B.Con Project 1


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B.Con Project 1

  1. 1.                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING & DESIGN Bachelor of Science (Honours)(Architecture) BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1 [ARC 1413] Assignment 1: Experiencing Construction CHEANG EILEEN – CHIN PUI MAN – CHU SZI WEI – HIEW YEN NEE – LEONG CARMEN -LIEW HUI EN – TAN HENG YEE – YONG SEH LI 1006A77249 0310331 0314160 0314212 0314953 0314920 0314941 0314345  
  2. 2. Table of content   Chin  Pui  Man   Chin  Pui  Man  (2.0)   &   Yong  Seh  Li  (2.1)   Tan  Heng  Yee   &  Hiew  Yen  Nee   Cheang  Eileen     &  Chu  Szi  Wei    Carmen  Leong  (5.1,5.2,5.3)   Tan  Heng  Yee  (5.2)   Cheang  Eileen  (5.4)   Liew  Hui  En  (5.5)   Hiew  Yen  Nee  (5.6)   Yong  Seh  Li  (5.7)      Chin  Pui  Man  (6.0)   Liew  Hui  En  (6.1)         1.0   Introduction     1.1 Introduction of Site   2.0   Sites and Safety     2.1   Plants and Machinery       3.0   External Work   4.0   Foundation   3.1   Setting out and Earth Work   4.1   Foundation type and construction process   (from site visit & reference)                 5.1  Beam and Column     5.2  Slab   6.0   Roof         Cheang  Eileen   Chu  Szi  Wei     7.0   Summary           5.3  Wall         5.4  Staircase         5.5  Formwork         5.6 Door         5.7 Windows       6.1   Roof type and construction process (from site visit & reference)         7.1   Reference      
  3. 3. 1.0 Introduction As architects and the building industry continue to design and build structures that differ in design, type, materials and building method, it has become important that each party stay familiar with both basic and new concepts of building construction. As time pass by, construction methods are constantly being replaced by new and more efficient and cost effective methods to construct buildings. Therefore, architects need to improve with knowledge of building construction in order to follow trend of technology.   AIM : This project is to produce architects with knowledge of building construction by identifying difference types of building elements, construction process, details and materials. This report includes the studies and records of site and safety, external work, foundation, superstructure, roof and doors.  
  4. 4. 1.1Introduction of Sites   a. b. De’ bunga Residence Altitude 236, Luxury Condominium Ukay Perdana Bukit Manda’rina @ @ Construction starts: September 2011. Estimated of completion date: October 2014 Date of plan approval: Mac 2013 Project title Developer & Contractor 3 strata landed housing scheme (gated community) build 68 units of 3-storey semi-detached houses, 14 units of 3-storey house, 1 unit of electrical substations and 1 unit of guardhouse. Sierra Ukay Sdn. Bhd & Ijm Building Systems Sdn. Bhd. Ground Floor, Wisma IJM, Jalan Yong Shook Lin, 46050 Kuala Lumpur. Project title One block of medium cost apartments of 38-storey high with 31-storey apartments (236 units), 1-storey residential facilities, 4-storey car park, 2 floor of M&E and services and 1 block annex parking 4 and ½ floor and 1 floor recreational facilities. Owner Ijm Building Systems Sdn. Bhd. Ground Floor, Wisma IJM, Jalan Yong Shook Lin, 46050 Kuala Lumpur. Owner & Developer STAR BASE SDN. BHD. Contractor MANDA ‘RINA SDN. BHD. [Company no: 521591-H] Level 22, Menara Maxisegar, Jalan Pandan Indah, 4/2 Pandan Indah 65100 Kuala Lumpur. Architect Ar. Lee Be Hsin 43-3 Jalan 1/1 16B Kuchai Entrepreneur Park, Off Jalan Kuchai Lama 58200 Kuala Lumpur.   Ground Floor, Wisma IJM, Jalan Yong Shook Lin, 46050 Kuala Lumpur.   Architect PTA Design Sdn. Bhd. No. 37, Jalan Damai, Off Jalan Tun Razak, 55000 Kuala Lumpur.  
