Guidelines for the design of location-based audio for mobile learning


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Paper presented at mLearn 2010, Valetta, Malta

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  • Ultrasound tracking systemLearning through context to engage the visitor Context based uponUser profile+ previous location+ current location+ time spent at current locationHighlight links between paintingsNavigation by physical movementObservations:- paper guide promoted a more ‘rigid’ pattern of movement- visitors with the PDA were more likely to move around the gallery according to what interested them
  • PocketPCWhen walk past a picture, get an audio titleIf you stop at the picture, you get a audio descriptionIf you pause there for a while, you get an audio-visual interaction where the picture on the iPaq has key areas (hotspots) with audio descriptions
  • Characters (L-R):Dario (art critic), Fabio (glass master), Berto (fisherman/tenor), Furio (ska musician)
  • Suggestions – further work needed to test and refine theseInteractivity ability of user to influence story adds significant value should be dependent on user’s movementsNarration narrative should be coherent and flowing use audio on its own where possible – reduce reliance on visual mediaTrails/navigation cannot impose prescribed route – better for the system to adapt rather than persuadeTechnical issues system should be robust to adapt to sensor failings if precision of location is important, shape and extent of ‘trigger’ regions should allow for fluctuations/inaccuracies in GPS dataSensitivity to local environment geographic relevance – looking in wrong direction – should understand geographical relevance/features of landscape cultural and personal sensitivity – balance of voyeurism with tourism
  • Guidelines for the design of location-based audio for mobile learning

    1. 1. Guidelines for the design of location-based audio for mobile learning<br />Elizabeth FitzGerald, Mike Sharples, Robert Jones and Gary PriestnallUniversity of Nottingham<br />
    2. 2. Audio experiences<br />Used extensively in mobile gaming, tourism, educational visits and theatrical events<br />Usage:<br />Direction<br />Orientation<br />Informing/instructing<br />Telling a story<br />Creating ambient sound<br />
    3. 3. Spoken audio experiences<br />We have proposed three categories:<br />Audio vignettes<br />Movement-based guides<br />Mobile narratives<br />
    4. 4. Audio vignettes<br />Short pieces of audio triggered by movement from the user<br />No history of where the user has been<br />No adaptivity based on previous movement<br />Users engage with chunks of audio that are independent of each other and of their relative locations<br />
    5. 5. E.g. Riot! 1831Interactive play in Queen’s Square, Bristol <br />(Image © 2010 University of the West of England, Bristol)<br />(image from JF Nicholls and John Taylor (1883) Bristol Past and Present)<br />
    6. 6. Movement-based guides<br />The aim is to adapt information to objects or surroundings<br />Interaction and adaptivity is based on <br />User movement<br />Orientation of the user<br />Physical position of the user<br />
    7. 7. E.g. CAGE (Context Aware Gallery Exploration) part of the MOBIlearn project<br />
    8. 8.
    9. 9. Mobile narratives<br />An audio narrative based on the sequence of movements carried out by the user<br />Audio heard by a user will depend upon where the user goes to (and has come from)<br />Differs from a movement-based guide:<br />Stronger story-telling component <br />Level of dependency upon the previous audio segment<br />Can present different perspectives/characters<br />
    10. 10. E.g. History Unwired <br /><br />
    11. 11. (All images courtesy of History Unwired)<br />
    12. 12. Guidelines for effective audio experiences<br />Interactivity<br />Narration<br />Trails/navigation<br />Technical issues<br />Sensitivity to local environment<br />
    13. 13. Case study: A Chaotic Encounter<br />Movement-based guide + mobile narrative<br />An entertaining audio story which reflects the listener’s movement patterns<br />User’s movement (speed, direction) determines the level of chaos (either low, medium or high) presented in the audio story<br />
    14. 14. Narrative structure<br />Chaos<br />Time<br />
    15. 15. Findings from case study<br />All enjoyed the movement element of the audio experiences<br />When interaction demanded interruption, immersiveness was lost<br />When interactivity is not explicit, too much ambiguity may leave users unsure how to proceed<br />Adaptivity was considered very important to the enjoyment of the experience<br />
    16. 16. Summary<br />We have proposed three categories of spoken audio guides:<br />Audio vignettes<br />Movement-based guides<br />Mobile narratives<br />Guidelines for effective audio experiences<br />Case study: A Chaotic Encounter<br />Ongoing work into “a sense of place”<br />
    17. 17. Thanks for listening…<br /> <br /><br />Many thanks toall participants in the user trials and also to students from the School of Geography<br />