Sally rm 11


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Sally rm 11

  1. 1. Business Research Methods 11. Research combining quantitative and qualitative techniques
  2. 2. Theme 11 <ul><li>Mixed methods research </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative and qualitative techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed methods examples </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection on mixed methods </li></ul><ul><li>Case study research design </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mixed methods <ul><li>The concept of mixed methods is used to denote a research that integrates quantitative and qualitative research </li></ul><ul><li>Combining QUANTITATIVE and QUANLITATIVE data collection and data analysis techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed methods use both approaches to “counterbalance” the weaknesses and strengths of each method </li></ul>Bryman & Bell (2007)
  4. 4. Qualitative & quantitative methods and techniques <ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured </li></ul><ul><li>and semi-structured interviews </li></ul>Jankowicz (1991) Quantitative Qualitative <ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys/Self-completion questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul><ul><li>interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Structured observations </li></ul>Qualitative Quantitative Ethnography Case Study Focus groups Longitudinal study Experiment Cross-sectional Methods (designs)
  5. 5. Some controversies <ul><li>There are many arguments against the compatibility of combining quantitative and qualitative studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epistemological and ontological considerations suggest incompatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A technical version supports the fusion of both quantities and qualitative methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The connections between research and philosophical considerations are not fixed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They denote just predisposition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both researches are compatible, feasible and desirable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Research method are much more free-floating that it sometimes supposed” </li></ul></ul></ul>Bryman & Bell (2007)
  6. 6. Qualitative facilitating quantitative research <ul><li>Providing hypotheses -e.g. Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Aiding measurements -e.g. Survey/Metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Research applied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edwards et al. (1998) studied employee attitude towards TQM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting interview with quality managers, functional specialists in 6 case study organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary data was also analyzed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-completion questionnaires were developed taking account of the valuable contextual information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: 63 % average response for the survey </li></ul></ul>Bryman & Bell (2007)
  7. 7. Quantitative facilitating qualitative research <ul><li>Selection of people -e.g. Sampling process </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring new concepts -e.g. Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Research applied I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storey et al. (2002) studied flexible employment contract and product innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,700 self-completion questionnaires were sent to the industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They identify their target population and approach the companies to conduct in-depth interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research applied II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hochschild (1983) study of ‘ emotional labour’ in Delta airlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-completion questionnaires used as the initial conceptualization tool </li></ul></ul>Bryman & Bell (2007)
  8. 8. Triangulation <ul><li>Triangulation is an approach of mixed methodology were different data collection methods are used to examine different aspects of organizational reality (Zamanou & Glases, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Ghauri et al. (1995) defines triangulation as the combination of methodologies to improve the accuracy of judgments of results </li></ul><ul><li>Webb et al. (1994) suggest that the confidence in the findings of quantitative research can be enhanced by using more than way of measuring a concept </li></ul>
  9. 9. Triangulation <ul><li>Three blind men were asked to describe a elephant by touching only one part of it </li></ul><ul><li>A single method will not be enough to get the whole picture! </li></ul>Ghauri et al. (1995)
  10. 10. Case study research <ul><li>Case study methods are enjoying a vogue in business reseach (Brannick & Roche, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Bryman and Bell (2007) suggest that qualitative and quantitative business research methods combined represent a common pattern in case studies so as to enhance generalizability </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies represents an “intensive” study of selected examples in order to gaining insight of a phenomenon (Ghauri et al.,1995) </li></ul><ul><li>This method is suitable when researchers have little control over events and when the focus is on a current phenomenon in a “real-life” context (Yin, 1989) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Preparing for a case study <ul><li>In many cases students first decide which method to use -e.g. Cases study or survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and then they formulate their problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should we decide the method first, or the problem leading us to the method? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The problem and our objectives should lead us to the method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore/new theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalize/retest </li></ul></ul>Ghauri et al. (1995)
  12. 12. Criteria to select a case <ul><li>Target population for the investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assess accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Time and other constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller -e.g. Little time available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big organizations -e.g. Complex issue </li></ul></ul>Ghauri et al. (1995)
  13. 13. How to conduct a case study <ul><li>Case studies are frequently chosen because of the mistaken belief that they are easy to conduct (Brannick & Roche, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>However, special skills and some caution are required for case study research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection is very demanding (personally) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptional communication skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good observer and listener </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special interpretation ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading behind the lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding bias for own interpretation </li></ul></ul>Ghauri et al. (1995)
  14. 14. Types of case study design <ul><li>Multiple-case study </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not related to revelatory or rare phenomena </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testing established theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Single-case study </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unique case </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testing established theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot and exploratory study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explanations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causality (longitudinal) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deductive approach at the fist stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The use of particular case studies methods depend on the problem, objective and also on the methodology employed </li></ul>Yin (1989)
  15. 15. Generalization & multiple-cases <ul><li>Generalization in case studies is one of the most controversial issues </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical sampling may have some weaknesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratify </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theoretical sampling (Gummesson, 1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Mimicking” the generic logic of statistic sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st qualitative selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd apply the sampling principles iteratively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representativeness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalization? </li></ul></ul>Brannick & Roche (1997)
  16. 16. Analytic generalization <ul><li>Robert Yin (1994) argues that multiple case designs are properly viewed as the logical equivalent of repeated experiments, “theoretical replication” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each of the cases should be carefully chosen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same phenomenon under study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contracting results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather than statistical generalization “Analytic generalization” involves using previously developed theory to compare case studies </li></ul></ul>Brannick & Roche (1997)
  17. 17. The famous “Aston” studies <ul><li>Contingent features of organizational structure and power in organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>46 organizations sampled for reliable measures -i.e. metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratify them by product type and size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The unusual feature of the Aston research was to use: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>statistical design principles and associated modes of generalization using small samples of organizations, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>using multiple data collection methods (triangulation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, the potential of this hybrid design remains to be explored </li></ul></ul>Brannick & Roche (1997)
  18. 18. Generalization <ul><li>The remaining question is weather statistical sampling and generalization can have any place in the logic of multiple case design </li></ul><ul><li>Gummesson and Yin suggest categorically that the answer is NO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical analysis should just support the arguments of case research studies </li></ul></ul>Brannick & Roche (1997)
  19. 19. A typical case research example <ul><li>Kanter (1977) conduct a single case study at Indsco Supply Corporation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Postal surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-structure interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups with employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participating in meetings and conversations with personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary data (public documents, memoranda, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although she did not claim generalization, she conducted interviews also in other corporations to conclude that Indsco was typical among other corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She finally suggest that Indsco’ story could be similar to other organizations </li></ul></ul>Bryman & Bell (2007)
  20. 20. Some final considerations <ul><li>Mixed methods, and mono-methods, should be competently designed and conduced </li></ul><ul><li>No matter how many collection methods are employed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ More is not better” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed methods should be aligned with the type of research question </li></ul><ul><li>Very time consuming and financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Good combination of qualitative and quantitative skills </li></ul><ul><li>In a nut shell, mixed methods are not universally applicable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It may provide better understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may enhance confidence of findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may improve chances of access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, it is subject to similar constraints and considerations as research relying on a single method of research strategy </li></ul>Bryman & Bell (2007)
  21. 21. Key points <ul><li>Mixed-methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterbalancing their weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triangulation mixed-method approach </li></ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerations for conducting case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple-case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generalization issues </li></ul>