- Assess which migration related issues are discussed and when these come about;
- Gain insight into how a given national and/or regional media landscape characteristically frames migration;
- Generate numerical values to describe topics discussed, framing and the possible overall tone or opinion expressed;
- Enable multi-national comparative perspective based on standardized methodological approach.
National and regional newspapers?Able to find and look at
National and regional newspapers?Able to find and look at
This election, immigration is particularly important.
Explain the other: wording Immigration reform (include irregular and documented, but mostly focused on irregular)Explain Dream Act, and Maryland passed it
Neutral tone: 71, largest among all countries;
UNAOC EJC migration journalism study
Data Journalism ProjectWith support by:In partnership with:
Data Journalism Migration Coverage ProjectGoals:- Assess which migration related issues are discussed and when these come about;- Gain insight into how a given national and/or regional media landscape characteristically frames migration;- Generate numerical values to describe topics discussed, framing and the possible overall tone or opinion expressed;- Enable multi-national comparative perspective based on standardized methodological approach.
During this presentation- Methodology explained- Migration topics and types- Country-by-country results- Comparative results across countries- Overall conclusions- Further research
Methodology- Time frame and source selection- Initial data collection- Data analysis • Article tone with reference to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights • Thematic coding along topic and type of migration • Migration types and topics
Migration Topics1. Culture & Religion2. Citizenship & Political Life3. Education & Leadership4. Employment & Entrepreneurship5. Housing6. Health7. Law & Policy8. Refugees Asylum9. Human Rights10. Arts, Entertainment and Sports
Covering migration in French mediaIn France the presidential election washeld on 22 April 2012 along with asecond round held on 6 May 2012.Time frame selection: 8 april 2012 to 6may 2012 focusing thereof on the firstround of the election.
Migration topics eyed during election period: French corpus making of Pick of 58 articles among over 300. We aimed to respect media diversity andpluralism:- political and cultural pluralism,- a variety of news sources,- balanced types of media (web, print, online onlysources).
Media Diversity• Web : 38• TV : 3• Radio : 0• Print media : 17 TV Web Print
Migration topics during French presidential poll
Migration types during French presidential poll
Migration topics eyed during election period: Overall position related to the UDHRFully supportive: 36% 74%In part supportive: 38%Neutral: 19%In part adversarial: 7%Fully adversarial: 0% Tone is sometime very difficult toannotate. Mainstream conformism in mainstreammedia: Difficulty to find non supportivesources besides far-right blogs.
Migration topics eyed during election period: Diversity of viewpoints? Selection bias in data when the selection is notsufficiently random to draw a general conclusion. Use of biased studies or partial studies to supporta particular point of view. Use of selective quote to express an opinion andthus appear unbiased. Also, some quotes are filtered:
Migration topics eyed during election period: Diversity of viewpoints?
Studying migrations in CanadaThe election to find a premier for the province of Quebec took placeon September 4, 2012.We looked at the coverage of migration issues a week before andthree weeks after the election in the province.
SourcesWe looked at six news organizations in our research:- Three English and three French newspapers- Found 67 articles focused on migration- All of the sources we looked at were newspapers, with online websites- Difficulty looking at other types of sources (TV websites, online only publications) because they weren‘t properly indexed
Types of articlesMore than half of the articles we found were opinion pieces(op-eds, columns and editorials). column news op-ed profile
Migration topics covered- Most of the articles in our research centered around the same issue: The Parti Quebecois‘ proposed policy of ―Quebec‖ citizenship.
Tone in English versus French media French English 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5
Article excerptsThe only openly anti-migrant sentiment that we were able to find inthe French press, was found in Le Journal.Let’s be realistic, this Islamism, this fundamentalist andconquering Islam that swallows all in its path, makes the idea of acharter of secularism popular. Only Islamism rejects local valuesto better the societies in which it implants itself. Not theBuddhists, not the Hindus, not Opus Dei.