  5. 5. 2.0 Sites and Safety Safety management is established; a. b. Prevent injuries and illness To avoid direct and indirect cost that related to injuries and properties damages Ways to prevent injuries and accidents; a. b. c. Train all employees on safety steps. Material handling and mobile equipment safety. Provide protective equipment Standard vest with stripes. Long-sleeved work shirt. Nothing less than 4-inch sleeves. Site Safety Signs warn hazards at locations where hazards exist. Hard hats Close-fitting or medium-fitting jeans. Figure  2.0.2:  Signs   Signals are moving signs provided by workers (eg: flagman, flash lights, honks, alarms) to warn possible or existing hazards. Safety work shoes or boots. Accident-Prevention Tags is used for temporary warning. (figure 2.2) Figure  2.0.1:  Work  Clothing Head Protection Hard outer shell; to resists and defects blows to the head. Protective hard hats are to minimize the rate and level which impact forces are transmitted to the brain, neck and spine. Refer to figure 2.3 Shock-absorbing lining; incorporate a headband and straps. Clip on sweatband; absorb sweats before trickles into eyes.            Figure  2.0.3:  Signs       Figure  2.0.4:  Accident-­‐prevention  tag   Figure  2.0.5:    Hard  Hat  Type  2   Peak; to protect eyes and face.
  6. 6. Scaffolding & Planking   Scaffold is a temporary structure used to support people and materials. Wooden guardrails secured to frame Tube-and-clamp guardrails to protect outrigger/side platform Safety Net Safety net is setup to provide fall protection. -Can be adjustable in height and width.   Frames Figure  2.0.7:  Planking  on  scaffold  to   provide  walking  underneath   Figure  2.0.6:    Scaffolding  at  De’bunga   Figure  2.0.9:  Walk-­‐through  scaffold   • Walk-through scaffold is frequently used by masonry trade to provide greater height per tier and easier distribution of materials on platforms at intermediate levels. Figure  2.0.8:  Proper  planking   system     Figure  2.0.11:  Walkway  on  scaffold   in  between  building  and  safety  net  
  7. 7. 2.1 Plants and Machinery Figure  2.0.10:  Scaffolding  at  Altitude  236   Excavator Pile Driving Equipment A pile driver is used to drive poles or piles into the soil to give foundation support for buildings or structures. It is placed on a pile or pole Excavator is heavy machinery composed of a boom, stick, bucket and cab upon rotating platform known as the ‘house’. The house sits on top of an undercarriage with tracks or wheels. Function movement of excavator are achievable through the use of hydraulic fluid, motors and cylinders. Is used to dig holes, foundations and trenches. Figure  2.1.1:  Pile  Driving  Equipment  at  De’Bunga   Hydraulics, steam, diesel or manual labor is used to raise weight. Once the weight reaches its optimum point, it will immediately released and smashes on to pile or pole in order to drive it into the ground soil. Figure  2.1.4:  Views  and  measurement  of   excavator     Figure  2.1.3:  Excavators  at  De’  Bunga     Compactor Figure  2.1.2:    Parts  of  Pile   Driving  Equipment   Guide consists heavy weight to enable to slide up and down easily in single vertical line. It is placed on a pole or pile. A machine used to minimize the size of waste materials or soil through compaction. Figure  2.1.5:  Compactor  at  Altitude  236    
  8. 8. Backhoe Loader Bulldozer Is an excavating equipment consists of digging bucket on the end of the two-part articulated arm. It is also used in construction, demolitions, light transportation of building materials, excavation, landscaping and paving roads. A bulldozer is a crawler consist of a substantial metal plate, also known as blade, used to push large quantities of sand, soil and other materials during construction and generally equipped at the rear with a ripper to loosen compacted materials. Figure  2.1.8:  Ripper   Figure  2.1.6:    Backhoe  loader  at  Altitude  236   Figure  2.1.7:    Backhoe  loader  at  De’Bunga   Figure  2.1.0:  Overall  view  of  bulldozer   Figure  2.1.7:  Part  of  backhoe  loader   Figure  2.1.9:  Blade  
  9. 9. Dump Truck Tower Crane Is used to transport loose material like sand, soil and dirt. It is equipped with an openbox bed, which is hinged at the rear and consists of hydraulic piston to lift up the front, enabling the material in the bed to be dumped on the ground behind the truck. Tower crane is fixed to the ground on a concrete slab. It gives the best combination of height and lifting capacity and is used in construction of tall buildings. The base is attached to the mast that gives its height. It is further attached to the slewing unit, which enables the crane to rotate. On the top of the slewing unit, there are the long horizontal jib, shorter counter-jib, and the operator's cab. Figure  2.1.11:    Dump  truck  at  De’Bunga   Figure  2.1.12:  View  of  dump  truck   Figure  2.1.15:  Tower  crane  at  Altitude  236   Rebar Bender A device used to bend steel bars and other heavy metals. Figure  2.1.16:  Sectional  view  of  tower  crane   Forklift Forklift truck is used to lift and transport building materials. Its components include the truck frame, counterweight, cab, overhead guard, power source, tilt cylinders, mast, carriage, load backrest and attachments. Figure  2.1.17:  Forklift  at  Altitude  236   Figure  2.1.13:  Rebar  Bender  at  De’Bunga   Figure  2.1.14:  Brief  explanation  of  rebar  bender  
