Active and passive voice


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Active and passive voice

  1. 1. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE By Ek a Ra t n a s a r i
  2. 2. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE  VOICE is used to explain the subject acts or being acted upon.  Active and Passive sentence usually have the same meaning but the focus is different.
  3. 3. ACTIVE VOICE  ACTIVE VOICE: the subject performs the action expressed. Ex: Bob mailed the package Agent Verb Recipient The main focus in this sentence is on the agent that does the action
  4. 4. ACTIVE VOICE Here are another examples o The news surprises me o Mary is helping John o Mr. Lee will teach my class o Shirley has suggested a new idea o Cathy had returned the book to the library
  5. 5. PASSIVE VOICE  PASSIVE VOICE: the recipient has something done to it by the agent. Ex: The package was mailed by Bob Recipient Verb Agent The main focus in this sentence is on the recipient that receives the action.
  6. 6. PASSIVE VOICE Here are another examples o I am surprised by the news o John is being helped by Mary o My class will be taught by Mr. Lee o A new idea has been suggested by Shirley o The book had been returned to the library by Cathy
  7. 7. PASSIVE VOICE  Sometimes in passive sentence, the agent is left out. Ex: The rain soaked the pitch The pitch was soaked by the rain Usually the passive sentence is used without a “by phrase”. The passive is most frequently used when it is not known or important to know exactly who performs an action.
  8. 8. PASSIVE VOICE Only the transitive verbs (verbs that are followed by an object) are used in the passive. It is not possible to use verbs such as happen, sleep, come, and seem (intransitive verbs) in the passive.  The progressive forms of the present perfect, past perfect, future, and future perfect are rarely used in the passive. Ex: John will have been helped by Mary 
  9. 9. PASSIVE VOICE  Either an indirect object (I.O) or a direct object (D.O) may become the subject of a passive sentence. Ex: Someone gave Prof. James an award (active) I.O D.O Prof. James was given an award An award was given to Prof. James  When the D.O becomes the subject, to is usually used in front of the I.O*
  10. 10. PASSIVE VOICE *The omission of to is more common in British English than American English Ex: An award was given Prof. James
  11. 11. PASSIVE VOICE  STATIVE PASSIVE: When the passive form expresses an existing state rather than action Ex: Now the door is locked locked is a past participle. It is used as an adjectives and describes the door o Often stative passive verbs are followed by a preposition other than by Ex: I am interested in Javanese art
  12. 12. PASSIVE VOICE  Get may also be followed by a past participle. The past participle functions as an adjective; it describes the subject. Ex: Kyla got worried because Ron was two hours late