Economy• The rise of strong central governments and an increasingly urban economy, based on commerce rather than agriculture.
Society• Nobility-families of power• merchants and tradesmen• Commoners and labourers
Clothing and hair• Changed a lot throughout era- 150 years• Beginning influenced by Medieval and Gothic designs• After 15th century, began to follow German stylesFacts• Laws were often passed to limit what clothing people could wear-depending on rank• A white complexion was desirable for women• Blonde hair was very popular
middle early late high waists and leg-of-mutton sleeves, long v-finestrella sleeves square neckline, funnel shaped waistline and ruffs. sleeves.
middlish latepadded shoulders, jerkin, knee-length leg-of-mutton sleeves, short cape, short tunic, flat cap, and duckbill shoes. trunk hose, ruffs, and v-shaped waistline of doublet
Art• Many of the new ideas and attitudes towards art.• humanism -focus on human interests, needs, and abilities.• More personal portaraits
art• Renaissance art divided up into two periods:• Early Renaissance (1400-1479)-Brunelleschi and Donatello.Donatello: artist and sculptor from FlorenceBrunneleski: one of the foremost architects andengineers of the Italian Renaissance.
• High Renaissance (1475-1525)-Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Botichelli.• Michelangelo:an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer• Leonardo da Vinci:an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal.• Botticelli :an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance
Techniques and styles• Many new techniques were introduced during the Renaissance.• Perspective• Balance and Proportion• Use of Light and Dark• Sfumato• Foreshortening
Architecture• Brunelleschi considered the first Renaissance architect.
Medici family• The city-state of Florence in Italy was the location where the Italian Renaissance began.• This city ruled by a wealthy family known as the Medici family.• The Medici’s were effective leaders. They taxed both the poor, and the wealthy, and used the funds to build public works such as roads and sewers, that benefited everyone.
RelationshipsChildren and education...• Peasants were usually completely uneducated, stripping away from them one of the key factors in social mobility.• However, privileged families such as the Medici family had their children instructed in Latin, Greek, logic, and philosophy.
Marriage • Marriage for noble children was usually very early as a result of the childs obligation to gain power and prosperity for their family and produce heirs to continue dynasties. • In lower classes, a man did not marry until they had obtained land or established themselves in a trade. Women of those classes usually waited until their families could raise a proper dowry before they marry
culture• the Italians learned about the old Roman and Greek ways, they began to believe, as the ancients had, that life should be rich and as comfortable as possible. They believed that a person should seek talents and skills, and that they should work to increase their standard of living, and the standards of living around them.
• Petrarch, a scholar, was known as the creator of a new approach of knowledge, Renaissance Humanism.• Roman Catholic Church’s view of spiritual nature as the only real thing, which was then seen as magical and dreamlike. Humanism saw a man as something with good attributes by category. There were three main philosophies that developed during the Italian Renaissance. These include individualism, humanism, and secularism.
Food• During the Renaissance it was common for meals to have four courses, which could consist of one entrée, two meat courses and one course of fruit or cheese• Meat was expensive and eaten regularly only by the wealthy. Short pasta, which would be boiled, became increasingly popular during the sixteenth century and soon dominated the Italian diet.”
• The average person during the Renaissance was a peasant.• Peasants would eat soup or mush for food just about every meal.• They would also generally have some black bread. The soup would be made of scraps of food, usually vegetables such as carrots or eggs.• Mush was made from some kind of grain like oats or wheat and then cooked in water. Sort of like oatmeal today
Feasts• Often they would eat large game birds like swans, peacocks, or cranes. After cleaning and cooking the birds, they would often reattach the feathers for decoration.• people drank wine or beer (also called ale). Wine was the most popular in Italy
Festivals• Renaissance was trying to forget the often dour times of Medieval Italy.• These events also were times when the rich and poor mixed rather freely, processions could include every social strata from Pope to beggar.
Water transportation was by far the cheapest form of transport ,so this wasused for most trade between countries; and by farmers, whenever possible.
• For the average person, horses would be very expensive (compare to the price of a Buick/Lexus today), so they would rarely be used for personal transportation. If the average person rode a beast at all, it would most likely be an ox; the next step up would be a donkey.
• The middle class – merchants, artisans, lawyers, doctors - lived in homes made of wood or wood and stucco (known as Tudor style). Roofs were made of slate or tile.• . Toward the end of the 16th century bricks made from clay became cheaper and was used more often.• Peasants homes were made of earth, stone or wood, depending on which was more plentiful• The roof was thatched and windows were rectangular holes with wooden shutters to cover them. The floors of peasant cottages were made of packed dirt or tiles. Rushes, a mixture of hay, herbs and flowers would cover the floor, to help mask odors.
Print press In the 16th century, Leonardo da Vinci invented a machine that became known as the printing press. His concepts were not adopted until 200 years later in the year 1758
Telescope• Although the telescope was invented in 1608 by Dutchman Hans Lippershey,• Galileo built his own in 1609, without ever having seen Lippersheys, and he improved it over time from 3X magnification to about 30X.• He built his first telescope based on descriptions he had heard. He was the first to use a telescope to observe the heavensear 1758.
• Eyeglasses• Salvino DArmato degli Armati from Italy is credited with making wearable eyeglasses in 1284. It was not until 15th century that glasses for conditions like hyperopia, myopia and presbyopia were made.
mechanical anemometer• In 1450, the Italian art architect Leon Battista Alberti invented the first mechanical anemometer.
Background• Abundance of materials and the discovery of new lands greatly impacted jewellery• The desire for harmony and perfection of execution influenced styles.• Jewellery was considered as portable wealth to finance various wars.• Miniature sculpture in jewelry.• Painters started to produce engraved designs. e.• Renaissance jewellery was both decorative and functional.• Specilisation was a virtue among goldsmiths.• Goldsmiths were employed from abroad
From where:Initially temples and burialsites were the source ofgold, silver and preciousstones .Vasco Da Gama and theCape of Good HopeBarcelona-imptrading centerColumbia:16nthcent, the Spanishlocated emeralddepositsPeru and Mexico: GoldAnd silverSri Lanka:Portuguese furtheroccupied Sri Lankaestablishing directaccess to corundumdeposits.Burma :RubiesPearls frm Persian gulf
Types of jewellery:Girdle with Ferronnierespomander Pomander AigretteOther types: pendant,bodkins (type of hair pin, rosary beads, ferronnieres,earrings ,time pieces were incorporated in existing jewelry, dress jewels allover the bodice. (Aiguillettes, clasps, gold trinkets and clusters of stones orpearls)
Motiffs, symbols..• Arabesque motifs• Fruit• Foliage• Scrolls• Putti• Mythological subjects like nymph,satyrs and dragons.• Ships, mermaids and sea monsters.• The settings of stones often formed glittering lines or masses. Arrangements of leaves, flowers and knots of ribbons were the favorite designs