  10. 10. 3.0 External Work 3.1 Setting out & Earth Work 1. Soil Testing 2. Land Surveying 3. Site Clearance 4. Cutting, Filling & 5. Leveling and Grading Compacting Collecting and identifying the sample of soil on site Purpose a) To ensure no hidden chemical/physical condition on site b) Help to choose suitable footing type. c) To know the ground water level to help whether need to carry out dewatering. How? a ) Excavation of Trial Hole ( 2m x1m) I. Using machinery exactor II. Allow good visual inspection of the strata b) Drilling boreholes I. Using hand auger II. Inspection of strata can only be done by excavated material brought up by auger Purpose a) To ensure the boundaries of the property is set precisely b) To ensure building build at a right boundary c) To avoid legal problem when construction start Who ? By Land Surveyor How ? By using Theodolite Removal of vegetation, stumps, roots and topsoil at least 2’ below subgrade Purpose a) To prevent soil movement caused by decaying organic matter which may threaten the foundations or other elements of the surrounding site. b) To prevent future problems like insect infestation, diseased wood and lawnmower damage Earthmoving operation in which the material excavated and removed from one location is used as fill material at another location. Why? a) The land being filled is going to be used for building foundations. b) Compacting earth is to avoid settling. Device Bulldozer Reshaping of the field surface to a planned grade Purpose a) To level the field to its best condition with minimal earth movement b) To provide a slope which fits water supply How? Dumpy level measures the height of two points on a horizontal plane, allowing the builder to measure whether a bit of ground is level or not. Phases of Land leveling operations 1. Rough grading 2. Land levelling 3. Land smoothing. Device Skid-Steer loaders Plate compactor Dumpy level
  11. 11. 6. Setting Out 6a. Pegging Out 6b. Setting Out Corner 6c. Mark Builder’s Line Profiles Purpose To ensure that the various elements of the scheme are positioned correctly in all three dimensions. Equipment a) Wooden Pegs - provide with nail fixed at the top center to locate the station point b) Profile Boards - help to indicate the thickness of the wall and width of the foundation c) Builder’s Lines - made out of hemp, string or wire - must not stretch, sag or taut which can cause the profile board to displace or the line itself breaks Device Theodolite Dumpy level Tripod 2. Mark two corner of the 1.When the positions of the corners of the building are known, profile board will be used to mark the positions and widths of the wall, foundations and excavation . building to set out the front line. 2.Saws cut in top of 1. One of the building corners will be set up as a temporary benchmark by placing a wooden peg in the ground with a nail on top. 3. The lines of all the other walls are measured from this front line using Pythagoras theorem. 4. After placing 4 pegs at corner, measure the diagonals (Line x & y) and make sure both are in same lengths profile board set horizontal and to know level 6d. Marking Out on the Ground from the Profiles 1.Saws cut in the top of Profile board act as marks and allow builder's line stretching from notch to notch in opposite profile board -intersection of string mark corner of various part of substructure this black dot mark the corner of the wall to be built and should be exactly over the original wooden peg 1. Marking out on the ground follow the builder’s line as closely as possible by sprinkle old cement, lime or saw dust on ground. 2. Remove the builder line to allow excavation to carry on as the line will disturb the subsequent work.
  12. 12. 7. Trench Excavation With the outline of the concrete marked on the ground, excavator digged out between the lines to form a trench How? By using JCB excavator 8. Subsoil Drainage System A drainage system above natural water table that drain away surface water Purpose ? a. Increase the stability of the ground and footings of building b. Reducing foundation movement due to the variation in the soil moisture content. Type of pipes a. Rigid-concrete pipe b. FlexibleHDPE Corrugated Pipe 9. Backfilling Used to surround pipes that are buries beneath the surface Why? a. Helps to protect the pipe from damage. b. Acts as a foundation for the road pavement. How? a. Flowable type backfill b. Granular type backfill 10. Pavement Made up of three layers: a. Subgrade: Earth that has been graded to the desired elevation. b. Subbase: A course of material that is placed on the subgrade to provide drainage and stability. c. Base is placed on the subbase to provide a stable platform for the concrete pavement slab. Why? a. These are essential for a strong,durable concrete pavement system. b. To maintain a good system of roads which is the underlying backbone of our infrastructure.