Article excerptsBut if Pauline Marois wins, not only will there be a tidal wave of businesses heading to safe economic ground, thePQs loathing of immigrants —no religious symbols except theChristian cross to be worn by public servants, etc. — will hardly beconfused as a welcome mat. Fascist is difficult to misconstrue. –Toronto SunIn the name of creating a supposedly secular state, the PartiQuébécois has pursued hostile policies, proposing a ban on non-Christian religious symbols from public institutions and two-tiercitizenship based on ability to speak French – a position thatsoftened under harsh criticism. – Globe and Mail
Media and Migration: Results from GermanyFederal Republic of Germany: 16 federal statesPopulation: 81,8 millionMigrants: 10,7 million from 194 countries
Research Object: Elections in NRWNRW Elections: 13 May 2012Sample period: 30 April – 27 May 2012North Rhine-Westfalia: Germany‘s most populated statePopulation: 17.841.956Citizens of foreign origin: 1.908.121 (10,7%)
Prior Research in Germany1971 Delgado: Little everyday life, focus on sensationalism(e.g., crimes, illegality).1987 Ruhmann and Kollmer: National coverage: 2/3 articles about crime.Local coverage: more positive information about migrants(e.g., festivals, celebrations).2009 Gräf: Thuringian press 1995-2005. Tendencies: in 2005 less emphasison crime than in 1995, but more on terrorism. Politically relevant topics.2012 Eckardt: Generally more positive coverage in 2009 comparing to 1999.Still more negative than positive articles about Muslims.
Research SourcesTitle Type/Periodicity Average number of sold copies (per issue) National/Weekly 960.000 copies National/Daily 354.000 copies National/Daily 245.000 copies (Die Welt + Welt Kompakt) National/Daily 436.000 copies Local/Daily 700.000 copies (Neue Ruhr Zeitung/Neue Rhein Zeitung, Westfälische Rundschau, Westfalenpost) Local/Daily 320.000 copies (Kölner Stadtanzeiger + Kölnische Rundschau )
Research Sources• Online and print versions of newspapers and magazines.• The electronic archive of the Deutsche Welle was used for print media.• Articles were selected if they: - contained more than one word from the UNAOC glossary; - showed strong relevance to the topic; - covered the situation in Germany, not abroad.
Search PrincipleAsylum-seekers Asyl* Exil*Diaspora Diaspora • The definitions from the UNAOCDocumented/ Migra*regular migrant Aufenthalts* glossary were translated into the Aussiedl*Irregular migrant German language. More than one *Ausländ*, *Fremd* variant of translation was possible inEconomic migrant Zuwander* Nomad* some cases.Skilled migrant Einwander* Auswander*Internally displaced Heimatlos*, Vertrieben*, Vertreibperson *, Verschlepp* • An asterisk (*) was used to find wordsMinority Minderheit* with a variety of different endings andRefugee Flüchtling* derivatives. However, the websites ofTemporary Gastarbeit* , Wanderarbeit*migrant worker Saisonarbeit* some newspapers do not support this function (e.g.,http://www.ksta.de/).Naturalized citizen with Einbürg* Eingebürg*migration background National* Integrat* Assimil*
Examples of Coverage18-year-old Arzu Özmen from Detmold (NRW, Germany) was found dead in January 2012.She was kidnapped and killed by her siblings because of the relationship with a 23-year-old German boyfriend. The family, originally from the Kurdish region in eastern Turkey,could not accept that Arzu was with a man from outside the community. 02.05.2012 „Tödliche Familienbande― („Fatal family bonds‖). The family‗s last 3. neutralname is not mentioned, details of the story are neutrally reported. 21.05.2012 „Der ehrlose Vater― („The dishonored father‖). Negative attitude to 4. in part supportive of UDHRthe murder, background information on honour killings from the perspective of the German law. 11.05.2012 „Auf der Flucht vor der eigenen Familie― („Running away from 5. fully supportivetheir own family‖). Comparison of Arzu‗s story to a Lebanese-German couple who have to hide of UDHRthemselves in fear of the girl‗s family. 16.05.2012 „Ein kurzes deutsches Leben― („A short German life‖). Feature- 4. in part supportivestyle reporting (focus on details, use of adjecties, description of the atmosphere), reporting from the of UDHRcourt.
