Day 2

320 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
320
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Pasteur - microorganisms cause fermentation and disease; originated the process of pasteurization; saved the beer, wine, and silk industries in France; and developedvaccines against anthrax and rabies.
  • Humoral response – antibodiesCell-mediated response – cytotoxic lymphocytes
  • Day 2

    1. 1. Day 2 Headstart year 15 – Bio 1
    2. 2. Origin of life
    3. 3. Abiogenesis vs. Biogenesis
    4. 4. Abiogenesis vs. Biogenesis • Biogenesis: Bio – life; Genesis – to form; • Biogenesis – the process that states that living things can only be produced by another living thing, and not by a non-living thing. • A – the process that states that living things can be produced by non-living things.
    5. 5. Chemosynthetic theory
    6. 6. Chemosynthetic theory • States that the very first microscopic life could have evolved as a result of a series of chemical reactions • Amino acids ++  peptides and proteins • Hydrocarbons + sugars = fat molecules • Carbohydrates ++  starch & complex sugars • coacervates – aggregate of molecules • Nucleic acids help in development of coacervates
    7. 7. Cell
    8. 8. Cell theory
    9. 9. The Cell Theory • All living organisms are composed of cells. They may be unicellular or multicellular. • The cell is the basic unit of life. • Cells arise from pre-existing cells.
    10. 10. Cell structure and Function • Nucleus • Cytoplasm • Cell membrane • Cell wall • Golgi Apparatus • Endoplasmic Reticulum • Lysosome • Mitochondria • Lysosome • Vacuoles • Chloroplast
    11. 11. Nucleus • Control / command center of the cell • Stores genetic material
    12. 12. Cytoplasm, Cell wall, and Cell membrane • Cytoplasm – ‘matrix’ of the inner layer of the cell. Cytosol – liquid portion • Cell wall – rigid structure above cell membrane that is thicker and more rigid • Cell membrane – semi-permeable structure which controls the passage of materials in and out of the cell
    13. 13. Cell structures and function • Golgi Apparatus – flattened sacs that store, modify, and package products that are to be secreted by the cells • Lysosome – bag-like cells that digest dead organelles, organic and inorganic materials, food, etc. • Mitochondria – powerhouse of the cell; contains and produces ATP • Vacuoles – storage for nutrients, water, or waste • Chloroplast – contains pigments that store energy.
    14. 14. • Vesicle – contains an aqueous solution using a lipid bilayer • Ribosome –contains RNA and proteins. Assembles protein in the cell. 2 types: Free and bound • Cytoskeleton – provides support in the cell. Microfilaments and Microtubules. • Centrioles – aids and functions at cell division. Made of microtubules • Flagellum – spins woaaa
    15. 15. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells Pro Eu # of cells Single Single or Multi Size Tiny Relatively larger Organelles No Yes DNA Circular Chromosomal Examples Bacteria Fungi, Animal, plant
    16. 16. Plants and Animal cells • Animal cells do not have cell walls • Animal cell  round; Plant cell  rectangle • Centrioles are present in all animal cells while only a few in the plant cells. • Animal cells do not have chloroplasts • It is very rare for plant cells to have cilia.
    17. 17. Types of plant cells • Vascular: • Xylem • Phloem • Ground: • Parenchyma • Collenchyma • Sclerenchyma
    18. 18. Diseases • A change in the system, excluding an injury, that causes a disruption on normal body functions • Pathogens/ Infectious agents • Environmental factors • Genetic • Pathogens: • Bacteria • Viruses • Protists • Large parasites • Fungi • Prions • Virion
    19. 19. • Rapid multiplication • Destruction of body cells and tissues • Production of poison or toxins
    20. 20. Koch’s postulate • Pathogen should always be found in a sick organism • Pathogen should be isolated and grown in pure culture • When purified pathogens are placed in new host, the same disease should appear. • When infected pathogen is isolated, it should be identical to the original pathogen
    21. 21. Germ Theory of Disease • Infectious disease is caused by germs or pathogens Names to remember: • Ignaz Semmelweis • washing hands • Louis Pasteur • pasteurization • Joseph Lister – used sterile equipment, antiseptics, and anesthetics in surgery • Robert Koch – worked on bacili and proved diseases were caused by bacteria and that it could infect any organism despite harsh conditions • Dmitri Ivanovsky – credited as the discoverer of viruses
    22. 22. Infection – modes and agents • Airborne • droplets of pathogen • Foodborne • Tape worms • amoebiasis • Waterborne • Carriers or vectors • Actual contact
    23. 23. Pathogen What it is What it causes Viruses Noncellular particles that invade living cells AIDS, polio, smallpox, measles, colds, influenza, chicken pox, SARS, bird flu Bacteria Unicellular prokaryotes; from Domain Bacteria gonorrhea, botulism, pneumonia, strep throat, boils/acne, tuberculosis, meningitis, cholera, tetanus Protists Any eukaryote that is NOT a plant, an animal, or a fungus; from Kingdom Protista malaria, amoebiasis/amoebic dysentery, African sleeping sickness Fungi Eukaryotic heterotrophs w/ chitinous CWs; from Kingdom Fungi ringworm, athlete’s foot, San Joaquin Valley fever (lung disease), histoplasmosis Worms Parasitic animals from the phyla Platyhelminthes & Nematoda schistosomiasis, beef tapeworm Prions* Misfolded proteins that cause other normal proteins to misfold and cause widespread damage Mad-cow disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, scrapie
    24. 24. Defenses – vaccines, immunity, etc.• Two types of Immunity: • Innate • Acquired Acquired (specific): • Humoral response • Cell-mediated response Innate (Nonspecific) • External • Skin • Mucous membranes • Secretions • Internal • Phagocytic cells • Antimicrobial proteins • Natural killer cells • Inflammatory response

    ×