  13. 13. 4.0 Foundation 4.1 Foundation type and construction process     A pile cap is a thick concrete mat that rests on concrete or timber piles that hav e been driven into soft or unstable ground to provide a suitable stable foundati on. It usually forms part of the foundation of a building, typically a multi-story b uilding, structure or support base for heavy equipment. The cast concrete pile c ap distributes the load of the building into the piles. A similar structure to a pile cap is a "raft", which is a concrete foundation floor resting directly onto soft soil which may be liable to subsidence. 4.after the completion of a bored pile , the remaining reinforced bars are then extended to form starter bars and th e concrete pile is then extended up to ground level or beyond such that the floors of the building rests on the pile.
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  16. 16.                 5.1 Beam & Column   Beam and Column       •  Reinforced concrete column       •  •  •  •  Length of overlapping reinforcement bar is forty times of the diameter of bar. Dowels tie column to supported beam or slab. Vertical reinforcement should not be less than 1% nor more than 8% of the cross sectional concrete beam. Types of reinforcement steel includes T12, T14, T16, T20, T25, T32 and T40. ‘T’ represents reinforcement steel and the numbers indicates the diameter. Lateral Reinforcement 1. •  •  •  Reinforced concrete column is designed to carry compressive load. Reinforcement bar in concrete increases the column’s tensile strength. Size of columns differs according to the amount of load it has to bear. •  •  •  •  •  •  Rebars for columns 2. 3. 4. Number of reinforcement bar used in columns may be varied instead of varying the size of columns. Formations of lateral reinforcement bars depends on the number of vertical reinforcement bars used in a column. Lateral ties should have a minimum diameter of 10mm. Space between two ties is not more than 48 tie diameter. Type of reinforcement used is usually T12, reinforcement steel with a diameter of 12mm. Concrete columns may be supported by isolated footings or by pile caps.
  17. 17. Reinforced  Concrete  Beams   •  •    Without  reinforcement,  beam  will  crack  when  too  much  force  is   applied  to  it.   BoCom  bar  withstands  more  tensile   force  because  force  is  applied   downwards.   •  S7rrups  are  placed  perpendicular   to  the  longitudinal  bar  to  resist   the  ver7cal  component  of  a   diagonal  force.   Reinforcement  bars  of  beam  and  slab   •  •  Reinforced  concrete  beam  is  a  horizontal   structural  component  designed  to  carry  load.   Like  columns,  reinforcement    bar  is  ins7lled  to   withstand  tensile  force.     •  •    •  Beam  width  should  be   equal  or  greater  than  width   of  suppor7ng  column.   Depth  of  beam  is   span  divided  by  16   Longitudinal  bar   serves  as  tension   reinforcement.     BEAM  SUPPORTING  TYPES   Simply  supported  beam   •  •  Beam  is  supported  by  two  columns   at  both  ends.   Beams  of  a  rela7vely  short  span   uses  this  support.   Fixed  beam   •  •  Beams  that  are  fixed  at  both  ends   either  to  other  beams  or  to  two  walls.   It  is  can  be  supported  by  primary   beams.   Con5nuous  beam   •  •  A  con7nuous  beam  has  more  than  two   supports  distributed  throughout  its  length.   Used  to  support  a  beam  of  a  large  span.  
  18. 18. Steps to build Beams and Column 1 2     3   4   5   6   7                                 Cladding of formwork Setting up of using plywood. reinforcement bars. The thickness of bars and the number of bars used depends on the load it has to bear.                     Cement is being pumped and poured into the formwork. A concrete vibrator is then used to released trapped air and excess water. When the concrete of the columns have dried up, cladding of formwork for beams can be done. Reinforcement bars for beams are set up. Columns and beams Cement is poured into the formwork. A concrete are formed. Excess rebar on top of column vibrator is then used to ensure that the concrete is for continuation of rebar for next floor. settle firmly in place.                
  19. 19. 5.2 Slab Reinforced Concrete Slab Suspended Slabs • Reinforcement bar placed perpendicularly. • • • • Reinforced concrete slabs are plate structures laid with reinforcement bar to withstand load. It is supported by beams. Hence, force applied to slabs are transferred to beams. Beam that supports the slab • • Size of reinforcement bar used differs according to the load it has to bear. Thickness of floor slab depends on the load it has to bear. Minimum thickness of slab is 100mm. Reinforcement bars for slab.
