The reason for having a short introduction on basic economics for Iceland is to set the ground for certain decitions made in connection with Clusters in Iceland, i.e. energy, fish, and then general advancement of the economy in Iceland.
In the case of Iceland it was a Banking Crisis, a kind of a canary bird in the mine, the first to suffer and a signal to other countries.
Turkey moves up by two places this year to 59th position. The country benefits from its large market (17th), which is characterized by intense local competition (13th). Turkey also benefits from its reasonably developed infrastructure (51st), particularly roads and air transport, although ports and the electricity supply require upgrading. In order to further enhance its competitiveness, Turkey must focus on improving its human resources base through better primary education and healthcare (75th) and higher education and training (74th), increasing the efficiency of its labor market (133rd), and reinforcing the efficiency and transparency of its public institutions (86th). After having moved up by six positions last year, Poland drops back two places to 41st. The country displays a fairly even performance across all 12 pillars of competitiveness. Notable strengths include its large market size (20th) and high educational standards, in particular its high enrollment rates (17th). The financial sector is well developed (34th) and Poland’s increased trustworthiness (16th) has contributed to its very good performance in this domain. Indeed, banks are assessed as more sound than they were only two years ago, although additional strengthening will be necessary given the country’s still mediocre 60th rank on this indicator. Further enhancing competitiveness will require a significant upgrading of transport infrastructure, which trails international standards by a considerable margin (111th). While some progress has been made in this area since last year, it is not sufficient to increase its ranking. The quality of roads in Poland continues to be assessed particularly poorly (134th). And although the improvements to some aspects of the institutional framework, such as the transparency of government policymaking and physical security, are notable, the business sector remains very concerned about the burden of government regulation (124th). As Poland transitions to the innovation-driven stage of development, it will have to focus more strongly on developing capacities in innovation and business sophistication. Stronger clusters, more R&D orientation of companies, and intensified collaboration between universities and the private sector would help the country to move toward a more future-oriented development path.
Polland 2010, 0,74% of GDPTurkey 2009, 0,85% of GDPIceland 2009, 3,11 og GDP
Unnið upp úr skýrslunni frá í október 2011:(Lammer-Gamp, tomas/Meier zu Köcker, Gerd/Christensen, tomas Alslev, 2011:Clusters are Individuals. Creating Economic Growth through Cluster Policies for Cluster Management Excellence, Danish Ministry of Research, Innovation and Higher Education/Competence networks Germany, Copenhagen/Berlin”).Based on the largest international analysis of its kind (Lammer et. Al) involving a simultanious benchmarking of more than 140 cluster organisations ond of cluster policies form nine European countries it is found that the economic impacts of clusters depend on many more factors not related to the specialization of regions through the geographical concentration of the cluster than earlier research suggests. Cluster management excellence and the spectrum and frequency of buisness-related services of the cluster organization are important determinant for the impact of the cluster. Þar koma inn mismunandi svið sbr. RD, internationalisering etc…Clusters can be defined as a geographic aggregation of interconnected companies and institutions in particular field, linked by commonalities and complementaries.Cooperation vs CompetitionIn a cluster there is a system of interconnected firms and institution whose value as a whole is greater than the sum of its part.
Strategic Research Program for the Excellence and Research Clusters (Rannís):To reinforce science and technology research, encourage successful collaboration between different parties nationally, as well as internationally and actuate value creation and investment in research and innovation in the economy.EURm 6,8 million, 2009 to 2015, exploitation of the R&D potential. Regional Growth agreements (Vaxtarsamningar):To promote innovation and strengthen the competitiveness of regions through networking and cluster co-operation among firms, R&D institutions, universities, municipalities and the government.EUR 3,8 million, 2010 to 2013, regional economic development.
