Translates to importance of reflection and feedback
Components of Executive Function Based upon material from Barkley and Brown, I have outlined five general components of executive function that impact school performance: Working memory and recall (holding facts in mind while manipulating information; accessing facts stored in long-term memory.) Activation, arousal, and effort (getting started; paying attention; finishing work) Controlling emotions (ability to tolerate frustration; thinking before acting or speaking)Internalizing language (using "self-talk" to control one's behavior and direct future actions)Taking an issue apart, analyzing the pieces, reconstituting and organizing it into new ideas (complex problem solving).
Mental management – get ready (visualize task, quiet time)Set goalsKeep track of thinking – self monitoringafter thinking reflectStrategic spiritState-Searcg_Evaluate_ElaborateTransfer- take knowledge and apply it- - this for me is the relevance and hook think- sense and meaning-
Distinctions, systems, relationships, and perspectives
Background<br />Brain Conference <br />Reading of Brain Rules<br />Brain Research and Learning Area in Library<br />Learning Groups -The CABAL<br />PD Report Back<br />A Reading List<br />
Brain’s Complexity/Physiology<br />Cellular level - three pints of liquid, three pounds of mass, tens of billions of nerve cells (or neurons), ten times more numerous glial cells that support, insulate and nourish the neurons<br />Brain cells - 30 thousand neurons (300,000 glial cells) fit into the space of a pinhead.<br />
Parts of the Brain<br />Brainstem (survival )<br />Cerebellum ( autonomic nervous system)<br />Limbic system (emotion)<br />Cortex ( reason/logic)<br />Cortex<br />Cerebellum<br />Brainstem<br />
Motor cortex<br />Somatosensory cortex<br />Movement and joint positions<br />Sensory associative<br />cortex<br />Pars<br />opercularis<br />Visual associative<br />cortex<br />Broca’s<br />area<br />Grammar and word production<br />Visual<br />cortex<br />Primary<br />Auditory cortex<br />Cerebellum<br />Wernicke’s<br />area<br />Language and Thought<br />
Neurons<br />Connect to other neurons, <br /> to muscles, or glands<br />Send and receive chemical information (messages) for behaviors<br />Can be a millimeter in length or as long as a meter<br />Cells nucleus contains DNA (As long a meter)<br />
Neurons contain tubular extensions that are designed to communicate quickly with specific cells in the body network - this is a transportation system, much like a phone system.<br />• The brain has both nerve cells and glial cells. The neurons are cellular agents of cognition; the glial cells act as a scaffolding or insulation for impulses. (The insulation increases the speed of the neural (electrical) messages.)<br />
How the Brain Determines What’s Important<br />Emotion and attention are the PRINCIPAL processes of the brain<br />Primary emotions - innate responses<br />Assemble life-saving behaviors quickly<br />Secondary emotions - also innate reactions<br />Enjoyment, pleasure<br />Students need to talk about their emotions<br />Games, cooperative learning, field trips, interactive projects, use of humor<br />Limit emotional stress<br />
What We Know<br />Brains are as unique as faces.<br />All Brains are not equal in their ability to solve problems<br />Brain is highly plastic.<br />Brain is changed by experience.<br />Brain connects new information to old.<br />
What Is Probably True<br /><ul><li>Emotions are critical to decision making.
Stress impacts learning – eustress vs bad stress.
Support from others is critical for learning and optimal academic performance.
Feedback and meaningful assessment is important to human learning, through the importance and role of feedback vary greatly across domains and processes.
Human brains seek patterns upon which they predict outcomes, and nueral systems form responses to repeated patterns.
Self Regulation is an integral part of higher order thinking skills.
The elaboration (overt teaching) of key concepts facilitates new learning.
Rehearsal of retrieval cues aids in declarative memory process.