  20. 20. Ground Slabs Concrete Slab • Thickness depends on the load it has to bear. • Minimum thickness is 100mm. • Additives may be added to increase surface hardness and abrasion resistance. Damp Proof Membrane • Polyethylene moisture barrier to prevent water from entering the structure. • Thickness of polyethylene is 0.15mm Workers working on ground slab. Gravel Stone • Gravel Stone laid as a base to prevent the capillary rise of groundwter. • Minimum thickness is 100mm. Two-Way Slab One-Way Slab • • • One way slabs are reinforced in one direction and they are casted on a series of parallel beams or walls. Force is transferred in parallel to beams. Suitable for light load and span of slab is relatively short. • • • Two way slabs are reinforced in two directions. It is casted with supporting beams on all four sides. Force is transferred to all four sides to the beams. Suitable for heavy load. Shape of slab is relatively squarish.
  21. 21. 1. Ledger is set for the beams. 2. After setting the ledgers. Bearers will be installed in an interval of 300mm. Bearer
  22. 22. 3. Plywood are installed sides by sides and bases are installed between the bearers 4.The props is set for slab installation . Then ledgers for slab will be set in an interval of 200mm . Then,plywood decking will be laid on the props setting. Next is the entering of the reinforcement cages of beams Plywood Decking
  23. 23. 5. Spacer blocks are placed on the plywood decking which allow sufficient concrete cover. 6. Electrical wiring system is installed before placing the bottom reinforcement.
  24. 24. 7.Cement is poured to form the concrete slab .The cement is transported by a concrete pump 8.Dismantlement of the wooden formwork will occur after the concrete gain certain strength.
  25. 25. 5.3 WALL Types of wall I.   De’Bunga : II. Altitude 236 :                       a) Masonry Wall • Clay brick builds the wall. Bricks are laid in running bond. • Openings are spanned with lintels for installation of doors and windows.   • Thickness of wall is 100mm.           Figure  5.4.1:  Masonry  Wall  structure  at  De’bunga                 b) Party Wall   • The wall is built between two houses that are attached to each other. • Thickness of wall is 205mm. • Acts as a fire wall. It slows down the spread of fire to the neighbouring house.                                     Figure  5.4.2:  Party  Wall  structure  at  De’bunga       Reinforced concrete wall formed by Aluminium formwork • Walls formed by reinforced concrete is load bearing • Pouring concrete mix into formwork with reinforcement bar forms reinforced concrete wall. • Minimum thickness of load bearing wall is 150mm and 205mm for party walls. Figure  5.4.3:  Reinforced  concrete  wall  at  Altitude  236  
  26. 26.   Steps of construction wall         1 2     Concrete Column                       X-met Concrete cement Dowel Bar • •                       4   3   Acts as brick reinforcement. Placed at an interval of 4 rows of bricks • • Acts as brick reinforcement. Placed at an interval of 4 rows of bricks. Bricks • Laid in running bond             Level Peg • An indicator for the thickness of the plaster. X-met • Fastened in between column and bricks to prevent cracking of plaster. Dash   • Mixture  of   cement,  sand   and  water.   • Applied  onto   concrete   surface.   • To  provide  a   rougher   surface  to   hold  plaster.         Finishing • Plaster will be done after masonry work. • Plaster is a mixture of adhesive cement, sand and water.  
  27. 27. 5.4   Wooden formwork of staircase 1 2     Temporary panels Joist width 3   v   Joist Stringer Slab thickness Tread Rebar Soffit panel thickness Temporary panels along the stairway at construction area are set up and braced. Treads and risers on the panel are also laid out. Then, the slab thicknesses at a right angle to the slope of the stairway are measured and a line is snapped.       Figure  5.5.1:  Staircase  construction   formwork  at  Altitude  236   Shores to be cut at angle After that, lay out the soffit panel thickness, joist width and stringer width and snap lines. The next step, shore length and the side form width are determined.                                         4   Soffit panel Stringer width Brace Riser STAIRCASE Shores cut to length Shores are cut to length and secured in position. Stringers are nailed to the tops of the shores, joists are nailed to the tops of the stringers and soffit panels are nailed in position. Then, the temporary panels are removed. NOTE: The construction of stairs using system formwork at Altitude 236 is very similar to wooden formwork such that segments of the formwork are pieced together like a jigsaw. System formwork is at an advantage whereby no wastage of wood is produced and the aluminium mould can reuse over and over again. This provides a one-time investment for the contractor as well as compared to wooden formwork that can be used once and has to be disposed of after usage.                     Stiffener Riser form boards Cleats Side forms Rebar Front section Bottom plate Top plate Treads and risers are laid out on the side form. While the top and bottom plates and stiffeners are nailed through the side forms. Side forms are then fastened to the top of the joists. After the rebar has been placed, cleats and riser form boards are fastened to the side forms. Lastly, the front section is nailed into place.  
