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  1. 1. 1 | P a g e Photo courtesy of Amplusnet SRL Singapore, a physically small yet an economic giant country, located at the tip of the Malay Peninsula. Its geographical location is between the longitude of 103 degrees 55’ East and latitude of 1 degree 14’ North (Pearson, 2000). It has well known to be Southeast Asia’s most modern city over a century. This country includes the island of Singapore and 58 or so smaller islands. However, the capital city which also called as Singapore, covers almost a third of the area of the main island. Singapore is often publicized as a concrete jungle with close to 90% of its population staying in flats and an ever-changing skyline of monumental buildings. Due to its efficient and firm government, Singapore has become a prosperous country which excels in trade, communications and tourism. Over the time, it progresses into a model to developing nations. Yet, Singapore has also been known as a green city because there is a wealth of flora and fauna in this country. Besides that, Singapore’s climate is warm and humid. Thus, this makes it ideal to welcome both leisure and business travelers year round. In addition to that, Singapore’s first-rate infrastructure also enables visitors to enjoy its sites and attraction in a safe, clean and green environment. At this point, except the train and subway systems, award winning Singapore Figure 1: Location of Singapore Introduction
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e airport does play an important role in providing transportation airlinks to major cities around the world. Photo courtesy of The Real Singapore Singapore airport, which also known as Changi airport is one of the main airport in Asia. It was officially opened on 29th December 1981 and built mainly on the reclaimed land near where originally the World War II Changi airbase had stood. Changi airport is located about 20 kilometers from the city center. It is the main international airport offering air transport services to Singapore and is currently regarded as one of the top airports in Asia, due to the number of passengers moved. This airport serves more than 100 international airlines flying to some 250 cities in 60 countries and territories worldwide. Photo courtesy of Singapore Airport Changi airport has three passenger terminals with a total annual handling capacity of 66 million passengers. When the airport first opened, only Terminal 1 was operational. On 22nd Figure 1.1: Exterior of Changi Airport Figure 1.2: Interior of Changi Airport
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e November 1990, Terminal 2 was made operational and opened officially on 1st June the next year. Terminal 2 is much larger than Terminal 1 but both provide similar services which including the passenger transactions and transit, restaurants and shopping areas. Following that, Terminal 3 commenced operations on 9th January 2008. Hence, its ability to handle such big amount of passenger movements has been recognized. Besides that, Terminal 4 which currently being constructed is targeted for completion in 2017. The Budget Terminal, that opened to serve budget airlines, was closed on September 2012 to make way for the construction of Terminal 4. In addition to that, Skytrain was provided for the convenient of passengers to travel between the terminals. Photo courtesy of Adhir Kirtikan The 16-sided, 78-metre Control Tower, sitting on a polygonal shaft server not only as a necessary air-traffic control unit but also becoming a key icon representing the Changi Airport. Travelling along the highway towards the airport, one can see the use of a wise and unique landscaping and plants hide the ancillary buildings. The greenery continues to penetrate through the entire airport with the planter boxes and landscaped pools within the terminals. Due to its perfect achievements in different aspects, Changi Airport has won many awards and accolades, most often the “Best Airport in the World”, a title which given by various organizations such as Airport World, Business Traveller and OAG Worldwide. More recently in March 2014, Changi Airport was once again named the World’s Best Airport for the fifth time and for the second consecutive year at the 2014 Skytrax World Airport Awards. Figure 1.3: A Panaromic view from Changi Airport Terminal 1
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e Photo courtesy of Soumya Terminal 3 in Changi Airport, its interior space is a ten-storey volume, with four functional levels arranged around a huge sky lighted atrium, where its base is the space for the arrival hall. Its design is not merely just on its decorative accent. However it’s about its own sustainable design and also the green design aspect in the building itself. Changi Airport has perennially named as the best or next best in the world, which had raise the bar and a new different level for excellence in design and to create a monumental iconic first point of entry to the nation-city. The team has successfully integrated the building design, the interior design, and the landscape design into a cohesive whole. The team in making the Changi Airport project successful has achieve their main goal which is by using landscape element in the design itself as an architecture element. Besides, they had also successfully developed a unique and outstanding landscape design that is most importantly appropriate to the scale and function of the building. Detailed Information Figure 2: Exterior view of Changi Airport Terminal 3
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e Photo courtesy of Tariq Mahadin Some of the main design feature that make Changi’s airport become one of the most prominent and green design is the roof and rainforest canopy that is built in terminal 3 that uses an intelligent and brilliant system that enable natural daylight to penetrate in the interior space of the building, maintain the heat and thermal inside the building and creates an overall soothing and comfortable ambience for the users. Photo courtesy of Tariq Mahadin Photo courtesy of Tariq Mahadin Apart from that, the lush green walls in the airport had also become one of the most prominent design. And other green feature design of this building is also its façade design on the elevation that helps regulating the heat of the sunlight ray and minimizing most heat to penetrate in the building. Changi’s airport is located in one of the busiest hub in Asia, which has also been reclaimed from the sea. Figure 2.1: ‘Butterfly-winged’ skylights in Terminal 3. Figure 2.2: Green walls in Terminal 3. Figure 2.3: Close up view of green walls.
