ULMS Library Research Skills


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Utah Library Media Supervisors workshop, April 25, 2008, Horizonte School, SLC

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ULMS Library Research Skills

  1. 1. Library Research Skills and New College Students Richard Eissinger Southern Utah University
  2. 2. Today’s Entering College Student
  3. 3. CIRP Freshman Survey* <ul><li>HS grade inflation: 1966-2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A- or higher: 20% to 48% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C+ or lower: 22% to 5% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HS student – frequently felt bored in class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1985: 29% > 2004: 43% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Studying 6+ hours per week </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1987: 47% > 2004: 34% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faculty perspectives on student preparedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45% agree that most students they teach lack the basic skills for college level work </li></ul></ul>* http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/heri/freshman.html
  4. 4. CIRP Freshman Survey* * http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/heri/freshman.html
  5. 5. <ul><li>An ever-increasing proportion of high school students in the US today aspire to college. </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of college students receiving bachelor’s degrees has remained relatively constant over the past 25 years. </li></ul><ul><li>It now takes on average 5 years to get a 4-year college degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 30%-60% of students now require remedial education on entry to college, depending on the type of institution they attend. </li></ul><ul><li>Average public undergraduate education = $12,000/yr </li></ul>David T. Conley. College knowledge : what it really takes for students to succeed and what we can do to get them ready . 2005.
  6. 6. First Year Experience* <ul><li>Increased freshman retention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National average: 63-70% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUU: before FYE 51% - after FYE 59% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>58.9% report increased persistence to sophomore year </li></ul><ul><li>58.4% report improved student connections with peers </li></ul><ul><li>51.2% report increased use of campus services </li></ul><ul><li>50.6% report increased student satisfaction with the institution </li></ul><ul><li>45.0% report increased out-of-class faculty/student interaction </li></ul><ul><li>41.6% report increased level of student participation in student activities </li></ul><ul><li>36.0% report increased academic abilities </li></ul><ul><li>31.1% report increased student satisfaction with faculty </li></ul><ul><li>26.7% report improved grade-point-averages </li></ul><ul><li>18.3% report increased persistence to graduation </li></ul>* http://www.sc.edu/fye/index.html
  7. 7. New Students: The Millennials <ul><li>Echo boomers, net generation, gamers </li></ul><ul><li>Most ethnically diverse generation in US history </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be visual learners, get bored quickly (lectures) </li></ul><ul><li>Hold a positive view of technology </li></ul><ul><li>It’s been suggested that these students are often overconfident because they equate their technology savvy with information literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>OCLC white paper on information habits of college students found that 80% of undergrads use Web search engines for all or most assignments, while only half used the library’s subscription-based resources.* </li></ul>* http://www.oclc.org/research/announcements/2002-06-24.htm
  8. 8. Millennial Searching Habits <ul><li>Many high school teachers endorse the internet as a good research resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to find information in a chaotic fashion, focusing on speed and convenience. </li></ul><ul><li>Show little evidence of coherent search strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Easily accessible information enables students to stop at the first answer they find. </li></ul><ul><li>They expect the research process to be easy – like Google. </li></ul><ul><li>Email still a fixture in teens’ lives, but IM is preferred. </li></ul><ul><li>Size of wired population surges at the 7th grade mark </li></ul><ul><li>They may be whizzes on communication devices, but their communication skills – both in writing and in person – have a long way to go. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Beloit College Mindset List* <ul><li>Gas has always been unleaded. </li></ul><ul><li>What Berlin wall? </li></ul><ul><li>They never “rolled down” a car window. </li></ul><ul><li>They don't remember when &quot;cut and paste&quot; involved scissors. </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries have always been the best centers for computer technology and access to good software. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital cameras have always existed. </li></ul><ul><li>They’ve grown up with bottled water. </li></ul><ul><li>They learned about JFK from Oliver Stone and Malcolm X from Spike Lee. </li></ul>* http://www.beloit.edu/~pubaff/mindset
  10. 10. High School to College Transition <ul><li>The best predictors of whether a student will graduate or not are academic preparation and motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>High schools focus on making students college-eligible – to meet admissions requirements. They may or may not be college-ready. </li></ul><ul><li>Many students enter college with poor time management, study skills, and research skills. </li></ul>
  11. 11. High School / College Differences <ul><li>Change from a teacher-directed to a student-directed environment. </li></ul><ul><li>High school teachers often spend considerable time attempting to motivate students to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Experience culture shock when they enter learning environments that different from their past experiences. </li></ul>
  12. 12. High School / College Differences <ul><li>Instructors do not always collect homework </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer tests </li></ul><ul><li>Professors are trained experts in their field & not in teaching methods </li></ul><ul><li>Extra credit usually not available </li></ul><ul><li>Students are expected to synthesize concepts between textbooks, class readings, and the real world </li></ul><ul><li>College classes larger, longer, don't meet every day </li></ul><ul><li>More writing required in college </li></ul><ul><li>More academic freedom </li></ul>
  13. 13. High School / College Differences <ul><li>High school is more textbook focused; college more lecture focused </li></ul><ul><li>In high school the parent is held responsible; in college student is held responsible for actions (FERPA) </li></ul><ul><li>In high school the school creates social, cultural activities to enhance students’ education; in college student must seek out social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>High school students can remain in school despite poor academic performance; they can be dropped in college. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Added concerns: <ul><li>Increased numbers of high school graduates through 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing numbers of school librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Students reading less </li></ul><ul><li>Students have limited library research skills </li></ul><ul><li>Students not adept at using the Web </li></ul><ul><li>The myth of multitasking </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Next Generations of College Students <ul><li>Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates by State and Race/Ethnicity, 1992 to 2022. http://www.wiche.edu/ </li></ul>Percent change in graduates from high schools Between 2004-5 and 2014-15
  16. 16. <ul><li>ALA/AASL: For Immediate Release, April 21, 2008 </li></ul>Mesa, Ariz., public schools' has announced the decision to remove teacher-librarians from 87 schools. School library media specialists and advocates of school libraries across the country are joining together to decry the elimination of every teacher-librarian over a three-year period. The Mesa public school system is the largest in the state, with almost 74,000 students. The positions were eliminated primarily because of a deficit of more than $20 million—caused by declining student enrollment and a state budget deficit of $1.2 billion.
