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A survey of Wireless Sensor Network technologies:
research trends and middleware’s role

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  • paper presentation _ survey of wireless sensor netwrok

    1. 1. A survey of Wireless Sensor Network technologies: research trends and middleware’s role EunJoung Byun Eiko Yoneki, Jean Bacon
    2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide a new paradigm for sensing and disseminating information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smart WSN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of sensors spread across a geographical area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each sensor has wireless communication capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sufficient intelligence for signal processing networking of the data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MAIN Goal of the paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>report recent trends in wireless sensor network research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overview of the various categories of WSN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a survey of WSN technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discussion of existing research prototypes and industry applications. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Contents Contents Introduction Ⅰ Ⅱ Wireless Sensor Network Ⅲ Middleware Technologies Ⅳ Conclusions
    4. 4. I. Introduction <ul><li>Common to many areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structural engineering, agriculture and forestry, healthcare, logistics and transportation, and military applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure various physical phenomena </li></ul><ul><ul><li>temperature, fluid levels, vibration, strain, humidity, acidity, pumps, generators to manufacturing lines, aviation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wired sensor networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have long been used to support such environments recently. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless sensors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have been used only when a wired infrastructure is infeasible, such as in remote and hostile locations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dramatic reduction in the cost of this wireless sensor technology has made its widespread deployment feasible </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. II. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS <ul><li>WSN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a collection of millimeter-scale, self-contained, micro-electro-mechanical devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ttiny devices have sensors, computational processing ability (i.e.CPU power), wireless receiver and transmitter technology and a power supply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical WSNs communicate directly with a centralized controller or a satellite, thus communication between the sensor and controllers is based on a single hop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WSNs are intelligent compared with traditional sensors </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. II. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS <ul><li>WSNs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intelligent compared with traditional sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some WSNs are designed to use inetwork processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sensed data can be gathered in situ and transformed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>abstract and aggregated high-level data before transmission. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WSNs differ from MANETs in many fundamental ways </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. III. APPLICATION DESIGN PRINCIPLES <ul><li>Potential Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster/Crime Prevention and Military Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design Aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deployment, Mobility, Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Topology, Density and Network Size, Connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime, Node Addressability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Aggregation, Query Ability and Propagation, Data Dissemination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-Time, Reliability, Self Configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. III. APPLICATION DESIGN PRINCIPLES <ul><li>Operational Paradigms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single hop to Sink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi hop to Sink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On Demand Operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Aggregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reacting Process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggregation, Filtering </li></ul><ul><li>and Correlation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Event correlation is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deployed sometimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as a part of applications, </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. IV . MIDDLEWARE TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Cougar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cougar [61,229, 32] is an architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>treats a sensor network as a distributed database </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large number of sensor nodes are connected through a multi-hop wireless network and each node keeps sensor data. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A query optimiser is located on the gateway node to generate distributed query processing plans after receiving queries from outside. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression in Cougar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it is proposed to divide the model of the sensor data into a user expression and an internal expression. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First, the user expression is a query, and an Abstract Data Type (ADT) is defined for the sensor, and it proposes the query language of the syntax similar to SQL. For instance, query processing for a monitor can be described as follows. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 1 Data Driven Approach <ul><li>SINA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SINA (Sensor Information Networking Architecture) [194, 209] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>middleware architecture that abstracts the network of a sensor node as a distributed object for query </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The following primitive operations aim to achieve effective information aggregation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self orchestrated operation: An intentional operation delay for the response implosion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diffused computation operation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. 1 Data Driven Approach <ul><ul><li>SINA aims to achieve scalability and low power consumption in sensor networks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SINA consists of the following function components. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical clustering: The sensor nodes contain the function to build the hierarchical cluster structure dynamically. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attribute based Name management: The sensor node is managed by the name based on the attribute but note ID. For instance, [type = temperature, location = NE, temperature = 103] means all the sensors indicating 103 degrees in the northeast division. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position management: The position of the sensor node is measured, and managed by GPS etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 1 Data Driven Approach <ul><li>TinyDB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TinyDB [145, 94, 223, 73, 146] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enquiry processing system for sensor networks that operates on TinyOS. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>concept of query processing (acquisitional query processing(ACQP)) is introduced. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In ACQP of TinyDB, the SQL is enhanced for query processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this query is converted to internal code, and executed for data retrieval and aggregation. For instance, the description that looks like the following SQL is used. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. 1 Data Driven Approach <ul><li>DFuse: A Framework for Distributed Data Fusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Framework for data fusion application development on decentralized distributed sensor networks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusion API </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The fusion API offers programming ease for a complex sensor fusion application. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A distributed algorithm for fusion function placement and dynamic relocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>combinatorial large number of options for placing the fusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>finding an optimal placement that minimizes communication is difficult. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. 1 Data Driven Approach <ul><li>TinyLIME </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linda: Linda enables two or more systems to share a tuple space using reading (rd), writing (out) and deleting (in). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LIME: A coordinated tuple space is formed from the partitioned tuple spaces that each distributed system maintains. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 2 Event Based Approach <ul><li>Event Based Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time triggered approach is expensive in the case where the expected rate of primitive event occurrence is low. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Event-driven communication is an asynchronous paradigm that decouples senders and receivers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The publish/subscribe paradigm has become popular, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>asynchronous and multipoint communication is well suited for constructing reactive distributed computing applications. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 2 Event Based Approach <ul><li>DSWare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Service Middleware (DSWare) [136] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>middleware which takes a data-centric approach by defining the common data service and group based service parts of various applications. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSWare performs routing in real-time taking power consumption into account. DSWare consists of six function components </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. 6.2 Event Based Approach <ul><li>DSWare: six function components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DataStorage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSWare aims to distribute on specific sensor nodes or aggregated the data for load balancing and to improve reliability. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Caching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Data Caching Service provides multiple copies of the data most requested. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Group Management component uses cooperation between group members to achieve reliability of sensor information and detection and exclusion of abnormal sensor nodes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Event Detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An observation is the low level output of a sensing device during a sensing interval. It is a measurement of the environment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Subscription: As a type of data dissemination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>service, Data Subscription queries are very common in sensor networks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Scheduling component schedules other components. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. 2 Event Based Approach <ul><li>Impala </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impala [141, 140] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has been built as part of the ZebraNet, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sensing nodes are placed on free ranging wildlife to perform long-term migration studies on a collection of animals in an ecosystem. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. 2 Event Based Approach <ul><li>EnviroTrack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EnviroTrack [1] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the first programming support for sensor networks that explicitly supports tracking mobile objects. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EnviroTrack is a middleware layer that exports a new address space in the sensor network </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. 4 Internet Oriented Approach <ul><li>Web based query management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A WSN is assumed with a 3-level regional hierarchy and the entire network employs 3-level hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>areas, clusters, and sensor nodes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. V. Conclusion <ul><li>Middleware has been a key technology in supporting distributed systems by providing common communication mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The algorithms and protocols must be designed to provide a robust and energy efficient communication mechanism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>application/middleware layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>processes aim to create effective new capabilities for efficient extraction, manipulation, transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Their applications and potential benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are wide-ranging and could ultimately break the barrier between the physical and digital worlds. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Thank You !