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Nature and use of Psychological Tests

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Nature and use of Psychological Tests

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Nature and use of Psychological Tests

  1. 1.  They are tools  and any tool can be an instrument of good or harm depending on how it is used
  2. 2.  Traditionally, the function of psychological tests is to measure the difference between individuals or between the reaction of the same individual under different circumstances
  3. 3. 1. Identification of mentally retarded persons -To this day, the detection of intellectual deficiencies remain an important application of certain types of psychological tests
  4. 4. 2. Assessment in Education  Binet Intelligence Test  Educational Uses of Psychological Tests a. Classification of children with reference to their ability (differentiation of instructions) b. Identification of outstandingly slow or fast learners c. Educational and occupational counseling of high school and college students d. Selection of applicants for professional schools
  5. 5. 3. Selection and classification of industrial personnel -tests proved helpful in matters such as hiring, job assignment, transfer, promotion or termination 4. Individual Counseling -from narrowly defined guidance regarding educational and vocational plans to an involvement with all aspects of a person’s life -emotional well-being and effective interpersonal relation have become increasingly prominent objectives of counseling
  6. 6. -there is a growing emphasis on the use of tests to enhance self-understanding and personal development -within this framework, test scores are given as an aids to one’s decision-making processes 5. Basic research -precise measurement of individual differences is made possible by well-constructed tests that is a prerequisite in basic research -it also provides standardized tools for investigating varied problems such as life-span development changes
  7. 7.  The many kinds of tests designed for these diverse purposes differ in other major characteristics 1. They vary in the way they are administered -e.g. individual testing, simultaneous testing of large group, or the administration of tests by computers 2. They also differ in aspects of behavior they cover -some concentrate on the assessment of cognitive traits, or abilities, other tests provide measure of affective variables, or personality such as emotional or motivational traits, interpersonal behavior, interests, attitudes and values
  8. 8.  essentially an objective and standardized measure of a sample behavior  are used to assess a variety of mental abilities and attributes, including achievement and ability, personality, and neurological functioning  Personality tests are administered for a wide variety of reasons, from diagnosing psychopathology (e.g., personality disorder, depressive disorder) to screening job candidates.  They may be used in an educational setting to determine personality strengths and weaknesses.
  9. 9. Behavior and Sample  Psychological tests are like the test in any other science in so far as observations are made on a small but carefully chosen sample of an individual’s behavior  Whether or not the test adequately covers the behavior under consideration depends on the number and the nature of items in the sample  Example: an arithmetic test consisting of only 5 problems or one including only multiplication items would be a poor measure of the individual’s computational skills
  10. 10.  Diagnoses and Prediction  The diagnostic or predictive value of a psychological test depends on the degree to which it serves as an indicator of a relatively broad and significant area of behavior  Measurement of the behavior sample directly covered by the test is rarely the goal of psychological testing but instead it is demonstrated that there is a close correspondence between the applicant’s score and her performance, if such is the case, then the tests are serving their purpose  Prediction commonly connotes a temporal estimate-such as the individual’s future performance on a job being forecast from his present test performance
  11. 11.  In a broader sense, diagnosis of present condition such as retardation or emotional disorder, implies a prediction of what the individual will do in situations other than the present test.  It is logical then to regard all tests as behavior samples from which predictions regarding other behavior can be made. Different types of tests can then be characterized as variants of this basic pattern
  12. 12.  Psychological tests are formalized measures of mental functioning.  Most are objective and quantifiable; however, certain projective tests may involve some level of subjective interpretation.  Also known as inventories, measurements, questionnaires, and scales, psychological tests are administered in a variety of settings, including preschools, primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities, hospitals, outpatient healthcare settings, and social agencies.  They come in a variety of formats, including written, verbal, and computer administered.
  13. 13.  Proper psychological testing is conducted after vigorous research and development in contrast to quick web-based or magazine questionnaires that say "Find out your Personality Color," or "What's your Inner Age?" Proper psychological testing consists of the following:  Standardization - All procedures and steps must be conducted with consistency and under the same environment to achieve the same testing performance from those being tested.
  14. 14.  Objectivity - Scoring is free of subjective judgments or biases based on the fact that the same results are obtained on test from everyone.  Test Norms - The average test score within a large group of people where the performance of one individual can be compared to the results of others by establishing a point of comparison or frame of reference.  Reliability - Obtaining the same result after multiple testing.  Validity - The type of test being administered must measure what it is intended to measure

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