  17. 17. The Next Generations of College Students
  18. 18. Web 2.0 <ul><li>anonymous authors </li></ul><ul><li>public editing </li></ul>
  19. 19. iSkills – Educational Testing Service <ul><li>2% students could judge web site's objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>65% could judge authoritativeness </li></ul><ul><li>40% correctly used multiple search terms </li></ul><ul><li>44% could identify statement that stated demands of an assignment </li></ul>ETS, http://www.ets.org , iSkills
  20. 20. Research: the Student View <ul><li>Locate information using Google </li></ul><ul><li>Take the first search results </li></ul><ul><li>Print out EVERYTHING </li></ul><ul><li>Put your name on it </li></ul><ul><li>Done </li></ul>If it's on the Internet, it must be true. If it's on the Internet, it's public information and free for us to copy.
  21. 21. The Next Generations of College Students <ul><li>“ The Google generation is a myth according to a new report by the British Library - just because kids grow up using the Internet doesn't mean they're adept at using the Web. Although young people demonstrate an ease and familiarity with computers, they rely on the most basic search tools and do not possess the critical and analytical skills to assess the information that they find on the web.” </li></ul><ul><li>Information Behavior of the Researcher of the Future. </li></ul><ul><li>January 11, 2008. Report by British Library. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/reppres/gg_final_keynote_11012008.pdf </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Next Generations of College Students <ul><li>To Read or Not to Read: A Question of National Consequence . </li></ul><ul><li>Americans are spending less time reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading comprehension skills are eroding. </li></ul><ul><li>These declines have serious civic, social, cultural and economic implications </li></ul>2007. National Endowment for the Arts. http://www.nea.gov
  23. 23. The Next Generations of College Students <ul><li>The Myth of Multitasking </li></ul><ul><li>Walter, Kim. (Nov. 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>The Autumn of the multitaskers. </li></ul><ul><li>Atlantic Monthly, 300 (4), 66-80 . </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200711/multitasking </li></ul>
  24. 24. Freshman Library Research Skills
  25. 25. Freshmen research problems <ul><li>Lots of experience with computers; little with academic research </li></ul><ul><li>Little experience with library hard copy </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty determining academic value of information they find </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of bias is limited </li></ul><ul><li>Skill at tracking down original source is lacking </li></ul><ul><li>Many don’t know what they don’t know </li></ul>
  26. 26. Information Literacy
  27. 27. Information Literacy in Utah Colleges <ul><li>GE credit courses: DSC, SUU, WSU </li></ul><ul><li>Pass a competency exam: USU </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated with English composition: UofU, BYU, UVSC </li></ul>
  28. 28. LM1010
  29. 29. SUU Information Literacy LM 1010
  30. 30. Skills Survey > Test-Out Exam
  31. 31. Skills > Test-Out > Final
  32. 32. Boolean searching by class
  33. 33. Scholarly vs popular by class
  34. 34. Learning outcomes
  35. 35. Information Literacy Tutorials <ul><li>ACRL – PRIMO http://www.ala.org/ala/acrlbucket/is/iscommittees/webpages/emergingtech/primo/index.cfm </li></ul><ul><li>CLUE http://clue.library.wisc.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Navigator http://www-navigator.utah.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>Marriott Library - Instruction Tutorials http://www.lib.utah.edu/instruction/tutorials.html </li></ul><ul><li>Research 101 http://www.lib.washington.edu/uwill/research101/ </li></ul><ul><li>TILT http://tilt.lib.utsystem.edu/nf/intro/internet.htm </li></ul>
  36. 36. Research Skills and New Freshmen
  37. 37. Library anxiety <ul><li>New college students indicate that they are not comfortable with library research </li></ul><ul><li>Size of library is intimidating </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge about terminology and locating items </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know how or where to begin </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries in different buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey vs. LC – numbers are subjects and a classification system </li></ul>
  38. 38. Library Phobias * *Research Strategy: Overcoming Library Phobias . BYU. 1993.
