Attitude and Behavior at Work(Gelagat dan kelakuan di tempat kerja) www.slideshare.net/eizelldino
Learning objectives: What is conformity? Attitudes at work How rights to privacy interpreted? Bases for discrimination at work. Different approaches to discipline. The individual’s responsibilities to the organization. Conflict and its resolution. What is group dynamics? What is informal organization? What is informal communication?
Attitudes at Work Job satisfaction- is measurable whether looking at the hygiene or motivating factors or its various facet, yet it remains a mystery as to how it impacts productivity and efficiency. Job satisfaction can be define as how an individual feels about his jobs. Organizational Commitment define how a person identifies with and feels a part of the organization. Job involvement can be define how willing is the person to work hard and to apply efforts beyond normal job satisfaction.
Attitudes at Work How to promote Job Satisfaction4 major principles1. Combine jobs, enabling workers to perform the entire job (skill variety, task identity)2. Establish client relationship, allowing providers of a service to meet the recipients (skill variety, autonomy, feedback).3. Loads job vertically, allowing greater responsibility and control over work (autonomy).4. Open feedback channel, giving workers knowledge of the results of their work (feedback). This principles base on job characteristics models, jobs can be designed to incorporate the core job dimensions responsible for enhancing motivation and performance
Attitudes at Work Greenberg and Baron (1997) Ways of improve job satisfaction1. Pay people fairly (people who believe their organizations’ pay systems are inherently unfair, tend to be dissatisfied with their jobs-salary and benefits).2. Improve the quality of supervision (research shows that people with poor bosses are four times likely to leave the company).3. Decentralize the control of organizational power (allow people to participate in decision making).4. Match people to jobs that are congruent with their interest.
Attitudes at Work Effect of Job Dissatisfaction Two main effects are employee withdrawal (absenteeism and turn over) and job performance.
What is conformity? Conformity is following the norms of others without independent thinking. Three general situations to what does one conform:1) An individual conforms to the organization that has employed him/her.2) The individual may conform to the informal work group3) The individual may conform to the external environment.
Right of privacy Issue related to intrusion of an individual’s private life and the unauthorized release of the person’s information, which could cause suffering or harm to the person in question.
Bases of Discrimination at Work Racial discrimination Colour discrimination Religious discrimination Handicap discrimination Age discrimination National Origin discrimination Sexual Harassment
Discipline The act of influencing behaviour through reprimand.Two types of disciplinePreventive discipline Action taken to encourage employees to follow rules and regulations to avoid violation of the law.Corrective discipline Action that follows the breach of a law or rule.
The Individual’s responsibilitiesto the organization. Organizational Citizenship refers to the extent to which an employee goes beyond his or her job descriptions to help the organization achieve its mission and goals. Ethical leadership define as leadership based on ethics is required to manage bribery, fraud, misappropriation of funds and other forms of white collar crimes. Whistle Blowing define as is the act of disclosing misconduct to an internal or external source.
Interpersonal Behaviour and Conflict Management. Conflict management can be described as requires managing conflicts for an organization to succeed. It requires its employees to work as a team, working and communicating with one another. Interpersonal conflict takes place within the employee himself or herself, between individuals or groups, and across organizations.
Interpersonal Behaviour and Conflict Management.Effects of conflict: Positive effect1) Is that people are encouraged or motivated to look for approaches that will resolve the issues.2) Problems are brought out in the open where members of the group will have the opportunity to come face to face with problems and have the opportunity to suggest solutions.3) As employees are engaged in the decision making, they may become more committed to the outcome.
Interpersonal Behavior and Conflict Management.Effects of conflict: Negative effect1) May become intense overtime.2) Cooperation and teamwork may also deteriorate while distrust and hatred among members may develop.
Managing Conflict: Resolution Strategies Management can also use their power to resolve conflicts and motivate units to corporate. In addition, various other methods for conflict resolution are to establish a procedural system that allows parties to air their grievances or use a third - party negotiator. Management sometimes also resolves conflict by exchanging/rotating/terminating individuals.
Managing Conflict: Resolution Strategies Assertive behaviour Is the process of expressing feelings, asking for legitimate changes, and giving and receiving honest feedback without aggressiveness. Transactional analysis Is the study of social transaction between people may it be in the assertive or non assertive manner.
Group Dynamics, Informal Organizations andInformal Communication Group Dynamics is the social process by which people interact face to face in small groups. Informal Groups is a network of personal and social relations not established by the formal organization. Informal Communication is not controlled by the management of the formal organization and does not follow the official chain of command.
Review questions1. What are different attitudes at work?2. What is conformity?3. What does the right of privacy refer to?4. Identify the bases for discrimination at work.5. What are the different approaches to discipline?6. List the individual’s responsibilities to the organization.7. Discuss the strategies of conflict resolution.8. What are informal organizations?