comparing and contrasting two things. Again, this is better to answer in 4 paragraphs (introduction, paragraph explaining the similarities, paragraph explaining the differences, conclusion).2. CAUSES: Explain three things that might cause something to happen.3. EFFECT: Explain three results of something that has happened.4. LIST AND GIVE EXAMPLES: Provide three items in your explanation. Then in the body of the essay list again the three items, and give several examples of each of these items.
Transitions are signals that help readers follow the direction of the writer’s thoughts. They are like signposts on the road that guide travelers. Here are examples of some common transitional words or phrases, grouped according to the kid of signal they give to the readers.ADDITION SIGNALS: first of all, for one thing, second, the third reason, also, next, another, and, in addition, moreover, furthermore, finally, last of allTIME SIGNALS: first, then, next, after, as before, while, meanwhile, now, during, finallySPACE SIGNALS: next to, across, on the opposite side, to the left, to the right, in front, in back, above, below, behind, nearby Eka Dev Adhikari
CHANGE OF DIRECTION SIGNALS: but, however, yet, in contrast, otherwise, still, on the contrary, on the other hand ILLUSTRATION SIGNALS: for example, for instance, specifically, as an illustration, once, such as CONCLUSION SIGNALS: therefore, consequently, thus, then, as a result, in summary, to conclude, last of all, finally Eka Dev Adhikari
Scores 0 1 2 3 4 Areas Useless Inadequate Marginal Adequate Effective The Writer has started The writer has made a good The writer has made a Content In case the writer The Writer has made a good start and led ahead with the with the topic but has good start and led ahead hasn’t attempted or start with the topic but is not supporting details but(Range of Words and strayed from the with the supporting written something able to guide the thought somewhere lacks the details and concludes in a Completion of Task) irrelevant to the topic mainstream of the towards the mainstream. communication and is a bit suitable way topic incomplete. Language The writer hasn’t has made a use of minimum The writer has made a The writer has made has connected with the good use of language an excellent use ofSentence Structures, attempted to write or the grammatical and syntactic topic but the language writing is completely structure and grammatical structure of the language with very few language with Grammar and irrelevant to the topic of with still a considerable grammatical and almost no inaccuracies are abundant Punctuation the question. amount of inaccuracies syntactical inaccuracies. inaccuracies. The writer has made an The Writer hasn’t The writer has made an The writer has organized his The writer has organized outline with the necessary attempted the to write or outline and has moderately points well with very less the writing perfectly and Organization the writing is completely supporting details but fails arranged them in a miscommunication with the the organization meets to arrange them into irrelevant to the topic somewhat plausible order topic the requirement logical order
Short StoryA short story is a work of fiction that is usuallywritten in prose, often in narrative format. Thisformat tends to be more pointed than longer worksof fiction, such as novellas and novels.The concern of our short story in the classroomare fables and parables rather than those literaryshort stories, however, the need to understand theelements of writing short story can never beundermined. The elements of short stories can beseen as below
Elements of Short Story• Setting Time, Place, Weather Condition, Social Condition, Mood or Atmosphere Character Protagonist, Antagonist Plot Introduction, Rising Action, Climax / Turning Point, Falling Action, Resolution / Denouement Point of View First Person, Second Person, Third Person Theme Moral
Classroom Strategy in Writing Short Story Write a good title In the first paragraph introduce the character or the characters into the setting In the second paragraph describe the plot in detail In the third or final paragraph write the moral. (Rather than writing a single line moral, explain the meaning of it with the reference to the story that is written.)
Rationale of Evaluation in Story A good and appropriate title: 1 mark The flow of language and expression of the clued message: 1mark Content of the story and its appropriateness: 2 marks Appropriate moral 1 mark Grammatical correctness: 1 mark
Example •Title!•Awolf – hungry due to lack of game – a flock ofsheep – couldnt get near – the dogs andshepherd guarded the flock – found a skin of adead ship – gets mixed up with the flock – alamb follows thinking it its mother – leads it to acave – feasts on it – Moral.
Appearance can be deceptive•Once in a forest there was a wolf. It was growing old and so couldnt covermuch distance for a game. It made him hungry. It had really been long since ithad hunted so it was dearly in need of a game to carry on with his dailyactivities.•A flock of sheep used to come to graze near the forest. Once or twice the foxtried to snatch at a few of those animals to make them food, but the shepherdand the dogs guarded the flock with such alert that none of the attempts couldreally yield him anything. One day he found the skin of a dead ship. The wolfput on the skin and got mixed up with the flock. A lamb started following thewolf thinking it was its mother because the wolf was covering its body with theskin of the lambs mother that had died. The wolf led the lamb to a cave andsatisfied its hunger by feasting on the lamb. The poor lamb never had thoughtthat the wolf could be inside the skin of its mother as a result it was waylayedand devoured by the cunning wolf.•From this story we get a moral lesson that appearance can be deceptive. Weshouldnt believe everything we see without questioning it. If the poor lambhad realized that inside the skin there lived the cruel wolf he would never havelost his life.
News StoryNews style (also journalistic style or news writing style) isthe prose style used for news reporting in media such asnewspapers, radio and television. News style encompassesnot only vocabulary and sentence structure, but also the wayin which stories present the information in terms of relativeimportance, tone, and intended audience.News writing attempts to answer all the basic questionsabout any particular event - who, what, when, where andwhy (the Five Ws) and also often how - at the opening of thearticle. This form of structure is sometimes called the"inverted pyramid", to refer to the decreasing importance ofinformation in subsequent paragraphs.
Elements of News Story Heading Mini Sentence: so that the readers can grasp the meaning of the whole text Byline Place of News, Date of News, Reporting Agency Body Information Detailed news Reports of people and any consequences of the event
Classroom Strategy in Writing News Story Write a good Headline Write a byline eg. Kathmandu, July 23 (RSS) In the first paragraph introduce the news. Write who, what, when, where, why In the second paragraph write the news in detail. Write every detail of the news In the third paragraph write the reports of people or the consequences of the incident and similar things like compensation, report of authorities and so on.
Rationale of Evaluation in News Story A Headline and Byline: 1 mark Link of the paragraphs and their appropriateness: 1mark Body of the news story and the content: 2 marks Grammatical correctness: 2 marks
Example•Write a news story with the help of thefollowing outline.•Flying to Kathmandu from Pokhara – thickclouds – hit the TV tower – caught fire – allpassengers die – Rs. 500,000 ascompensation.
15 Die at a Plane CrashKathmandu, August 8 (RSS)A plane flying to Kathmandu crashed here at Thankotkilling all 15 crew on board.The plane, that belonged to Nepal Airlines, had taken offfrom Pokhara for Kathmandu with its 11 passengers and4 crew members. According to the local people the planehad lost its way due to thick fog as a result it hit the TVtower, caught fire and crashed to the ground. All thepassengers and the crew members died on the spot.The NA authorities say that the news of the accident hasreally made them grief-stricken. The government hasannounced to give Rs. 500,000 to the family members ofthe victim as a compensation.
What did you learn from the session today? What did you like the best in the session today? What did you feel lacked in the session today? Any feedback and suggestion you want to give to the presenter. What do you expect to get in future sessions? Any comment and suggestions are welcome at firstname.lastname@example.org