Earlier programmes and experienceTwo earlier programmes;in the fields of IT and Environmental research during 2001 to 2004, with a budget of 580 million ISKin the fields of Postgenomic biomedicine and Nanoscience and Nanotechnology during 2005 to 2010. Budget of 450 million ISK.Now, Strategic Research Programme, Centres of Excellence & Research Clusters STPC’s prioritiesReinforcingresearchineducationPromotinginnovationandinvestmentandsupport of innovativecompaniesFacilitatingresearchonthenationalheritageHealthservicesSustainableutilisationonnaturalresourcesImpactsonthenaturalandsocialenvironmentthroughglobalwarmingInfrastructure of oursocietywithemphasisonitscharacteristicsanduniquenessIncreaseattentiontowardscreativeindustriesApplicationprocessintwosteps;a proposal for a project; max 8 pagesoutliningtheideaandthestructure of theproposedcentre of excellenceout of thefirststep 10 proposalswouldbechosentodeliver a full featuredapplication. Eachapplicant, out of theseten, wasgranted 1 million ISK toprepareandwritetheapplication
NB, nefna mismunandi flokka, iðnaðarás: Orkufyrirtæki, háskóla, rannsóknastofnanir og Vísindaás ráðgjafafyrirtæki og orkufyrirtækin (verkfræði).Ath með að nefna djúpborunina, sm dæmi um stórt verkefni sem sameinast er um, kostar mikla peninga, mikil áhætta en þekingin nýtist öllum.
The institute is funded through sponsorship from industrial and academic institutions, competitive research funds and technology licensing. Industrial members provide challenging practical questions, while universities provide doctoral students, postdoctoral associates, and research faculty.IIIM helps subscribing companies expand their horizon and produce advanced technologies sooner. Bridging between academia and industry, IIIM increases flow of ideas, people and projects between participants, speeding up their progress and improving the quality of their work.
IIIM is funded by Rannis,School of Computer Science at RUand CCP Games
Iceland Ocean ClusterThe goal of the Iceland Ocean Cluster is to increase the value and understanding of ocean related activities in Iceland. In the Ocean Cluster companies in different sectors, such as fisheries, research & innovation, biotechnology, technology manufacturing, logistics and finances, work together.
Áherslur - samstarfsfletir Menntun tengd þessum greinum Lagaumhverfi Ísland í víðara samhengi í tengslum við norðlægar slóðir Samstarf á víðari grunni en áður
Machinery for food processing and catchÁherslur - samstarfsfletir Efling markaðsstarfs Sameina markhópalistar Sameiginleg innkaup, t.d. innkaup á stáli Fjármögnun, en illa virðist ganga að fá fjármuni.
Áherslur - samstarfsfletir Efla tengsl milli menntastofnanna í sjávarklasanum Vinna heildstæða stefnu um framboð menntunar sem tengist sjávarklasanum á Íslandi Kynna námsgreinar og tækifærin á þessu sviði með það að markmiði að fjölga þeim sem skrá sig í nám á þessu sviði á næstu tveim árum.
Icelandic Geothermal ClusterGekon, Gekon´s project is the mapping of the Icelandic geothermal cluster.About 60 members participates in the project to various degrees.
İZLANDA CIP PROJESİ KÜMELENME SUNUMU
Clustering in Iceland and Expectations from CDCM Project(CAPACITY DEVELOPMET FOR CLUSTER MANAGERS (CDCM) PROJECT) 6 February 2012, Hallgrímur Jónasson, General Director, Rannís
Agenda• Elementary facts about Iceland• Who is Rannís?• R&D Clusters Rannís finances; – Strategic Research Programme, Centres of Excellence & Research Clusters• Other main clusters in Iceland• Expectations from the Project
Ocean currents and biologicalfertility make Iceland very suitablefor fishing. The quota system is anattempt to preserve sustainabilityof the resource.
