Music genre research

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Music genre research

  1. 1. Music Genre Research
  2. 2. Background InformationThe first recording studio to openin Jamaica was open in 1951, itrecorded ‘mento’ music, this wasa mix of African and Europeanmusic. In 1954 Ken Khouri startedJamaica’s first record label called‘Federal Records’. This theninspired Reid and Dodd, whobegan to record local artists forthe record label. Towards the endof the 1950s, amateurs began toform bands that played Caribbeanmusic and New Orleansrhythmnblues. This led to the"bluebeat" groups, which basicallywere Jamaicas version of theNew Orleans sound. They usuallyincluded saxophone, trumpet,trombone, piano, drums andbass.Soon the bass became thedominant instrument, and thesound evolved into the "ska". The"ska" beat had actually beeninvented by Roscoe Gordon, aMemphis pianist, with No MoreDoggin (1951). Ska songsboasted an upbeat tempo, a hornsection, Afro-American vocalharmonies, jazzy riffs andstaccato guitar notes.The word ‘reggae’ was created around1960 in Jamaica to identify a ‘ragged’ styleof dance music, that still had its roots inNew Orleans rhythmnblues. However,reggae soon acquired the lament-like styleof chanting and emphasized thesyncopated beat. It also made explicit therelationship with the underworld of the‘Rastafarians’, both in the lyrics and in theappropriation of the African nyah-bingidrumming style (a style that mimicks theheartbeat with its pattern of ‘thump-thump,pause, thump-thump’). Reggae musicbasically inverted the role of bass andguitar: the former was the lead, the latterbeat the typical hiccupping pattern.An independent label, Island, distributedJamaican records in the UK throughout the1960s, but reggae became popular in theUK only when Prince Busters AlCapone (1967) started a brief ‘dancecraze’. Jamaican music was very much aghetto phenomenon, associated withgang-style violence, but JimmyCliffs Wonderful World BeautifulPeople (1969) wed reggae with the ‘peaceand love’ philosophy of the hippies, anassociation that would not die away. In theUSA, Neil Diamonds Red RedWine (1967) was the first reggae hit by apop musician. Afterwards, JohnnyNashs Hold Me Tight (1968) propelledreggae onto the charts. Do TheReggay (1968) by Toots (Hibbert) And TheMaytals was the record that gave themusic its name. Fredrick Toots Hibbertsvocal style was actually closer to gospel,as proved by their other hits (54-46,1967;Monkey Man, 1969; Pressure Drop,1970).
  3. 3. Instruments usedPlayed with the drums, the bass guitar provides the‘riddim’ (rhythm) of a reggae song. The bass inreggae is usually played as a simple riff, but itsoften thick and pronounced. Prominent reggaebass guitarists include Aston ‘Family Man’ Barrett,who played for Bob Marley and the Wailers, andRobbie Shakespeare, one half of the prolificJamaican production team Sly and Robbie.Most reggae songs use a standard drum kit, but thepieces are played in a specific way. The snare drumis often tuned to a much higher pitch, which gives ita sound that resembles timbales. Most drummersutilise the cross-stick technique in which the rim andhead are hit simultaneously.An electric or acoustic guitar in reggae tendsto stress chords over individual notes in apattern. The guitar is connected to a specialamplifier that is often dampened so thesound is short and scratchy. The chord isoften played as a double chop. Like the otherinstruments, theres a relaxed feel to thesound of a guitar in reggae.Horn sections play the introductions,instrumental breaks, solos or countermelodies. Uptempo songs will featurea bright and boisterous horn section.The typical reggae horn section willhave a saxophone, trombone andtrumpet.
  4. 4. Reggae Sub GenresEarly ReggaeNyabhingiDub ReggaeDancehallRoots ReggaeRocker Reggae
  5. 5. Reggae ArtistsBob MarleyNesta Robert "Bob" Marley (6 February 1945– 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican singer-songwriter and musician. He was the rhythmguitarist and lead singer for the ska, rocksteady and reggae bands The Wailers (1963-1974) and Bob Marly and the Wailers (1974–1981). Marley remains the most widely knownand the best selling performer of reggaemusic, having sold more than 75 millionalbums worldwide. He is also credited withhelping spread both Jamaican music andthe Rastafari movement to a worldwideaudience.Jimmy CliffJimmy Cliff (born James Chambers, 1 April 1948)isa Jamaican musician, singer and actor. He is the only currently livingmusician to hold the Order of Merit, the highest honour that can begranted by the Jamaican government for achievement in the arts andsciences.Cliff is best known among mainstream audiences for songs such as‘Wonderful World, Beautiful People’, ‘The Harder They Come’, ‘Sitting inLimbo’, ‘You Can Get It If You Really Want’ and ‘Many Rivers to Cross’,which helped popularize reggae across the world; and his covers of CatStevens "Wild World" and Johnny Nashs "I Can See Clearly Now" fromthe film Cool Runnings. Outside of the reggae world, he made a filmappearance in The Harder They Come. Cliff was one of five performersinducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2010.
  6. 6. Reggae ArtistsBob MarleyNesta Robert "Bob" Marley (6 February 1945– 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican singer-songwriter and musician. He was the rhythmguitarist and lead singer for the ska, rocksteady and reggae bands The Wailers (1963-1974) and Bob Marly and the Wailers (1974–1981). Marley remains the most widely knownand the best selling performer of reggaemusic, having sold more than 75 millionalbums worldwide. He is also credited withhelping spread both Jamaican music andthe Rastafari movement to a worldwideaudience.Jimmy CliffJimmy Cliff (born James Chambers, 1 April 1948)isa Jamaican musician, singer and actor. He is the only currently livingmusician to hold the Order of Merit, the highest honour that can begranted by the Jamaican government for achievement in the arts andsciences.Cliff is best known among mainstream audiences for songs such as‘Wonderful World, Beautiful People’, ‘The Harder They Come’, ‘Sitting inLimbo’, ‘You Can Get It If You Really Want’ and ‘Many Rivers to Cross’,which helped popularize reggae across the world; and his covers of CatStevens "Wild World" and Johnny Nashs "I Can See Clearly Now" fromthe film Cool Runnings. Outside of the reggae world, he made a filmappearance in The Harder They Come. Cliff was one of five performersinducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2010.

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