Media Coverage of Migration in The Netherlands• National elections: 12th of September 2012• Sample period: 29th of August – 26th of September 2012
Dutch Media Diversity: used sources Sources 0 Trouw52 articles from:- 5 national 11 10 Telegraaf newspapers Volkskrant- 1 national 3 4 NRC Handelsblad magazine 4 Algemeen Dagblad- 1 news 3 Elsevier website 17 NU.nl
Migration Topics eyed during the Election Period Arts, Entertainment and Sports 0 Human Rights 7 Refugees Asylum 9 Law & Policy 42 Health 6 Housing 9 Employment & Entrepreneurship 11 Education & Leadership 2 Citizenship & Political Life 11 Culture & Religion 6 0 10 20 30 40 50
Migration Types in Election Time naturalized citizen with migration background 5temporary migrant worker (itinerant worker, seasonal worker) 2 skilled migrant 0 refugee 13 minority (only if explicitly named as such) 0 irregular migrant (illegal, irregular, undocumented alien) 20 internally displaced person (IDP) 2 economic migrant (labor migrant) 12 documented/regular migrant (alien, foreigner, non-national) 28 diaspora 0 asylum-seekers 19
News report tone, related to the UDHR Tone in part adversarial to UDHR neutral 11% in part supportive of UDHR 27% 62%
Example 1: Adversial to UDHR‘’Burgermeester Broertjes van de tv-stad, volstrekt onervaren in hetopenbaar bestuur, wordt geconfronteerd in het uitgaanscentrum van zijngemeente met zwaar fysiek geweld van allochtoon tuig tegen onschuldigeburgers’’‗Heavy violence from ‗foreign scum against ‗innocent citizens‘.Source: De Telegraaf (Daily Telegraph), the news report fits in their politicalview.Presented as a normal news fact, written as a blog.
Example 2: Supportive of UDHR‘Marokkaanse Nederlanders moeten woensdag naar de stembus gaan om de‘wraakideologie’ van de PVV uit de regering te houden. Die oproep doet dedirecteur van het Samerwerkingsverband Marokkaanse Nederlanders’- Moroccan Dutch people (Dutch people with a Moroccan background)- They must give their vote to prevent the ‗revenge ideology‘ by the PVVtaking them from participation in the government.- Only one side: The CEO of the Dutch - Moroccan Cooperation Association.Source: Elsevier, a national liberal opinion magazineA one-sided article, fully focused in both subject and in language use topromote tolerance of Dutch Moroccans. However it remains implicit.
Example 3: Paradoxal picture‘Opeens is het stil rond de allochtonen. Integratie- en islamdebat doorde economische crisis van tafel geveegd’Article referring to immigrants with ‗irregular ***-Moroccans, streetterrorists and ‗headscarves‘BUT: also it emphasizes the longing of migrants for an open and fairdiscussion about the essence of their problems.The news article slowly moves from negative to positive, reaching awider audience.
Evaluation I• During the election period of 2012, migration was no issue, probably because of political framing. The previous election period, only two years earlier, showed the opposite picture. The media seem to follow the ‗mood of the moment‘.• In Dutch civil society the migration topic has been an important issue during the last ten years, causing a lot of tensions in society as well as in politics. The background is the decreasing of mutual trust in society. The media seem to show a limited picture of reality.• With regard to migration, the media produced only a few news reports of their own during the 2012 election period. Press agencies provided for the majority of the news reports. For this reason the news reports were in general neutral.
Evaluation II• The media showed little diversity regarding the quoted or interviewed organizations. Also the number of research based news reports were very limited.• According to a journalism trends study report published in 2011, key themes that will give extra value to quality journalism in the future are relevance, analysis, reliability and legitimation. If we consider our media coverage research as a representative case study, Dutch journalism deserves some quality improvement.
Data Collection• Election held on Nov. 6, 2012• Analysis time frame: Oct.23 – Nov.20• Chose three national and three regional newspapers
Data Collection• National newspapers: New York Times (50), Washington Post (76), USA Today (34)• Regional Newspapers: LA Times (79), Chicago Tribune (37), Dallas Morning News (59)• 335 articles total
ContextMigration in the U.S.• 12 percent of US population is foreign-born; about 17 percent of the US population is Latino• Migration issues are mentioned mostly as ―immigration‖• ―Immigration reform‖ is a hot-button political issue
Observations- Mainstream media (in the 5 countries) make a conscious effort to cover migration largely in compliance with the UDHR;- Comparison shows that migration is framed through a national lens;- The perception of migrants is dominated by a focus on identity issues.