Iceland´s Hydropower Energy towards Complete Renewability
Iceland´s Geothermal Energy, Geothermal Heat Has Many Forms
A Society with more than 80% Renewables Sources of primary energy 100 Oil and Gas Nuclear Nuclear 90 Fossil Fuels 80 70 60 Fossil FossilPer cent 50 Fuels Fuels 40 Renewables 30 20 Coal 10 Renewables Renewables 0 Renewables WORLD OECD ICELAND
Export Income 2009 Total: 711 Bill. ISK Other services 8,2% Marine products 29,3% Transport 12,6% Agriculture 1,1% Tourism 9,3% Power intensive industries 25,8% Other production 5,8% Manufacturing products 7,9%Source: Statistics Iceland
Export/Import in 2009 Market Area % 859080 70706050 Export40 Import30 1920 8 6 4 4 610 0 Europe U.S.A. Japan Other Source: Statistics Iceland
“Iceland will be fine”,World Economic Forum Ranking
Who is Rannís? Rannís reports to the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture with the purpose of providing professional assistance in the preparation and implementation of science and technology policy in Iceland. Its main functions are:• Operation of the financial support system for research and technological development.• Provision of services and information to the Science and Technology Policy Council and its sub-committees.• Coordinating and promoting Icelandic participation in collaborative international projects in science and technology.• Monitoring resources and performance in R&D, and evaluating the results of scientific research, technological development and innovation.• Promoting public awareness of research and innovation in Iceland.• Rannís serves the Icelandic science community across all areas of science, as well as the humanities.
Science and Technology Policy Governance ALÞINGI (Parliament) Prime Ministers Office Science and Technology Policy Council (Four ministers plus sixteen representatives)Ministry of Education, Science and Culture Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism Science Board Technology Board Icelandic Research The Icelandic Centre Technology Development Fund Fund for Research Equipment Fund Rannís The Innovation Center Icelandic Research Iceland Other funds: Fund for Graduate Icelandic Student Innovation Fund Students etc.
Rannís Budget 2011 Of the part allocated to R&D in the Icelandic national budget, the share awarded to Rannís (operation + funds) has increased since 2002 from 8% to 17%.• Rannís funds: – The Icelandic Research Fund 782,5 MISK – The Equipment Fund 107,0 MISK – The Technology Development Fund 830 MISK – The Icelandic Research Fund for Graduate Students 96 MISK – The Icelandic Student Innovation Fund 50 MISK – The Fund for Non-fiction Writers 13 MISK – Strategic Research programme for Centres of Excellence and Research Clusters 160 MISK – Strategic Research Programme for Post Genomic Biomedicine and Nano-science and Nanotechnology 130 MISK – Private Funds (five different funds), philanthropic funds – amount is dependent on interest rates.• Including operational cost Rannís has 2,400 MÍSK or 15,0 M €.
R&D Expenditure as a Share of GDP from 2005 to 20094.54.03.5 Finnland Finland3.0 Svíþjóð Sweden Danmörk Denmark2.5 Bandaríkin USA Þýskaland Germany2.0 Ísland Iceland Frakkland France Bretland UK1.5 Noregur Norway OECD OECD1.0 ESB 27 ESB 270.50.0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Cluster Definition?• In economic and innovation policy the term “cluster” is usually used to explain geographical concentrations of economic and innovation activities.• …clusters support economic development through the specialization of regions in activities within which companies gain higher productivity through accessing external economies of scale or other comparative advantage. (Lammer-Gamp, tomas/Meier zu Köcker, Gerd/Christensen, tomas Alslev, 2011:Clusters are Individuals. Creating Economic Growth through Cluster Policies for Cluster Management Excellence, Danish Ministry of Research, Innovation and Higher Education/Competence networks Germany, Copenhagen/Berlin”).• In a cluster there is a system of interconnected firms and institution whose value as a whole is greater than the sum of its part (2+2>4).• What seems to lack in this description the imprtance of “cooperation and competition”.