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e In all words, Changi Airport had been awarded in the Green Mark building for its design, which is the Green Mark Gold. The marking criteria for the Green Mark Award is based on the energy efficiency, water efficiency, environmental protection, indoor environmental quality and other green features and innovations. Figure 2.4: BCA Green Mark logo.
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e Site Plan Figure 3.1: Location of Changi Airport. Figure 3.2: Zoom in version of the site.
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e The design concept of Changi’s airport is to establish a green environment for the interior space, which is in accordance to the nation’s vision – ‘City in a garden’. And also to design it with environment concerns, the impact, reinforcement and also its sustainability. Other intention of this design is also to establish and create an interior environment where planting is not just for some decorative or accents but is also for the purpose of architecture. Design Concept & Innovation Photos taken from the book “Changi Airport, Singapore” Photos taken from the book “Changi Airport, Singapore”
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e The Changi Airport is themed as garden and had boost a dramatic display of variant vibrant colors and interactive technology which had brings Changi Airport to a higher level. Design Concept & Innovation Photos taken from the book “Changi Airport, Singapore” Photos taken from the book “Changi Airport, Singapore”
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e Images Of Changi Airport Butterfly Louvres Vertical Green Wall Features Natural daylight is modulated through butterfly louvres before it enters the building.
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e Thermal Analysis -Temperature Based on the research from BBC Weather, Singapore is characterized as a country which having uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity and abundant rainfall due to its geographical location and maritime exposure. Research shows that the average temperature of Singapore is between 25 degree Celcius and 31 degree Celcius. To be more details about it, Singapore usually undergoes a minimum of 23 to 26 degree Celcius and a maximum of 31 to 34 degree Celcius. Photo courtesy of Weather Forecast.com As shown in the Figure xx, Changi Airport is situated at the eastern side of Singapore. Based on the research, eastern side of Singapore is drier and slightly hotter than western Singapore. Hence, it is clear that the temperature at the exterior of Changi Airport is much higher than the temperature of its interior spaces. Direct heat is transferred from the sun to the ground. Climate Data Figure 3.1 : Location of Singapore Changi Airport
  12. 12. 12 | P a g e Photo courtesy of Wordpress.com However, efficiency of design strategy of Changi Airport helps in reducing its interior temperature. In its high volume spaces, the usage of air-conditioning is thermally stratified. Besides that, its intelligent building management system also interface with the flight schedule, controlling the switching on and off of lights and air-conditioning in the dedicated gate-hold rooms upon the departure of passengers. Furthermore, Terminal 3’s most outstanding feature- unique “butterfly” roof architecture allows soft natural light enter into the airport while keeping the tropical heat out. Thus, reduction of energy used in the interior of Changi Airport and internal thermal comfort can be easily achieved due to their smart design strategy. Humidity Rainfall can be said is almost an everyday phenomenon in Singapore. Hence, it is classified as a country with high level of humidity. Its level of humidity differs from more than 90% in the morning and falls to around 60% in the mid-afternoon when it does not rain. According to the reports by National Environment Agency (2012), the average relative humidity level of Singapore is 84.2%. However, generally there is much more rainfall on the western side of Singapore than the eastern portion of it. Since Changi Airport is situated at the eastern side of Singapore, this means that Changi Airport has a lower humidity level compared to the other region in Singapore. Figure 3.2 : High volume interior spaces of Terminal 3
  13. 13. 13 | P a g e From the diagram and chart shown, we can see that the wind flow is mostly from the NNE and SSW direction throughout the year. The average wind speed is usually 5-7 knots every month. And the temperature is from 28-30 degree celcius a year. The month February will have the highest wind speed which is 8 knots. The average wind speed at Changi Airport will be higher because of its site context and location which is located near the sea which has a greater wind impact. Besides, the wind humidity is also higher compare to Singapore city central due to its location which is nearer to the sea. - Graph retrieved from - http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/singapore_changi Wind Analysis