  28. 28. Types of staircase Stair Plans Both of the sites are having the same type of staircase, which is concrete stairs . A concrete stair is designed as an inclined slab with steps formed on its upper surface. Hence, it often requires careful analysis of load, span and support 1. De’bunga Uses quarter-turn stair . Quarter-turn stair is a L-shaped stair, which makes a right-angled turn in the path of travel and its two flights are connected by an intervening landing which are equal in size. conditions.   Nosing bars Shear key     Steel dowel                           Steel reinforcement as required   Figure  5.5.3:  Quarter-­‐turn  staircase   Horizontal bars extend into sidewall. Beam support Figure  5.5.2:  Longitudinal  section  of  a   concrete  staircase                       2. Altitude 236 Uses half-turn stair . A half turn-stair turns 180 degrees at an intervening landing and this kind of stair is more compact than a single straight-run stair. Two flights connected by the landing here are also equal in size.   Figure  5.5.4:  Half-­‐turn  staircase            
  30. 30. 3. PRELIMINARY TASK BY JOBSITE 1.ARRIVAL AND UNLOADING OF CONTAINER The panels inside each container is unloaded 2.MATERIAL VERIFICATION The supervisor and client’s representative will verify material received based on the packing list. Once the verification is completed the panels is put in order based on set up location. 4. PREPERATION FOR SETTING As preliminary task, the structural line must be drawn based on the shell plan. 5. WALL SETTING Based on the structural line the rebar must be installed. 6. OPENING AND SUNKEN SETTING WALL PANELS 4   Before installing the panels, it is extremely Important to apply sufficient quantity of oil based form oil, in order to prevent the concrete to stick on the panel. When installing the wall panels, the job site workers must start on one side of the wall and install the wall panels with the flat ties. Once the set up for one side is completed the opposite side will be completed with the PVC slits. 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  Ones all wall panels had been installed, the installation of panels for opening area will start. Ones the up stand has been set up the installation of panels for window area is as follows. 6   3   2   WEDGE AND ROUND PIN 4   3   FLAT TIE AND PVC SLEEVE 5   1   2   BEAM CAP SLAB PANEL BEAM CAP SC WALL END PANEL BEAM CAP SC BEAM CAP PANEL PROP AND PROP HEAD
  31. 31. 7. KICKER SETTING 8. AL-BRACKET SETTING 9.SLAB SETTING JOINT BAR KICKER SLAB PANELS BEAM MIIDDLE BEAM AL-BRACKET SQUARE PIPE Once the inner and outer panels had been installed, the kicker will be installed on the top of the wall panel in sure that the both four encore will be used while installing the kicker panel. 10. CONCRETE SETTING In order the keep the horizontality of the wall, the AL bracket and square pipe will be installed. The assembly of the main beam will be done by assembling the middle beam, end beam and prop head together. When installing the slab, start with one standard panel at the corner of the room and then install the main beam. Remaining slab panels will be installed. 11. AL – FORM DISMENTTLEMENT PROP HEAD PIPE SUPPORT Ones the assemble has been completed, the person in charge of the job site must clarify all panels and accessories had been installed correctly. When this clarification is done, concrete will be poured on wall, beam and slab . 24 hours after pouring the concrete, the dismantlement will start with wall panels. Ones dismantled leave the wall panels , leave the panels along the wall by type and by location. Furthermore, when the panels of opening areas are dismantled insure that the prop remains in its place. After dismantling the wall panels, the slab will be dismantled. While dismantling insure that the slab panel will not free fall on the floor or on the workers and the prop and prop head will stay in its place. The last area to be dismantled will be the slab corner.
  32. 32. 12. INSTALLATION OF EXTERNAL WORKING BRACKETS WALL PLATFORM STAIRCASE SETTING SAFETY RAIL TIMBER PLATFORM When installing the external plat form, install them in a distance of 1.2 meters using the thyroids. Once the bracket of the plat form has been installed, install the timber for the platform and safety rail. The staircase must be installed as follows. Installation of the wall panels on the down area. Installation of the slab panel, beam and props. Installation of the upper part panels. Installation of the lower panels. STEP PANEL CAP PANEL Installation of the side panels. Finally installation of the step and cap panels. Insure that there will always be props on two level, to support the slab .The external working platform must be installed on two levels. Using the same method shown, the installation and dismantlement of the aluminum formwork will be repeated until all of the floors are completed.