Declarative knowledge acquisition depends on memory and attention.</li></ul>Tokuhama-Espinosa<br />
Brain Research<br /><ul><li>Importance of metacognition/reflection
Cultural changes impact how brain gets wired via activities/uses culture demands/encourages (Rosen)
We know very little(Judy Willis- Tokuhama-Espinosa)
Exercise for your brain and your body is good (Ratey)</li></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/aussiegall/3203524576/sizes/m/in/photostream/<br />
Intelligence is not fixed (Dweck)<br />Effort /Motivation is as important as ability<br />Deep learning is an active process<br />Importance of “chunking”<br />Teaching Focus<br />Learning is Social<br />Meaning and Sense<br />Photo Credit: Stockphoto/VasiliyYakobchuk)<br />
For Learning<br />Need to develop metacognitive ability in kids<br />Exercise is good<br />Distinquish and address Types of Thinking<br />Stress – manage it<br />Focus – allow for it<br />Differentiate<br />Provide Feedback<br />Change the way we Assess<br />Make learning Sticky-<br />
The Twelve Principles of Brain Based Teaching/Learning<br />What are they?<br />What do they mean?<br />What are the implications of this information to working with/teaching/ understanding ourselves and others?<br />
Twelve Basic Principles Related to Learning<br />Brain is a parallel processor<br />Learning engages the entire physiology<br />Learning is developmental<br />Each brain is unique<br />Every brain perceives and creates parts and wholes simultaneously<br />Learning always involves conscious and unconscious processes<br />
The search for meaning is innate<br />Emotions are critical to learning<br />Learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat<br />The search for meaning occurs through patterning<br />We can organize memory in different ways<br />The brain is a social brain<br />
The Brain is a Parallel Processor<br />Both hemispheres work together<br />Many functions occur simultaneously<br />Edelman(1994) found when more neurons in the brain were firing at the same time, learning, meaning, and retention were greater for the learner.<br />1<br />
Learning Engages the Entire Physiology<br />Food, water, and nutrition are critical components of thinking.<br />We are “holistic” learners - the body and mind interact <br /> the peptides in the blood are chains of amino acids that become the primary source of information transfer. <br />2<br />
Learning is Developmental<br />Depending upon the topic some students can think abstractly, while others have a limited background and are still thinking on a concrete level.<br />Building the necessary neural connections by exposure, repetition, and practice is important to the student.<br />3<br />
Each Brain is Unique<br />• We are products of genetics and experience<br />• The brain works better when facts and skills are embedded in real experiences<br />4<br />
Each Brain Perceives and Creates Parts and Wholes Simultaneously<br />Some think more easily inductively while others find deductive thinking more comfortable - use both<br />Shank (1990) Telling stories is one of the most influential techniques because you give the information, ground the meaning in structure, provide for emotion, and make the content meaningful. Our brain loves storytelling.<br />How might you make use of this?<br />5<br />
Learning Involves Conscious and Unconscious Processes<br />The brain and body learn physically, mentally, and affectively<br />Body language as well as actual language communicate<br />• How you treat students and how you permit them to treat each other makes a difference in their learning and desire to learn.<br />• How the physical environment is organized makes a difference.<br />6<br />
The Search for Meaning Is Innate<br />Each person seeks to make sense out of what he/she sees or hears<br />Capitalize on this quality!<br />Present ideas, experiences that may NOT follow what one expects:<br />Speculate • Question<br />Experiment • Hypothesize<br />Thinking Strategies<br />7<br />
Emotions Are Critical to Learning<br />A common form of communication within our brain is the electrical-chemical-electrical process between neurons.<br />Emotions trigger the chemicals active in the axon-synapse-dendrite reaction. This permits or inhibits communication between the cells.<br />90% of the communication is carried out by peptides (which are strings of amino acids that travel the blood stream and permit information transfer. Peptides are the glue that connect the body and the brain.<br />Learning is affected by emotions.<br />8<br />
Learning is Enhanced by Challenge and Inhibited by Threat<br />The brain’s priority is always survival - at the expense of higher order thinking<br />Stress should be kept to a manageable level<br />Provide opportunities to “grow” and to make changes<br />Have high, but reasonable expectations<br />The Zone <br />The Flow<br />9<br />
The Search for Meaning Comes Through Patterning<br />Tie learning to prior knowledge<br />Use Know - Want to know - Learned cycle<br />Bain (What the Best College Teachers Do) suggests working from “big” questions to be answered.<br />10<br />
Brain Organizes Memory In Different Ways<br />Retrieval often depends upon how the information was stored.<br />Relevancy is one key to both storage and retrieval<br />Connect to what students know, what they are interested in<br />Provide and get examples<br />Spaced Repitition<br />Student talk!!!<br />Of varying types<br />11<br />
Memory<br />Short-term memory<br />TO HELP:<br />Combine or “chunk”<br />Recognition<br />Long-term memory<br />Declarative - Factual<br />Episodic -Events or experiences<br />Semantic - Words<br />Procedural - Step by step<br />
Memory<br />When objects and events are registered by several senses, they can be stored in several interrelated memory networks.<br />This type of memory becomes more accessible and powerful.<br />Conversation helps us link ideas/thoughts to our own related memories. Students need time for this to happen!!<br />Storytelling - Conversations<br />Debates - Role playing<br />Simulations - Songs<br />Games - Films<br />
Techniques to Help Memory<br />Define the “gist” - OVERVIEW<br />Sequence events<br />Plot out pictorially the information<br />Tell the information to others in own words - TALK<br />Peer teaching/tutoring<br />Amplify by giving examples<br />Use multiple parts of the brain (emotional, factual, physical)<br />Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic, Talk<br />Combine<br />Use color effectively<br />Yellow and orange as attention-getters<br />
The Brain is a Social Brain<br />• The brain develops better in concert with others<br /><ul><li> When students have to talk to others about information, they retain the information longer and more efficiently!
