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WEIGHT MANAGEMENT PRESCRIPTION VS. PREFERENCE Richard Andrade, March 2010
Public recommendations  (ACSM, 2005) <ul><li>For healthy purposes   (ACSM-AHA) </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic physical activity...
Public recommendations  (ACSM, 2010) <ul><li>Moderate intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brisk walking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Practical Implication <ul><li>Exercise prescription for weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>↓↓↓↓ </li></ul><ul><li>↑ Energy expe...
Exercise Adherence <ul><li>Musculoskeletal considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological considerations </li></ul><ul><ul...
Affect <ul><li>Circumplex Model of Affect  (Lox et al., 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Valence dimension (pleasure-displeasure) <...
Affect /  Imposed vs. Self-selected <ul><li>Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: the impact of self-se...
Affect /  Imposed vs. Self-selected <ul><li>Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: the impact of self-se...
Affect /  increasing levels of exercise intensity <ul><li>Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity i...
Affect /  increasing levels of exercise intensity <ul><li>The results support the Dual-Mode Theory </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cog...
New perspective  (Holmes et al., 2009) <ul><li>Are physical activity and  </li></ul><ul><li>diet the only two factors  </l...
References <ul><li>American College of Sports Medicine.  ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription , 7 th  e...
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Affect / Weight Management

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How affective responses to exercise may affect exercise adoption and adherence which in turn affects weight management.

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Affect / Weight Management

  1. 1. WEIGHT MANAGEMENT PRESCRIPTION VS. PREFERENCE Richard Andrade, March 2010
  2. 2. Public recommendations (ACSM, 2005) <ul><li>For healthy purposes (ACSM-AHA) </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic physical activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate intensity 30 min 5 days/week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High intensity 20 min 3 days/week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent weight gain (IOM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate intensity 60 min/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent weight regain (IASO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate intensity 60-90 min/day </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Public recommendations (ACSM, 2010) <ul><li>Moderate intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brisk walking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40% to <60% VO2R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>≥60% VO2R </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Practical Implication <ul><li>Exercise prescription for weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>↓↓↓↓ </li></ul><ul><li>↑ Energy expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>↓↓↓↓ </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise adherence???? </li></ul><ul><li>Have other factors been considered? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Exercise Adherence <ul><li>Musculoskeletal considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social physique anxiety </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Affect <ul><li>Circumplex Model of Affect (Lox et al., 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Valence dimension (pleasure-displeasure) </li></ul><ul><li>Activation dimension (low vs. high) </li></ul>FAS FS
  7. 7. Affect / Imposed vs. Self-selected <ul><li>Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: the impact of self-selected and imposed intensity on affect and exertion. (Ekkekakis & Lind, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-selected intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity ↓ aerobic-anaerobic threshold for both groups </li></ul><ul><li>No differences between groups in pleasure-displeasure </li></ul><ul><li>Imposed intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity ↑ gas exchange threshold </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight group ↓ pleasure gradually </li></ul><ul><li>↑ perception of exertion </li></ul>
  8. 8. Affect / Imposed vs. Self-selected <ul><li>Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: the impact of self-selected and imposed intensity on affect and exertion. (Ekkekakis & Lind, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Why was there a decrease in pleasure? </li></ul><ul><li>A cognitive reason? </li></ul><ul><li>↓ self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>↑ social physique anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>↓ motivation (self-determination theory) </li></ul><ul><li>↓ attitude (theory of planned behavior) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Affect / increasing levels of exercise intensity <ul><li>Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity in normal-weight, overweight, and obese middle-aged women. (Ekkekakis et al., 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Normal weight and overweight </li></ul><ul><li>↓ Pleasure ratings once the VT was exceeded </li></ul><ul><li>Obese </li></ul><ul><li>↓ Pleasure ratings during all the incremental protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Correlations of ratings of pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Negative correlation with social physique anxiety at moderate intensity </li></ul><ul><li>No correlation with self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Negative correlation with BMI at moderate intensity </li></ul>
  10. 10. Affect / increasing levels of exercise intensity <ul><li>The results support the Dual-Mode Theory </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cognitive appraisals may be become important determinants of affective responses when the intensity presents a challenge but is not yet overwhelming” </li></ul><ul><li>At moderate intensity is where most of the variance occurs in terms of affect </li></ul><ul><li>Low intensity – cognitive determinants </li></ul><ul><li>High intensity – interoceptive cues </li></ul>
  11. 11. New perspective (Holmes et al., 2009) <ul><li>Are physical activity and </li></ul><ul><li>diet the only two factors </li></ul><ul><li>to be considered for </li></ul><ul><li>combating obesity???? </li></ul><ul><li>PA -> ↑ EE -> ↓body weight </li></ul><ul><li>PA -> ↓ stress -> ↓body weight </li></ul><ul><li>PA </li></ul><ul><li>MS Stress </li></ul>
  12. 12. References <ul><li>American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription , 7 th edn. Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 2005, pp. 1-366. </li></ul><ul><li>American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription , 8 th edn. Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 2010, pp. 1-380. </li></ul><ul><li>Ekkekakis P, Lind E. Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: the impact of self-selected and imposed intensity on affect and exertion. International Journal of Obesity 2006;30: 652-660. </li></ul><ul><li>Ekkekakis P, Lind E, Vazou S. Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity in normal-weight, overweight, and obese middle-aged women. Obesity 2009;18: 79-85. </li></ul><ul><li>Holmes ME, Ekkekakis P, Eisenmann JC. The physical activity, stress and metabolic syndrome triangle: a guide to unfamiliar territory for the obesity researcher. Obesity Reviews 2009; 1-16. </li></ul><ul><li>Lox CL, Martin KA, Petruzzello SJ. The Psychology of Exercise: Integrating Theory and Practice . Holcomb Hathaway: Scottsdale, Arizona, 2003, pp 1-354. </li></ul>

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