Present and potential clusters in Iceland Aluminium Iceland Oceanic cluster Geothermal Tourism cluster Health Care Growth Cluster Agreement, R&D (Vaxtarsamningar) (GEORG, IIIM, EDDA)
• Strategic Research Program for Centres of Excellence and Research Clusters
Strategic Research Program for Centres ofExcellence and Research Clusters 2009-2015• Initiated by the Science and Technology Policy Council in Iceland (STPC)• The STPC called on the research community to propose research programme/project that takes into account the challenges facing the Icelandic knowledge society, and to ... encourage cooperation between different actors to promote value creation and investment in research for social and economic development• By end of 2008 the STPC announced a strategic programme to fund Centres of Excellence and Research Clusters• Maximum four centres/clusters would be funded for seven years with a total budget of 1,1 billion ISK (7,0 million €)• The first real attempt to found Centres of Excellence
Selected Clusters• Three proposals were selected and offered a grant; – GEORG – GEOthermal Research Group • (70 m(0,44 m €)/year - http://georg.hi.is) – EDDA – Gender, Equality and Diversity Research • (35 m (0,2 m €)/year – http://stofnanir.hi.is/gendiv) – IIIM – Icelandic Institute for Intelligent Machines • (55 m (0,35 m €)/year – http://www.iiim.is/) – Funding is for 7 years, an external assessment will be performed after 3 years, (2012).
Strategic Research Program for Centres of Excellence and Research ClustersINDICATORS• Output : Publications, Trainees, Start-ups.• Results: Increased number of scientists in specific fields, Increased number of jobs, Increased number of start-ups, Educational benefits, International cooperation• Impact: Sustainable clusters in the supported areas, Social and economic impact, Increased competitiveness in supported areas, International networking
GEORG, SUMMARY• Geothermal Areas are diverse – That requires interdisiplinary approach – GEORG holds a significant experience, among its partners, in utilizing geothermal energy – Large opportunities in the utilization of geothermal energy• Geothermal Energy can offer – Reduction in Green House Gases – Improved quality of life – Cleaner environment – Saving of oil/gas resources• Geothermal is a Sustainable Renewable Energy Source if the Reservoir is Managed Properly
Icelandic Institute for Intelligent Machines, IIIM Icelands center for research on advanced artificial intelligence, robotics and simulation
IIIM Director’s Collaboration with HONDA Kristinn R. Thorisson recently appeared on RÚV news (Icelandic National Broadcasting Service) sharing his experience on doing research in collaboration with Honda on ASIMO humanoid robot, the most advanced humanoid robot in the world.
EDDA,Equality, Diversity, Development and AdvancementEDDA’s strategic research programme is based on three research areas (containingtwo themes each): (1) The Politics of Transition – explores gendered representations of power andin/equality and socio- political and cultural discourses on reconstruction; (2) The Welfare State, Citizenship and Social Justice – focuses on the relationshipbetween the state, markets and the private sphere and the consequences differentconfigurations have for human well-being and the quality of society; (3) The Politics of Reconstruction and Sustainability – deals with reconstruction andsecurity discourses as part of transnational power politics in various geographicsettings.EDDA (as the acronym for Equality, Diversity, Development and Advancement) is aninterdisciplinary Center of Excellence in critical contemporary research, with a specialemphasis on equality and difference. Hosted by the Center of Humanities at the University ofIceland, the EDDA Center brings together a diverse group of researchers in the humanitiesand the social sciences who work together on various research projects. EDDA also offersgrants to support projects directly related to its strategic research programme.
Vaxtarsamningur (Growth Agreements)• INDICATORS:• Output: Number of new products and/or services, Number of PhD projects beneficial to private sector/cluster initiative in the region, Number of spin-offs, Qualitative measures: measuring of the economic value of the above mentioned indicators• Results: Number of cooperative/joint projects between companies , Number of triple-helix projects, Total number of companies actively participating in projects, Average number of participating companies in supported projects, Participating companies matching grant: private vs. public funding in per cent, Total amount of international grants/funding received (competitive calls for example), Average budget of supported projects.• Impact: Number of jobs created linked to cluster initiatives, Number of spin-offs/start-up companies, Effect on unemployment rate, Qualitative indicator: perception of benefits (participants, stakeholders)
Expectations!• Sharpen the role of clusters, applicable to different tasks in buisness development• The concept of Cluster is misused, needs to strengthen and raise awareness of good / successful clusters• Improve the management of clusters, by training, networking and sharing experience• Take into account the knowledge triangle and strengthen Cluster concept in different tasks