  14. 14. 14 | P a g e The Changi Airport Terminal 3 is located close to the Equator. This means that the amount number of hours gained at day and night are equal. The terminal 3 roof structure was designed by SOM which are very sophisticated. The orientation of the building plays a very important role in the design of the building taking in consideration of the sun path. The above diagram shows the building orientation with the North point indication. The East and West side of the building receives the most sunlight throughout the entire day. The design of terminal 3 north, south and west facades are typically supported in a uniform grid of steel truss framing. The mullions varying between 6-18 metres in height are composed of high tension rod to increase the inertia for longer spans. The tension rods are also used as sun shading louvres. Sun Analysis Figure 8.1: Site Plan with North Point
  15. 15. 15 | P a g e The mechanically designed and operated sun-protection louvres are designed by Bartenbach are caliberated to move with the sun’s angle. These louvres are made of perforated aluminium panels. This diagram shows the sun path of Singapore. With the maximum light penetrating the building, the roof was designed to be cantilevered out with the double-glazed glass coated with low-E material. The cantilevered roof reduces the admittance of the heat gain from the sunlight even at a very low angle of the sun; ie. 1600 to 1800 at gmt+8. Western sun orientation Eastern sun orientation Figure 8.2: General sun path in Singapore. Figure 8.3: Sketch of the cantilevered roof against the sun.
  16. 16. 16 | P a g e Ecotect Simulation Analysis Figure 8.4: Time-0800 1st April. . Figure 8.5: Time-1200 1st April. .
  17. 17. 17 | P a g e The Terminal 3 airport is designed in a way that the sun orientates at at the South-East to South-West façade of the building. The cantilevered butterfly roof of the terminal provides shading not only to the wall of the building but also internally which reduces the heat and glare from the sun. The orientation of the building matches very vell with the design of the terminal roof also with the help of the vertical louvres that are places on the Souh-West façade of the building for evening sun. Ecotect Simulation Analysis Figure 8.6: Time-1600 1st April. .
  18. 18. 18 | P a g e The Changi Airport Terminal 3 architecture design has a maximal openness and transparency, which enables to the introduction of light into spaces deep within the terminal. The most impactful feature of the Terminal 3 is the roof, followed by the green vertical wall. Passive Design Lighting consultant Bartenbach LichtLabor conducted a study and was determined to an optimal way of dappling natural light into the terminal building. Then the parabolic reflectors were introduced in the design. It is then placed before the butterfly louvres. The massive long span flat roof is dotted with 919 intelligent skylights, illuminating the interior of the terminal completely with natural daylight. Studies had proven that the terminal will be lit by natural daylight up to 8 hours daily with or without the presense of cloud. The terminal 3 exploits the lightweight advantage of the bondek roof system. The metal bondek sheets are secured to the top of the trusses and topped with a layer of lightweight concrete which will then reduce the load on the columns. Analysis of Passive Design – Pavilion Concept Figure 10.1: Roof of Terminal 3, Changi Airport, Singapore. .
  19. 19. 19 | P a g e The most perceptual magic that the terminal 3 roof promises is the perforated aluminium butterfly louvres that sits above the skylights. These louvres are adjustable in relation to the sun’s movement by a computer system. When strong winds are detected, the mechanism will close the butterflies. During cloudy days, the louvres will be opened entirely to allow the maximum rays of lights into the terminal. The aluminium louvres can also be flapped down to form a plane surface which acts as a secondary roof. Each skylight comprises a roof opening sealed with a pure crystal- type glass that admits the full spectrum of colours from the natural daylight into the building. Butterfly Louvres Figure 10.2: Butterfly Louvres on the roof. .
  20. 20. 20 | P a g e When the sunlight is filtered through the butterfly louvres, the light then comes to the parabolic reflectors. The reflectors are fitted like sleeves into the vertical surfaces of the skylights. These reflectors projects a glare-free sunlight to enter the terminal at an angle of 45 degrees. At certain point of the terminal, cut-off reflectors are fitted for additional glare control. This is the diagram which explains the theory on how does a parabolic reflector work. F is the focal point which represents the source of light from the Sun and the blue lines represents the direction of the light rays. The reflected rays will then be gently shined to the terminal hall. Parabolic Reflector Figure 10.3: Illustration of the Parabolic Reflector theory. . Figure 10.4: Parabolic Reflector openings on ceiling panels. theory.