  39. 39. Overcoming library phobias <ul><li>Visit local university libraries and develop a relationship with a local university librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Teach searching a university OPAC </li></ul><ul><li>Online chat </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries are frequently the only place to go after 5 pm to get answers </li></ul><ul><li>Ask a librarian! </li></ul>
  40. 40. Searching skills <ul><li>Dewey decimal vs LC </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean searching </li></ul><ul><li>Look for the help page </li></ul><ul><li>Databases operate in similar ways </li></ul><ul><li>Reading an index </li></ul><ul><li>Using a table of contents or index (chapters in an OPAC) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Searching skills – Boolean, etc. <ul><li>Boolean terms – and, or, not </li></ul><ul><li>Truncation and wildcards </li></ul><ul><li>OPAC vs online resources – understanding difference between electronic record and full text </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting an index – where to begin </li></ul><ul><li>Subject headings vs keywords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subject headings usable across databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>especially good in subject indexes </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Searching skills <ul><li>Google advanced search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>site:.gov </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+ and – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ open source” or open-source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search engine ranking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>jux 2 Meta Search Engine http://www.jux2.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thumbshots.com Ranking http://ranking.thumbshots.com/ </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Searching skills - keywords <ul><li>Your results are only as good as the keywords you use </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm using a thesaurus (Tools in Word) </li></ul><ul><li>Note how often their keywords show after searching (Edit/Find in Word) </li></ul><ul><li>Use multiple keywords </li></ul><ul><li>Correct spelling is important </li></ul>
  44. 44. Locating sources <ul><li>Abstracts vs citation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>colleges have abstract and citation databases available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some try to use abstracts as the full text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>don’t understand what a citation is </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microfilm, microfiche – colleges have variety of formats available </li></ul><ul><li>Full text </li></ul><ul><li>Bound periodicals </li></ul><ul><li>Interlibrary loan – usually within school districts; colleges have ILL </li></ul>
  45. 45. Scholarly sources <ul><li>Understand academic journals vs. magazines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-reviewed, refereed, scholarly, academic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholarly research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start them in high school to understand these distinctions (e.g., in Utah MasterFILE Premier is used as the high school default database) </li></ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul>
  46. 46. Open-Access Journals <ul><li>DOAJ – Directory of Open Access Journals http://www.doaj.org </li></ul><ul><li>PLoS – Public Library of Science http://www.plos.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>BioMed Central http://www.biomedcentral.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Open J-Gate http://www.openj-gate.com/ s </li></ul>
  47. 47. Evaluating sources <ul><li>MLA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>authority, accuracy/verifiability, currency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source / authority </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Content / coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Why evaluate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students will need to defend their information choices to their professors </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Citing sources <ul><li>Style guides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>don’t know about the different styles and formats by discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most students have not been taught the skills of paraphrasing, quoting and summarizing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citation machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ProQuest, Questia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citation Machine, EasyBib, NoodleTools, RapidCite </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Citing sources <ul><li>Citation help </li></ul><ul><li>Research & Documentation Online. Diana Hacker http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/hacker/resdoc </li></ul><ul><li>Zotero Firefox Add-on http://www.zotero.org </li></ul>
  50. 50. Citing sources <ul><li>Ethics - Plagiarism Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACRL - Plagiarism and cyber-plagiarism: http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlpubs/crlnews/backissues2003/june4/plagiarismcyberplagiarism.cfm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plagiarism Prevention and Detection Resources and Software: http://www.erie.psu.edu/academic/lrc/ethos/index/Plagiarism.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read-write-think: http://www.readwritethink.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turnitin: http://plagiarism.org </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Assessment <ul><li>Information Literacy tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>TRAILS: http://www.trails9.org/index.php?page=home </li></ul>
  52. 52. Notetaking <ul><li>Systematic notetaking leads to good research </li></ul><ul><li>RefWorks, EndNote, Reference Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Cornell method, outlining, graphic organizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cornell Notetaking, Dartmouth http://www.dartmouth.edu/~acskills/success/notes.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cornell Notetaking System, BYU http://ccc.byu.edu/learning/note-tak.php </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microsoft OneNote </li></ul>
  53. 53. Microsoft OneNote
  54. 54. Conclusions <ul><li>Discuss how their skills are transferable </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare them for the size of college libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Help your students see librarians are their best resource </li></ul>