It was a crucial deal which allowed the Canadian and Maritime colonies access for their fish, lumber coal and grant the lucrative American market. Reciprocity brought prosperity, but made the colonies increasingly dependent upon the US
- Ha ha! The American’s cried! The British colonies to the north will have no choice
The Senate would be represented not by population but by region.
#1 lead up to confederation
Causes Leading toConfederation
Refresher: Union ActRemember the Union - English would be theAct of 1841? only official language of government.- Upper and LowerCanada were unitedunder one government.- Equal representationin the Assembly.- Upper Canada’s debtwas pooled with LowerCanada’s much smallerone.
Corn Laws & Reciprocity- Corn Laws were in - The colonies of Britishplace to ensure that North AmericaBritish land owners panicked.reaped all the financialprofits from farming. - To make up for theThe Corn Laws (which lost imperial revenueimposed steep import the colonies made aduties) made it too Treaty of Reciprocity.expensive for anyone - This opened “freeto import grain. trade” with the United- In 1846 Britain States. A lucrativerepealed the Corn market.Laws.
The U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 - The slave owning - And they did! Britain confederates to the relied on the cotton south attempted to grown in the southern cede from the Union. United States. The free states of the North were fighting them into submission. - The North believed Britain sympathized with the Confederates (the south).
Rocky Relationships- The Reciprocity Americans: “You wantTreaty was due to be free-trade? Fine. Joinrenewed in 1865. the American Union.- The Americans to the - Ironically, this led toNorth were British colonies to openunimpressed by Britain up talks to create aand refused to renew union of their own.the Treaty ofReciprocity. - This would allow them to have cross-colonial access to all their resources.
Manifest Destiny- The colonies had - This threat addedgood reasons to be even more fuel to thewary of the Americans. fire of a unification of the British NorthManifest Destiny: Was American colonies.the American beliefthat it was their destinyto control the entireNorth Americancontinent.
ChooChoo Choosing Confederation- The railwayrevolutionized the very - The railway was whatconcept of time and made confederationdistance in Canada. possible.- It united the colonies - The construction ofand expanded the the railway also servedcolonies. as transport from the Maritimes to the- Finally the colonies interior if deployment ofwere no longer isolated troops was everfrom each other. needed to fend off American annexation.
The Push for Confederacy- The Province of - Frustration with theCanada was frustrated present system wasby the political running high.deadlock caused bythe Union Act. - By 1851 the two leading - With equal seats reformers, Louisawarded to both sides LaFontaine& Robertanyone wishing to hold Baldwin had retiredpower needed a tired of the radicalismmajority the included taking place.French-Canadianvoters.
The Province of Canada: Politically PolarizedConservatives: Reformers:- In Canada West there - Canada West: Georgewas John A. Macdonald’s Brown’s Reform Party.“Liberal Conservative” (consisted of farmers whoParty. called themselves: “Clear Grits”).- In CanadaEast, George-Etienne - Canada East: Antione-Cartier’s Parti Bleu AimeDorions radical parti(aligned with the rouge.Church, pro-British, anti-American). (These parties later came together to form the Liberal Party of Canada).
Rep by pop!- Canada’s population - George Brownwas soaring. stressed representation by1861 census: 1.6 population to end whatmillion in Canada he called “FrenchWest. 1.1 million in Catholic domination”Canada East. - Canada East refused- Yet parliament was to accept “Rep by pop!”still divided on 50-50split seats.
George did what?!- On June 24th, 1864 Brown had threeGeorge Brown rose in the conditions:Assembly and offered tocross the floor. Gasp! 1. That the coalition work towards creating a united- He ended the deadlock federation of ALL Britishby joining his arch North America.nemesis John A.Macdonald. 2. The representation by population be implemented 3. That the future federation expand west as far s the pacific. “The Americans are encroaching” Brown warned.
Cozy Canadian Coalition- The coalition - The Parti Rouge wereinvolved. Macdonalds left out.English- CanadianConservatives. - This “Great Coalition of 1864” was the- Cartiers French driving force behindCanadian confederation.Conservatives.- And George Brown’sEnglish-CanadianReformers.
Why not make a Maritime Union?- The Maritime colonies - The Canadian werewere just as worried worried they would loseabout the American threat the Maritimes and hastilyand the end of reciprocity. set up a proposal to meet at Charlottetown P.E.I. onThe move was lead by September 1864 to talk itthe three premiers: over.Charles Tupper: NovaScotiaLeonard Tilley: NewBrunswickJohn Hamilton Gray:P.E.I.
The Charlottetown ConferenceSeptember 1864: John - Alexander Galt: TheA. Macdonald, George Canadian Minister ofEtienne Cartier, and Finance presented anGeorge Brown had a economic overview ofconference with the the proposed union.Maritimes presentingthe overriding - Thomas D’arcyargument in favor of McGee: An Irish poetconfederation. turned politician presented the“Confederation was emotional appeal. Afloated through on “glory argument” thatchampagne” – Donald spoke of a “newSwainson nationality”.
The Quebec Conference: 72 Resolutions- The Maritimes were Which led to…won over inCharlottetown andagreed to meet againin Quebec City.- October of 1864 thedelegates met atQuebec city and theCanadians presented“72 Resolutions” whichoutlined the specifics ofa possible union.
The federal systemFederalism: Having orrelating to a system of - The Canadiansgovernment in which agreed uponseveral states form a federalism as their newunity but remain system of government.independent ininternational affairs. - The model was a mix between British andUnitary: A system of American systems. Agovernment or federation with noorganization in which president.the powers of theseparate constituentparts are vested in acentral body. Ie: France
Two levels of government- Provincial - Federal government:government: currency and bankingeducation, roads, medi (printingcine, municipalities, pro money), defense, navigperty rights. Civil ation, shipping, Nativelaw, justice, and natural affairs, marriage andresources. divorce, criminal law, the seacoast, and inland fisheries.
The structure of the federal government The Senate: The House of Commons: Canada’s Upper House, would be Canada’s Lower appointed (that is, it House, would be would be non- elected (that is, it democratic and would would have to answer never have to answer to Canadian voters-at to Canadian voters). least at election time).
Reaction and Resistance - Newfoundland and PEI said no.- The QuebecConference laid out the - The Province ofterms of Canada said yes.Confederation. Thedelegates had to take - Among Frenchthe deal back to their Canadians supportrespective parliament. was split with a small majority voting for confederation: 27 were for it, 21 were opposed.
The British North America Act.On March The original four, the29, 1867, Queen “charter members ofVictoria signed the confederation” were asBritish North America follows:Act, and on July 1, itcame into effect. - Nova Scotia- A new nation was - New Brunswickborn: Canada. - Quebec- 3.5 million - Ontariopeople, and fourprovinces.
“Oh! .?.?.?! We stand on guard for thee!Britannica NorlandAquilonia SuperiorBorealia TuponiaColonia TransatlantiaHochelaga VictorialandLaurentia UrsuliaNorland Vesperia Efisga
Confederation: TheCreation of Canadahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hph52hbhYZQ1. Who was left out of the decision making process regarding Canadian confederation?2. Name the catalysts that lead to confederacy.3. How did the English speaking majority envision the new Canada?