  21. 21. 21 | P a g e In this system used in the roof of Terminal 3, the usage of parabolic reflection is applied onto the panels shown above. With the same theory, the parabolic curve is not seen on the surface of the panels. The long cantilever roof of the change airport in terminal 3 is another element into the green roof feature. At both West and East side of the airport, the cantilevered roof is extended longer than the other. This is due to the sun orientation or sun rise and set. The material used for the cantilever roof is the double-insulating glass. These glass are manufactured with glass thickness at 3-10mm per piece. Double insulating glass are separated by a spacer which separates the two glass panels in order to seal the gas space between them. Manufacturers make the spacers (usually10mm) a less heat conductor to reduce the heat of the sealed air. Besides that, these glass are coated with low-E which admit 65-70 percent if visible daylight and reduces the thermal heat to only 35 percent. Low-E Glass Cantilever Roof Figure 10.5: External View of Terminal 3 Changi Airport. theory. .
  22. 22. 22 | P a g e Low-e coatings was built to minimize the amount of ultraviolet and infrared light that can pass through glass without compromising the amount of visible light that is transmitted. When heat or light energy is absorbed by glass it can be either shifted away by moving air or reradiated by the glass surface. In general, highly reflective matierals have a low emissivity and dull darker colored materials have a high emissivity. The cantilevered roof radiate heat in the form of long- wave, infrared energy depending on the emissivity and temperature of their surfaces. Reducing the emissivity of one or more of the window glass surfaces improves a window’s insulating properties. For example, uncoated glass has an emissivity of 0.84, while PPG’s solar control (Solarban 70XL) glass has an emissivity of .02. This is where low emissivity or low-e glass coatings come into play. Low-e glass has a microscopically thin, transparent coating. This coating is much thinner than a human hair that reflects long-wave infrared energy (or heat). Some low-e glass also reflect significant amounts of short-wave solar infrared energy. When the interior heat energy tries to escape to the colder outside during the winter, the low-e coating reflects the heat back to the inside, reducing the radiant heat loss through the glass. This helps into maintain the rate of heat loss and heat gain in the terminal. Low-E Glass Cantilever Roof Figure 10.6: Chart analysis of the Low-E glass coating. theory. .
  23. 23. 23 | P a g e To use a simple analogy, low-e glass works the same way a thermos does. A thermos has a silver lining, which reflects the temperature of the drink it contains back in. The temperature is maintained because of the constant reflection that occurs, as well as the insulating benefits that the air space provides between the inner and outer shells of the thermos. The silver low-e coating reflects the interior temperatures back inside, keeping the room warm or cold. Temperature are being reflected while sunlight is able to pass through the low-e glass of the terminal roof. Figure 10.7: Illustration of the effects of Low-E coating on the glass. . Low-E Glass Cantilever Roof
  24. 24. 24 | P a g e Image & graph source from http://educationcenter.ppg.com/glasstopics/how_lowe_works.aspx According to the graph above, ultraviolet light, which is what causes interior materials such as fabrics and wall coverings to fade, has wavelengths of 310-380 nanometers when reporting glass performance. Visible light occupies the part of the spectrum between wavelengths from about 380-780 nanometers. Solar infrared is commonly referred to as short-wave infrared energy, while heat radiating off of warm objects has higher wavelengths than the sun and referred to as long-wave infrared. This will then reduce the terminal temperature fluctuation. Low-E Glass Cantilever Roof Figure 10.8: Graph of the light transmittance against the wavelength in nanometer. .
  25. 25. 25 | P a g e The journey of the light does not end just yet. The flip-flops are designed in a set of fixed module which is then repeatedly used under the entire stretch of the roof. These flip-flops are held up by high tension steel cables which are secured from the bottom of the roof trusses. The flip- flops are made of perforated metal which gives the ceiling a soft character. The architect wanted to create the ‘cloud’ feeling towards the passenger’s perception when looking at the lights bouncing above them. Flip-Flops Figure 10.9: Flip-Flops as ceiling inside Terminal 3 Changi Airport.
  26. 26. 26 | P a g e The landscape of the Terminal 3's interior space as a continuation of the overall exterior airport gardens. The landscape architect, Tierra Singapore wanted this to make things visible through the wide and tall glass 'skin' of the building. The green wall is a perfect example of how vertical planting could significantly affect overall interior ambience with small footprint in plan. Green Wall Figure 10.10: Green wall at luggage collection in Terminal 3 Changi Airport. Airport.