  33. 33. DESCRIPTION OF ACCESSORIES 5.WALL FLAT TIE- used to joint the wall panel to the opposite side’s wall panel. PVC SLEEVE-installed between the wall panel and the opposite side’s wall panels. Flat ties is inserted inside the PVC sleeve to prevent the casting of flat tie to the concrete. WEDGE AND ROUND PIN- used to joint the Wall or Slab panels together. AL-BRACKET AND SQUARE PIPE- used to allow horizontal straightness of the wall panels. 9. BEAM AND SLAB MIDDLE BEAM-Used to joint the prop heads and supports the slab panels JOINT BAR-Used to joint the prop heads with the beams SLAB PANEL -used to support the concrete weight during concrete pouring and casting PROP HEAD- used to joint the beams together and the prop head was connected with the pipe support FLAT TIE WALL PROP HEAD AND PIPE SUPPORT CONCRETE PUMP PIPE EXTERNAL PLATFORM ADVANTAGES OF ALUMINIUM FORMWORK SYSTEM SPEED UP CONSTRUCTION PERIOD BETTER WORKING ENVIRONMENT INCREASE IN WORKER’S SAFETY INCREASE IN WORKFORCE’S SKILL STAIRS
  34. 34. 5.6     Door A door frame is a building component used to hang a door. Frames used in residential buildings are typically made from wood. Its surrounds and supports the entire door system.   DOOR Rough Opening An opening in a wall into which doorframe is fitted. Head Doorjamb   Stop/Doorstop The projecting part of doorframe against which a door closes. Sill Figure  5.6.1:  Wooden  door  frame  at   De’bunga   Figure  5.6.2:  Wooden  door  frame  at   Altitude  236   • To hold the doorframe before it gets harden/fix in position. • To prevent from falling Casing (Trim) The moulding that surrounds the doorframe for looks. Jamb The door frame that surround the actual door. Attached to door by hinges. Stop Small strip of wood that surrounds the entire inside perimeter of the door and stops the door from swinging in to far. Hinges Attach the door to the doorjamb (frame). Figure  5.6.3:  Wooden  door  frame  at   Altitude  236  
  35. 35.                             Types of Door           Slab Door The most popular door that used by everyone                             French/Hinged Door Two door panels that lock in the middle and swing in or out Dutch Door The top part can be move while the bottom shut. Bi-Fold Door A system of hinged doors that stack against a wall Gliding Door A door with two or four panels that slide past one another Saloon Door A pair of lightweight swing doors often found in public bars Types of Mechanism   Open Open Open Open Close Close Close Close Folding Door Hinged Door The doors are hinged along one side to allow door The door operated by fitting the pivots of one door into the top and bottom pivot brackets. to pivot away from the doorway in one direction but not in the other. The axis of rotation is usually vertical. Sliding Door Pivot door slides allow the door to pivot open then slide back into the sides of the cabinet. Rotating Door The door typically consists of three or four doors that hang on a central shaft and rotate around a vertical axis within a cylindrical enclosure. It is either be mounted at the central pivot or attached to the door wings.
  36. 36. 5.7 WINDOWS Types of Windows Picture Window Picture window is a large fixed window in a wall, generally without glazing bars, or glazed with only minimum reflection of glazing bars near the edge of the window. Picture window provides an unblocked vie, as if framing a picture on the wall. Single-hung Window Single-hung window has two sashes but typically the top sash is fixed and only the bottom sash slides. The advantage of sash window that it provides cooling effect of interiors during warm weather. By opening both top and bottom of a sash window by equal amounts allows warm air at the top of the room to escape, thus drawing cool air from the outside into the room through the bottom opening. Fixed Window A fixed window cannot be opened. Its function is limited to allow light to enter. This type of window is used in where only light or vision is needed and there is no ventilation is possible because the use of trickle vents or over glass vents is absent in this type of window. Single Casement Window Casement windows are hinged on the either side and open outward to the right or left. It is usually taller than wide, their entire sash opens to provide top-to-bottom light and ventilation.
  37. 37. Installation of Casement Window The window opening is spanned externally by a brick-on-edge arch backed by a reinforced concrete lintel. As the flat arch has little strength it is supported by a mild steel angle, with ends built into the brickwork. The exposed edge painted for protection. The window frame may be fixed to the sides of brick jambs.The jamb may be fixed to the brickwork by screwing or nailing to hardwood plugs let into mortar joints. The hardwood sill helps to improve its weathering qualities, which overhangs the face of the brickwork. Where the window is set well back from the outer wall face, it is necessary to incorporate a precast concrete sub sill. Mullions should be through tenoned into heads and sills, an the transoms stubtenoned into jambs and mullions. Opening casements are held in a closed position by casement fasteners, while both casement and ventlights can be fixed in a number of open positions by means of casement stays, which may be either the peg or sliding varieties.
