Construction of roads presentations


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Construction of roads presentations

  1. 1. Group Members Muhammad Ijaz Asif Aziz Shahbaz Ahmed 12-CE-24 12-CE-48 12-CE-132
  2. 2. Contents Introduction Classification of Roads Materials Used In Road Construction Machinery Used In Road Construction Maintenance And Rehabilitation
  3. 3. Introduction  A line of communication (travelled way) using a stabilized base open to public traffic, primarily for the use of road motor vehicles including "bridges, tunnels, supporting structures junctions, crossings and toll roads.  A 1984 ruling said "the land over which a public right of way exists is known as a highway.  Ways that allow the movement of motor-vehicles, and the term rights of ways can be used to cover the wider usage.
  4. 4. Classification Of Roads National Highways Important roads &connect state capitals, ports and foreign highways. They also include roads of military importance. They are financed by the central government. State Highways Connect important cities and district head quarters in the state, national highways & state highways of neighbouring states. Financed by state government roads and buildings department.
  5. 5. District Roads These are the roads within a district. i) Major District Roads ii) Minor District Roads  Village Roads They connect villages with each other and to the nearest district road.
  6. 6. Road Structure  Road Structure Depends Upon the key What is it for!  There are two main types of pavement (road structure)  i) Flexible Roads ii) Rigid Roads Flexible Carriageway Construction When a road is built, the surface is dug-out down to the designed depth of the intended road. The sub-grade is the ground below the road layers which is exposed once the ground has been dug out ready to build the road.
  7. 7. -------------------------------------Surface Course -------------------------------------Binder Course -------------------------------------Base -------------------------------------Sub - Base -------------------------------------Capping ---------------Sub – Grade
  8. 8. Rigid Road Construction:  Rigid pavement is the technical term for any road surface made of concrete.  The largest advantages to using concrete pavement are in its durability and ability to hold a shape.  A surface layer, made up of slabs of Portland cement concrete (PCC), sits on top of a handful of sub-layers.  The layer directly under the PCC is more flexible than the concrete, but still quite rigid.
  9. 9. Materials Used In Road Construction  1.Asphalt Asphalt also known as bitumen is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.  Asphalt is used in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete.  It is use to prepare asphalt emulsion, Hot mix asphalt concrete, cold mix asphalt concrete.
  10. 10. Aggregates  1.Granite aggregates are crushed hard rock of granular structure, being the most common on Earth.  Fractions of Aggregates  0-5mm the smallest granite aggregates fractions are used, besides the road construction, for decoration and paving paths, for covering sports grounds.  5-10mm fraction, is used for road construction and production of concrete.  10-40mm a road sub base also used for road maintenance operations.
  11. 11.  2.Gravel aggregates are aggregates acquired as the result of sifting quarried rock and by crushing natural stone rock.  3. Limestone aggregates are a product of the crushing of sedimentary rock - limestone, which is composed mainly of calcite (calcium carbonate ).  4.Slag Aggregates are obtained by crushing of smelter slag or by special treatment of fire-liquid slag melt (molten slag aggregates).
  12. 12. Machinery used in Road Construction Machinery used in road constructions are used for rough grading, fine grading, surfacing, paving, compaction and to control moisture level. AIR-TRACK DRILL A drilling machine for quarry or opencast blasting equipped with tracks and operated by independent air motors.
  14. 14. CHIP SPREADER  A chip spreader lays down the aggregate on top of a bituminous binder which is then rolled by a compactor.
  15. 15. COLD PLANERS  A cold planer (also known as a pavement planer, pavement recycler, mill or asphalt milling machine) is a machine used to remove bituminous pavement or asphalt concrete from roadways.
  16. 16. Compactors  Used for compactions
  17. 17. Vibratory Steel Drum compactor  Vibratory roller compactor is used to compact soil, gravel, concrete, or asphalt in the construction of roads and foundations.
  18. 18. Pneumatic tired roller  Pneumatic tire compactors are used on small to medium size compaction jobs, bladed, granular base materials. primarily on
  19. 19. Padded Drum Compactor  Padded drum compactors are usually applied to compact soil, gravel, concrete, or asphalt in the construction of roads and foundations.
  20. 20. OIL DISTRIBUTORS  Asphalt distributors are used to apply prime or tack coats on a surface in preparation for paving.
  21. 21. PAVER  A paver is a machine used to lay asphalt on roadways. It is normally fed by a dump truck which brings hot asphalt.
  22. 22. Maintenance and Rehabilitation  Roads are exposed to tremendous loads that will sooner or later leave their marks on them. A time will come when every road will be in need of a general overhaul. Following methods are used.  Replacing the Pavement By removing only those layers of a road structure that are actually damaged.  Additional conditions frequently stipulate that the flow of traffic must be maintained in spite of extensive reconstruction measures.
  23. 23. Replacing the Pavement
  24. 24. Paving thin Layer Hot  Paving thin layers in hot application is a viable option for rehabilitating of Limited damaged roads.  At first surface deformations are removed by cold milling machines fitted with fine milling drums to create an even, slightly roughened road surface.  When using a paver with integrated spray module, the paver seals the base by spraying a tack coat of polymermodified bitumen emulsion with a minimum bitumen content of 60% .
  25. 25. Paving thin layers Cold  Fast and economically efficient alternative to replacing the entire road pavement.  Traffic safety is hazarded when the road surface gets slippery, when wheel ruts have dug into the pavement, or when the road is covered with bumps and deformations.  Cold milling machines fitted with fine milling drums prepare the road surface for application of the thin, cold pavement layer.
  26. 26.  It works at a maximum milling depth of 50 mm, reprofiling the pavement by means of modern levelling technology to produce a level surface. The slightly roughened surface texture produced by fine milling offers.