Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Day 3

439 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Day 3

  1. 1. Viruses
  2. 2. Structure, Properties, Reproductive cycle, Types, Importance
  3. 3. Reproductive cycle
  4. 4. Reproductive cycle
  5. 5. Structure and Properties • Can only replicate inside living cells • Protein coat/capsid • Nucleic acid core • Lipid envelope
  6. 6. • Genetic material • DNA • RNA • Linear/circular • Shape • Helical • Icosahedral • Enveloped • Complex • Presence of envelope • Animal viruses • Type of reproductive cycle • Lytic cycle • Lysogenic • Retroviruses
  7. 7. Types of animal viruses
  8. 8. Importance • Virus vs. cancer cells • Virus as carriers or vectors for treatment • Weapons and biological warfare • Agriculture • nanotechnology
  9. 9. Diversity of life A system that names and organizes organisms in a logical manner is used
  10. 10. Biological classification 1. Assigns a universally accepted name to each organism
  11. 11. Biological classification 2. Place organisms in groups that have a real biological meaning Artificial classification • Superficial • Uses only one or few characteristics Natural classification • Uses all or most characteristics • Shows evolutionary relationships
  12. 12. Branches that deal with classification • Taxonomy • Phylogeny • Evolutionary history of a species / group of species • Systematics • Taxonomy + Phylogenetics • Study of biodiversity in context of evolutionary history
  13. 13. Taxonomy • Branch that deals with identification, classification, and naming or organisms • Sorts species into broader taxonomic categories. Sorts species into closely related organisms • Ex: Varanus mabitang, V. mabitang, Varanus sp., Varanus spp.
  14. 14. • Aristotle – air, land, and water dwellers • Theophrastus – herbs, shrubs, trees • John Ray – “species” • Species – a group of structurally-similar organisms that pass on these similarities to their offspring • Genus- group of close-related species • Latin • Carolus Linnaeus = father of modern taxonomy
  15. 15. Levels of Classification • KPCOFGS
  16. 16. Binomial System of Classification 1. Genus Species 2. Genusspecies 3. Genus species 4. Genuz species 5. Genus species 6. Genus species 7. Genus species 8. Genus Species 9. Genus Species 10. Genus species
  17. 17. Schemes of Biological Classification • Structural information • Cytological information • Embryological information • Behavioral information • Biochemical organization • Evolutionary relationships
  18. 18. Plantae Animalia Fungi Monera
  19. 19. prokaryotes Eukaryotes
  20. 20. Prokaryotes • Unbound nucleoid • Simple appendages • Circular DNA • No membrane bound organelles • Binary fission as reproduction • Complex cell wall • Ribosomes – small • Cytoskeleton • Smaller than eukaryotes
  21. 21. Structure • Cell wall • site of antibiotic action • Cell membrane • contains pigments and enzymes • Cytoplasm • cytoplasmic streaming • Nucleiod region • Ribosomes • Flagellum • Pili
  22. 22. Domain Archaea • prokaryotic • Membranes – branched hydrocarbon chains attached to glycerol by either linkages • Cell walls : no peptidoglycan • rRNA unique to Archaea • Halophiles, hyperthermophiles • Autotroph/ heterotroph
  23. 23. Domain Bacteria • Prokaryotic cells • Membranes – unbranched fatty acid chains attached to glycerol by ester linkages • Cell walls: peptidoglycan • Great deal of diversity • rRNA unique to Bacteria • unicellular • Mycoplasmas, cyanobacteria, gram-positive, gram-negative • Autotroph / heterotroph
  24. 24. Domain Eukarya • Eukaryotic cells which have membranes similar to bacteria • Some have cell walls
  25. 25. • Phylogeny • Differences in the sequences of nucleotides in the cell’s ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) LUCA Super phylum
  26. 26. Reproduction • Archaea - asexual repro: binary fission, budding, or fragmentation • Eubacteria – asexual repro • Protist – asexual repro. Meiosis • Fungi - asexual or sexual • Plantae – asexual: mitosis / sexual • Animalia – sexual reproduction

×