  27. 27. 27 | P a g e The green wall is made of 120 metre long lattices which are linked together. The straightforward orthogonal grid allows a manageable framework for the green wall to be filled with a mix of foliage vines and bromeliads. Double-layer cable support system planting system was introduced by sandwiching fiberglass planting troughs. Stainless steel beams cantilevered from the wall support horizontal I-beam modules with fiberglass. Twining vines on cables in singular containers are easily removed and/or replaced by hand, without mechanical fasteners. The vines are pre-grown in pots that are already creep up to 3-metre long stainless steel cables at 4mm diameter. The vines grows at both the front and back of the lattices. It is a major challenge when sufficient amount of natural sunlight is needed into the green wall to allow plants to undergo the photosynthesis process. The minimum number of 1000 lux is needed for the growth of the plants, which is sufficient for the top part of the green wall. For areas that did not reach the amount of lights were given aid by using perforated metal for the catwalks to allow sunlight to come in from the top. The other source of light is to use artificial light to boost the lux level. Green Wall Figure 10.11: Exploded axonographic illustration of the green wall system.
  28. 28. 28 | P a g e This image shows that the viens are planted and grow from the planter box and creeps on the cable. Vanda Miss Jaoquim (Orchid) is vastly used as the plants in the green wall system as it is the national flower of Singapore. With light that comes in, heat gain demands become higher. Due to glass weak insulation propertiesit is a major contribution to thermal heat gain. As such, the terminal 3 glass used are the low-E glass and also double glazed. Green Wall Figure 10.12: Green wall seen in the Terminal 3 with live plants held up by gutters.
  29. 29. 29 | P a g e The north and south facades of the terminal 3 hall are much reduced facades as the piers are joined to the main building structure. Vertical perforated aluminium sunshades are extended most at the east and west sun. The major part of the terminal roof which has higher percentage of plants is not closed or blocked by the flip-flops in order to have maximal light emittance. The position of the palm trees are also placed is a very high significant presence of natural sunlight. The impact of in terminal 3 is an interior environment subject to stringent controls for human comfort. Green Wall Figure 10.13: Sketch of the roof theory in Terminal 3.
  30. 30. 30 | P a g e Appendix 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Average Temperature Graph for Singapore Max.temperature Min.temperature Resources from BBC Weather Figure 11.1 : Graph above showing the average temperature for Singapore. By referring to the graph above, we can conclude that the average temperature of Singapore is between 25 degree Celcius and 31 degree Celcius. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Average amount of rainfall for Singapore Figure 11.2 : Graph above showing the average amount of rainfall for Singapore. Based on the chart above, we can conclude that July is the warmest month and December is the wettest month. Resources from BBC Weather
  31. 31. 31 | P a g e Figure 11.3 : Chart above showing the direction of wind flow and average wind speed of Singapore. From the diagram shown, we can see that the wind flow is mostly from the NNE and SSW direction throughout the year. The average wind speed is usually 5-7 knots every month. The month February will have the highest wind speed which is 8 knots.
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  33. 33. 33 | P a g e 14. Randy.S (2010). WHY CHANGI AIRPORT T3 IS THE FIRST, viewed 6 May 2014, http://thebettermousetrap.wordpress.com/2010/08/05/why-changi-airport-t3-is-the-first/ 15. A Level Physics Notes: Optics – Parabolic Mirrors, viewed 5 May 2014, http://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-physics-notes/optics/a-level-physics-notes- parabolic-mirrors.html 16. Jr (2012). Comparing Double Pane and Triple Pane Windows, viewed 5 May 2014, http://socalwindowreplacement.com/triple-pane-windows/ 17. American Society of Landscape Architects (2009). GENERAL DESIGN CATEGORY, viewed 6 May 2014, http://www.asla.org/2009awards/043.html 18. ARCPROSPECT International Foundation (2008). THE GREEN WALL, viewed 5 May 2014, http://www.arcprospect.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2210%25 3Atierra-design-changi-airport-terminal- 3&catid=87%253Alandscaping&Itemid=14&lang=en 19. (2014). Wind & weather statistics Singapore Changi, viewed 7 May 2014, http://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/singapore_changi 20. (2010). FuturArc, viewed 7 May 2014, http://www.cpgcorp.com.sg/CPGC/Content/Publications/20100700_FuturArc- BCI_Green_Design_Award_2010.pdf

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