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  1. 1. LEARNING
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ In order to learn, </li></ul><ul><li>one must want something, notice something, </li></ul><ul><li>do something and get something” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-- Miller and Dollard </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT IS LEARNING ? <ul><li>any relatively permanent (lasting) change in an organism’s behavior that results from experience. </li></ul>-- change in behavior, for better or for worse -- change that takes place through practice or experience -- the change must be relatively permanent
  4. 4. Steps in Learning Process <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacle </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul>
  5. 5. How do organisms learn ? <ul><li>There is no simple reply to this question but we can begin examining the most basic forms of learning. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Viewpoints of Learning: <ul><li>a. Associate Learning </li></ul>b. Cognitive Learning c. Computer Assisted Learning 1. Classical Conditioning 2. Operant Conditioning
  7. 7. Viewpoints of Learning: <ul><li>a. Associate Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Habit Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is learned through habit formation or by associating stimuli and responses </li></ul>
  8. 8. Viewpoints of Learning: <ul><li>a. Associate Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul>-- (stimulus substitution) -- method of substituting another stimulus for an original one to elicit a response -- US = UR ; US = CR
  9. 9. Viewpoints of Learning: <ul><li>a. Associate Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul>-- learning where the organism must “operate on” or do something to the environment in order to produce a result. -- unlike classical conditioning where the animal passively waits and still be reinforced in this type of lerning, the animal must be active in order to be reinforced.
  10. 10. a. Associate Learning <ul><li>i. Conditioning Strategies </li></ul>-- temporal learning occurs very rapidly and prior to the appearance of the anticipatory response. The temporal relations are learned even when no anticipatory response is evoked. The speed with which an anticipatory response emerges is proportional to the informativeness of the predictive cue (CS) regarding the rate of occurrence of the predicted event (US). This analysis gives an account of what we mean by “temporal pairing” and is in accord with the data on speed of acquisition and basic findings in the cue competition literature. In this account, learning depends on perceiving and encoding temporal regularities rather than stimulus contiguities.
  11. 11. a. Associate Learning <ul><li>ii. Conditioning Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul>
  12. 12. a. Associate Learning <ul><li>ii. Conditioning Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul>* the tendency for a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response.
  13. 13. a. Associate Learning <ul><li>ii. Conditioning Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul>* Occurs during classical conditioning when an organisms learns to make a particular response to some stimuli but not to others.
  14. 14. a. Associate Learning <ul><li>ii. Conditioning Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul>* A procedure in which a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus and, as a result, the conditioned stimulus tend to no longer elicit the conditioned response.
  15. 15. a. Associate Learning <ul><li>ii. Conditioning Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous Recovery </li></ul>* The tendency for the conditioned response to reappear after being extinguished even though there have been no further conditioning trails.
  16. 16. b. Cognitive Learning <ul><li>* a kind of learning that involves mental processes, such as attention and memory; may be learned through observation or imitation; and may not involve any external rewards or require the person to perform any observable behaviors. </li></ul>Viewpoints of Learning:
  17. 17. b. Cognitive Learning <ul><li>* learning which involves perception and knowledge – cognitive processes necessary in order to learn with understanding. </li></ul>Viewpoints of Learning:
  18. 18. b. Cognitive Learning <ul><li>* Perceptual Learning </li></ul>Viewpoints of Learning: > (insight learning) > Learning involving change in perception in which the learner comes to know something about the stimulus situation that he did not know before.
  19. 19. b. Cognitive Learning <ul><li>* Sign Learning </li></ul>Viewpoints of Learning: > Involves the perception of stimulus that gives rise to the expectation that if a particular kind of behavior follows the perceived stimulus, another stimulus would appear.
  20. 20. b. Cognitive Learning <ul><li>* Programmed Learning </li></ul>Viewpoints of Learning: <ul><li>Method of self-instruction consisting of frames (a series of short steps) and responses. </li></ul><ul><li>uses instructional materials in which you work at your own rate, make active responses to a step-by-step program, and get immediate knowledge of results. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) <ul><li>* covers a range of computer-based packages, which aim to provide interactive instruction usually in a specific subject area, and many predate the Internet. </li></ul>* These can range from sophisticated and expensive commercial packages to applications developed by projects in other educational institutions * the use of computers in education through CAL has been sporadic a great deal of effort was expended with little general impact.
  22. 22. Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) <ul><li>* The use of the term Information and Communication Technology (ICT) rather than Information Technology (IT) emphasises this change. Computers now facilitate communication between people as well as between people and programs or people and data. </li></ul>* * This is all about information rather than teaching and learning and it soon becomes obvious to any treading this path that you cannot take the people out of the learning equation entirely. Learning is about interaction and interaction with information alone is not enough.
  23. 23. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul><ul><li>FOR </li></ul><ul><li>LISTENING ! </li></ul>