Philosophy - Middle Ages

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Philosophy - Middle Ages

  1. 1. Middle Ages Christian Church Banned A.D. 313 – Accepted Religion – Roman Empire Why? Emperor Constantine In 380 - Christianity became a Official Religion
  2. 2. Middle Ages Thousand year of germination and growth  School System  Cathedral Schools  In year 1200 – First University
  3. 3. Middle Ages In1000 years – People believed that Christianity was true. “Was there a contradiction between the Bible and reason or were the belief and knowledge compatible?”
  4. 4. Middle Ages St. Augustine of Hippo  354 to 430  Was born in the little town of Thagaste in North Africa  He went to Carthage to study  He was a Manichean  He was influenced by Stoic Philosophy
  5. 5. Middle Ages  “Absence of God is Evil”  Evil comes from man’s disobedience St. Augustine divides people into two groups in his work City of God.  A struggle between the Kingdom of God and Kingdom of the World  They struggle for mastery inside every single person
  6. 6. Middle Ages St. Thomas Aquinas  1225 to 1274  From the little town of Aquino  Worked as a teacher at the University of Paris  Used Aristotelian Philosophy combined with theological principles  Man’s need should be satisfied by the state  Man’s self sufficiency and satisfaction can be acquired at the end of his life  Responsibilities of the State are only subordinates of the responsibilities of the church
  7. 7. Middle Ages St.Thomas of Aquinas made the Summa Theologica.  Complete scientific exposition of theology and the summary of Christian philosophy.
  8. 8. Renaissance Humanism – new view of mankind Throughout the whole medieval period, the point of departure had always been God. Characterized as individualism  We are unique individuals  Renaissance man – a man of universal genius.
  9. 9. Renaissance Man did not exist purely for God’s sake. Man could therefore delight in life here and now. Reawakened
  10. 10. Renaissance  “Rebirth”  Arts  Science  Economics  Humanism
  11. 11. Italian Renaissance Vs.Northern Renaissance Northern: strongly influenced by church Italy: less influenced by church Northern: focused on bible, church Italy: focused on classics
  12. 12. Italian Renaissance Vs.Northern Renaissance
  13. 13. Renaissance Arts Mona Lisa Madonna and Child Statue of David Creation of Man
  14. 14. Renaissance Science & Technology  Compass  Portable Firearms  Printing Press  Telescope  Empirical Method
  15. 15. Renaissance Economics  Transitionfrom subsistence economy to monetary economy  Lively commerce and goods  Banking  Cities grew and prospered during the Renaissance and rulers learned to tax the people.
  16. 16. Renaissance Figures Francis Bacon  Used empirical method  The view that experience, especially of the senses, is the only source of knowledge.  “Knowledge is power”  allknowledge of matters of fact derives from experience and that the mind is not furnished with a set of concepts in advance of experience
  17. 17. Renaissance Figures Galileo Galilei – One of the greatest natural philosophers/ scientist in the history of empirical and mathematical science  First concepted the law of inertia  A body will preserve its velocity and direction so long as no force in its motions direction acts on it.  Inertia: an object in a state of motion possesses an ``inertia that causes it to remain in that state of motion
  18. 18. Renaissance Figures Galileo Galilee  invented the thermometer  he was the first to use the telescope to study the heavens systematically  He also promulgated the theory that Earth and other planets in our solar system revolve around the Sun.
  19. 19. Renaissance Figures Isaac Newton  Provided the final description of the solar system and planetary orbits.  Formulated the Law of Universal Gravitation  Thereis a gravitational force acting between any two objects in the universe. There is a gravitational force between you and Earth
  20. 20. Renaissance Figures Isaac Newton  Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope  He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound  Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus.  He also demonstrated the generalized binomial theorem.
  21. 21. Renaissance Figures Leonardo Da Vinci  archetype of the "Renaissance man", a man whose seemingly infinite curiosity was equaled only by his powers of invention.  He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived.
  22. 22. Renaissance Figures Leonardo Da Vinci  He conceptualized  helicopter  tank  concentrated solar power  calculator  double hull
  23. 23. Renaissance Figures Leonardo Da Vinci’s Paintings/Works The Last Supper Vitruvian Man Mona Lisa
  24. 24. Reformation The Renaissance resulted in a new religiosity. The individual’s personal relationship to God was now more important than his relationship to the church as an organization. Reformation – Changing or protesting the structure of the Roman Catholic Church
  25. 25. Reformation Martin Luther – Led the reformation  Made the 95 theses  “People did not need the intercession of the church or its priest in order to receive God’s forgiveness”  The scripture alone  Translated the bible into German
  26. 26. Reformation Reasons on why it happened?  Black Plague  Printing Press  Western Schism  Fall of the Eastern Roman Empire

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