Make use of small groups, discussions, teams, pairings, and question and answer situations.</li></ul>12<br />
Three Must Conditions for Learning<br />An optimal state of mind that we call relaxed alertness, consisting of low threat and high challenge.<br />The orchestrated immersion of the learner in multiple, complex, authentic experience.<br />The regular, active processing of experience as the basis for making meaning.<br />
Tech Tools for Differentiation and Feedback, Changing Assessment<br />Conditional Activities<br /> LAMS<br />Moodle 2<br />Canvas<br />Portfolio Assessment (focus on progress and process)<br />Chalk and Wire<br />
Perkin’s Thinking Classroom<br />Dimensions of Culture of Thinking <br />Language<br />Thinking dispositions<br />Mental management<br />Strategic spirit<br />Higher order thinking<br /> Transfer (sense and meaning-Sousa)<br />
Consider Dispositions and Habits<br />Perkins Learning Dispositions for Good Thinking<br />The Disposition to be curious and questioning<br />The Disposition to think broadly and adventurously<br />The Disposition to reason clearly and carefully<br />The Disposition to organize one’s thinking<br />The Disposition to give time to thinking<br />From The Thinking Classroom-Learning and Teaching in a Culture of Thinking, Perkins, Tishman, Jay<br />
Thinking Language<br />Terms to share with kids about thinking and thinking processes<br />Typically more specific than what is often used in classrooms<br />IDK<br />
Teacher’s job is to make explicit that which we had hoped would be implicit to our students.<br />
RAFTS Blog Prompts<br />Use your “red hat” to answer this raft?<br />Which hat did you use?<br />
Totally 10<br />Totally 10 is a student choice format for differentiating projects or assessments. Each task a student chooses is given a score of 2,4,6, or 10, where the higher scores reflect greater challenge and complexity. Students must select either one project with a score of 10, or several that add up to a score of 10. Students will choose rigor to do fewer projects. Totally 10 may also be used to design an assessment. Students choose which questions they will answer as long as the total point score equals 10. This<br />gives students choice and lets them think they are making up their own test. (Heacox, 2002).<br />Shift to selecting three hats to complete a unit-<br />
Thinking Worlds <br />“Thinking Worlds is a tool that puts people with creative ideas, not just programmers, fully in control of high-impact immersive design.”<br />
Going Forward<br />Introduce portfolio as assessment tool<br />Shift conversation to improving and growth over grades (3P –process, progress, product)<br />Use portfolio for reflection about learning (provide a model)<br />Put concept of Habits of Mind in front of kids<br />Put growth mindset in front of kids<br />Thinking Strategies<br />Thinkertoys – Advisory Activities<br />Brain Owner’s Manual<br />
The "How People Learn" FrameworkThe "How People Learn" (HPL) framework takes the form of four overlapping lenses (see Figure 1) that can be used to analyze and enhance any learning situation (Bransford et al., 1999). Harris, Bransford, and Brophy (2002) describe the following dimensions of HPL learning environments:<br />1. Learner centeredness. Instruction is tailored, based on a consideration of learners' prior knowledge as well as their prior experiences, misconceptions, and preconceptions about an instructional topic.<br />2. Knowledge centeredness. Issues related to what learners need to know are emphasized, along with how knowledge is structured and applied in various contexts. (This lens has implications for how instruction should be sequenced to support comprehension and use of this knowledge in new situations.)<br />3. Assessment centeredness. Frequent opportunities to monitor students' progress toward the learning goals are provided. Results are fed back to both instructors and learners. <br />4. Community centeredness. This HPL lens recognizes that students are members of multiple communities, including their classrooms, their departments, and their future professions. Opportunities encourage students and instructors to share and learn from each other. <br />