Future research- Further development of methodology;- Better representation of migration movements;- Representation of the countries of origin;- Research into cross-cultural similarities of countries.
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies
Common Trends Migration in the Media is a:• Political phenomena• Context specific• Often emotive• Generally negative (especially at National level)• Overall position related to the UDHR: quite supportive• Focus of Newspaper coverage: Mainly Law & Policy (criminalisation of migration) and Culture & Religion (Islamophobia)
What is in a name? The challenge of the terminologyIn the eyes of much of the public the terms‘refugee‘, ‗asylum seeker‘ and ‗illegal migrant‘ havebecome largely interchangeable. This is far from thetruth (and far from helpful) but it is true thatunderstanding such a complex issue can be aheadache.
Terminology ― (…) there‘s a constituency advocating for the language on migration in the media to change.‖ ―(…) This is new, they have been ‗the other.‘ they haven’t had a voice.‖ ―(…) I‘m acutely aware of this issue, and my purpose is to tell stories in a way that everyone can hear them‖** Julia Preston, New York Times Reporter
UN General Assembly Resolution (1975)―Requests the United Nations organs and the specializedagencies concerned to utilize in all official documents theterm non-documented or irregular migrant workers todefine those workers that illegally and/or surreptitiously enteranother country to obtain work‖ (para. 3449, 2)
Conclusions• The media can change perceptions of migrants;• There is a need to focus on the human story rather than faceless statistics and look for more positive content;• Terminology is important; we need to get it right. Journalists need a working knowledge of the topic, (i.e. media- friendly glossary on appropriate and clear terminology);• Involving migrants in migration coverage;• Media actions, including encouraging timely publication of accurate data and use of data;• Linking government and civil society actions (i.e. formal and informal inks between journalists, migrants and other partners).
Institut National de l‘AudiovisuelDr. Marie-Luce Viaud — Research Team Leader at the InstitutNational de l‘AudiovisuelLucien Castex — Research Associate at the Institut National del‘Audiovisuel
Deutsche Welle AkademieProf. Dr. Christoph Schmidt — Head of the International MediaStudies Programme at the Deutsche Welle AkademieKatsiaryna Kryzhanouskaya — Junior Researcher at theDeutsche Welle AkademieTilman Wagner — Master Student at the Deutsche WelleAkademieNatalia Lazareva — Master Student at the Deutsche WelleAkademie
The University of King‘s CollegeFred Vallance-Jones — Award-winning data journalist, author andassistant professor at the University of King‘s College inHalifax, Nova Scotia, CanadaBarrett Limoges — Fourth year student in the Bachelor ofJournalism programme at King‘sMelissa Mancini — Master of Investigative Journalism student atKing‘s
Christelijke Hogeschool EdeDrs. Ton Veen — International Course Coordinator at theChristelijke Hogeschool EdeHuub Floor — Journalism Student at the Christelijke HogeschoolEdeFrank van Wijhe — Journalism student at the ChristelijkeHogeschool Ede
University of MissouriFritz Cropp — Associate Professor and Director of InternationalPrograms at the University of MissouriMaoling Xiong — University of MissouriFedor Zarkhin — Journalism Grad Student at the University ofMissouri
UNAOC and IFRCAnne Grobet — Migration and Integration Programme Manager atthe United Nations Alliance of CivilizationsStéphanie Durand — Strategic Media Partnerships Manager at theUnited Nations Alliance of CivilizationsSue Le Mesurier — Senior Policy Officer, Migration, at theInternational Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
EJCMartine Rouweler — Reseacher at the European Journalism CentreIvan Picart — System Administrator / Web-developer at theEuropean Journalism CentreEric Karstens — Business Developer and Research Coordinator atthe European Journalism CentreArne Grauls — Web Project Manager at the European JournalismCentreLiliana Bounegru — Project Manager on Data Journalism, Editor ofDataDrivenJournalism.net at the European Journalism Centre