Mitochondria Using an ancient genome to derive theevolutionary relatedness among species.
What are they?     The powerhouses of the cellAlso involved in intracellular signalling, cell differentiation, cell death,...
Inheritance of MitochondriaIn most multicellular organisms, mtDNA is inherited from themother (maternally inherited).Mecha...
Evidence of an ancient origin?Exceptions to the universal genetic code (UGC) in mitochondria  Organism          Codon     ...
REs are sequence-specific nucleases
Methods Overview•   Collect samples•   Isolate mtDNA•   PCR amplify control region•   Statistical analyses
Sample Collection
mtDNA Control Region1. Largest non-coding region of   the mt-genome2. Concentrated area of   polymorphism3. Contains Origi...
ConclusionHawaiian green turtles are genetically isolatedfrom the rest of the Pacific; e.g. they are one           discret...
Mitochondrial genetics and management
Mitochondrial genetics and management
Mitochondrial genetics and management
Mitochondrial genetics and management
Mitochondrial genetics and management
Mitochondrial genetics and management
Mitochondrial genetics and management
Mitochondrial genetics and management
Mitochondrial genetics and management
Mitochondrial genetics and management
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Mitochondrial genetics and management

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PowerPoint for BI 520-01
Spring 2013

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Mitochondrial genetics and management

  1. 1. Mitochondria Using an ancient genome to derive theevolutionary relatedness among species.
  2. 2. What are they? The powerhouses of the cellAlso involved in intracellular signalling, cell differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth
  3. 3. Inheritance of MitochondriaIn most multicellular organisms, mtDNA is inherited from themother (maternally inherited).Mechanisms for this include: simple dilution (an egg contains 100,000 to 1,000,000 mtDNA molecules, whereas a sperm contains only 100 to 1000); degradation of sperm mtDNA in the fertilized egg; and failure of sperm mtDNA to enter the egg.
  4. 4. Evidence of an ancient origin?Exceptions to the universal genetic code (UGC) in mitochondria Organism Codon Standard Mitochondria Mammals AGA, AGG Arginine Stop codonInvertebrates AGA, AGG Arginine Serine Fungi CUA Leucine Threonine All of the AUA Isoleucine Methionine above UGA Stop codon Tryptophan
  5. 5. REs are sequence-specific nucleases
  6. 6. Methods Overview• Collect samples• Isolate mtDNA• PCR amplify control region• Statistical analyses
  7. 7. Sample Collection
  8. 8. mtDNA Control Region1. Largest non-coding region of the mt-genome2. Concentrated area of polymorphism3. Contains Origin of Replication and Origin of Transcription
  9. 9. ConclusionHawaiian green turtles are genetically isolatedfrom the rest of the Pacific; e.g. they are one discrete genetic stock

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