  38. 38. 6.0 ROOF Cross Gable From the site at De’bunga, the roof constructed is cross gable. Fly rafter Either of the end rafters in the part of a gable root that projects beyond the gable wall. Lookout A short bracket for supporting the overhang of roof. Valley Rafter A rafter connecting the ridge to the wall plate along a valley. Valley Jack A jack rafter extending from a valley rafter to a ridge. Cripple Jack A rafter joining a hip to a valley. Hip Rafter A rafter forming the junction of the sloping sides of a hip roof.
  41. 41. 7.0 Summary SUMMARY: Throughout the whole of this project, we manage to obtain more knowledge and guidance of Malaysian building construction methods compared to that of lecturers and in-class learning. Besides that, we have learned that throughout the process of building construction, compromises are made and the plans produced by architects are not finalized and it’s a process of evolutions that occurs from the beginning to the end of the project. In the first site, De’Bunga Residence, we were able to witness a three-storey bungalow at its pre-roofing stage such that most of its structural components were already completed. We learned the different names of materials in which the contractors used such as splash dash, beam starter bars, wire mesh and key holes in the mortar walls for the door frame. All of which are rather new terms we have not learned in class. This help broaden our “architectural vocabulary” as some of these terms are not written in the books and vary from country to country. At the same time, we were able to improve our observation skills. During our second site at Altitude 236, we were fortunate enough to be able to visit a condominium in which we managed to experience a totally different variety of construction methods such as using reinforced concrete to construct everything from walls to roofs and floors. The machinery used in high-rise construction is very different as well such that they have to transport building materials from ground level all the way up to the construction area. Lastly, we as a team would like to thank the people in which has given us guidance and took time to patiently explain the different components of the construction site. We would also like to thank IJM the developer for allowing us to visit their construction site and for providing us with the information we need to complete our assignment.
  42. 42. 7.1 Reference 1. Francis D.K. Ching (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4thth ed.). Canada : John Wiley & Sons . (Original work published 1943). - See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.IAP1nV35.dpuf 2.Stephen Emmit and Christopher A. Gorse (2010). Scaffolding. Barry's Advance Construction of Buildings (2nd ed., pp. 13-63). United Kingdom, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing. (Original w -See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.CGtvjdMz.dpuf 3.Watts, A. (2010). Modern Construction Handbook (2nd ed.). London, England: SpringerWienNewYork. (Original work published 2001). - See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.wuj9UxoZ.dpuf 4.Sarkar, S. K. (2012). Construction Technology (1st ed.). India: Oxford University Press. (Original work published 2008). -See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.MMZ0Vo1i.dpuf 5.Roy Chudley and Roger Greeno (2005). Construction Technology (4th ed.). Harrold, England: Personal Education Limited. (Original work published 1973). - See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.JpkMre3r.dpuf 6.Edward Allen and Joseph Iano (2009). Fundamentals of Building Construction Materials and Methods (5th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. (Original work published 1938). -See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.MfgdTH7J.dpuf 7. Deplazes, A. (2012). Constructing Architecture (2nd ed.). Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser. (Original work published 1997) - See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.XyPGNvQQ.dpuf 8. Francis D.K. Ching (2013). Introduction to Architecture (1st ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and sons. - See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.QFmEW525.dpuf 9.Broadhurst, T. (n.d.). About the Old House Web. Retrieved October 9, 2013, from http://www.oldhouseweb.com/about-the-old-house-web.shtml -See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.MxlYMDQu.dpuf 10. Organizations of America States. (n.d.). Organizations of America States. Retrieved Oct 6, 2013, from http://www.oas.org/cdmp/document/codedraw/sectionb.htm See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.flvFOjAv.dpuf 11. bag, j. (2012, May 24). Kumkang Aluminium Formwork System [Video file] [Video file]. Retrieved Oct 17,2013, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I85iQCvOT_I - See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.xIkWGGwz.dpuf 12. Cheah, D. (2011, Dec 10). Casting of 1st Floor Beam & Slab [Video file] [Video file]. Retrieved Oct 5,2013, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MquLVCiCYtw&feature=youtu.be - See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.a6E3t6qM.dpuf