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Fm 403 Mod 9 Elevators

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Fm 403 Mod 9 Elevators

  1. 1. FM-403 Building Systems & Technology Dave Leathers, CFM Jim Whittaker, P.E. Chris Hodges, P.E., RRC Instructors: GMU Facility Management Program Module 9 - Elevators
  2. 2. <ul><li>Brief History of Elevators </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of Types of Elevators </li></ul><ul><li>Elevator Components & Descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Code Compliance for Elevators </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance & Safety Inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practices in Elevator Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Elevator Modernization Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Escalators </li></ul>Elevators
  3. 3. Early Otis electric double worm-geared and spur-geared drum. Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  4. 4. Chain Drive Electric Elevator Winder type of hoisting gear, driven by a silent steel chain belt from a reversible motor. The automatic band brake is amply powerful to sustain a full load. Easily adjusted automatic stops, placed on the drum shaft, stop the car at top and bottom landings. If the car should meet any obstruction in its descent, a slack cable stop shuts off the machine and prevents disarrangement of the cable on the drum. Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  5. 5. 1857 : Campbell, Whittier & Company began production of the Screw Lift Machine with capacities of 2000 to 8000 pounds. 1867 : The first elevator for public use was installed by Otis Brothers in the five-story department store on Broadway. 1868 : Waygood manufactured its first hydraulic elevator. 1870 : The 9-story Equitable Life Assurance Building in New York City, was the first to have passenger elevators specifically designed for office building use. Otis Tufts' two elevators cost $30,000. 1872 : First geared hydraulic elevator installed in New York City. 1875 : Schindler - to become the world's second-largest elevator manufacturer was founded near Lucerne. 1878 : First electric elevator was built by Siemens in Germany. Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  6. 6. 1890 : Haughton Elevator Company was founded in Toledo, Ohio specializing hydraulic elevators. 1902 : The first direct plunger elevators were installed by Otis for high-rise passenger service. 1909 : The 41-story Singer Building was the first in which operators were equipped with telephones connected to &quot;elevator supervisors&quot; who controlled and confirmed departures. 1918 : New York City adopted its first &quot;elevator rules&quot; comprising 16 pages. It restricted speeds to 700 fpm. 1926 : Haughton developed the automatic car door and gate closer. 1931 : New York City elevator code was revised to allow 1,000 fpm elevators in the Empire State Building. Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  7. 7. HAUGHTON: Haughton Elevator Co. began in 1867, when Colonel Nathaniel Haughton purchased an interest in the Toledo Steam Engine Works, a small foundry and machine shop founded in 1865 by Cooke, Kneiser & Groff. The firm produced steam engines, mill equipment and general industrial hoisting machinery, and by about 1880, had become active in the manufacture of elevator equipment. Brief History of Elevators In 1880, Col. Haughton bought out the last original partner, naming the firm &quot;N. Haughton Foundry and Machine Company.&quot; On November 11, 1897, the organization was incorporated as the Haughton Elevator and Machine Co. Control of the firm was to remain in the Haughton family until the passing of Irving N. Haughton in 1935. Elevators
  8. 8. In 1872, Otis Brothers , as it was then called, introduced a roped hydraulic elevator capable of operating at speeds up to 600 feet per minute, much faster than conventional steam-powered hoisting rope-type lifts. These elevators also overcame the limitation of the drum type with a limited rise capability at about the same time the brothers designed a governor-operated safety device capable of bringing the high-speed car to a gradual stop in an emergency.   The 1880s and 1890s saw an increase in business for the company after a young architect named William LeBaron Jenney solved a problem that had baffled builders. Tall buildings constructed before this time required the support of massive masonry foundations, and even these were limited to about ten to twelve stories. In 1885, Jenney designed a building with load-bearing walls of steel. He used this new technique to construct the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago. Jenney's innovation brought about a construction boom. Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  9. 9. Brief History of Elevators Mergers: Most elevator companies have undergone a high level of mergers and/or acquisitions over time. This has led to both rapid development and obsolescence of many elevator systems and components. Elevators
  10. 10. Overview of Types of Elevators <ul><li>Generally Two Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Traction (Electric) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtually limitless rise (high & mid rise) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High speeds, but high installation cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to heights of about 60 ft. (6 stories) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower initial cost – higher power consumption </li></ul></ul>The systems are distinguished primarily by their hoisting mechanisms . Elevators
  11. 11. Overview of Types of Elevators <ul><li>Generally Two Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Traction (Electric) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geared Traction </li></ul></ul>Drive shaft is connected to the sheave by gears in a gear box. Geared traction systems are designed to operate in the range of 100 to 500 fpm, which restricts their use to mid rise buildings. Elevators
  12. 12. Overview of Types of Elevators <ul><li>Generally Two Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Traction (Electric) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geared Traction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gearless Traction </li></ul></ul>Gearless traction systems are designed to operate in the range of 350 to 1200 fpm and typically installed in high-rise buildings. Greater speeds are also available. Elevators
  13. 13. Overview of Types of Elevators <ul><li>Generally Two Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holed Hydraulic </li></ul></ul>In-ground cylinder extends to a depth equal to the rise of the elevator cab. Current codes require double-bottom cylinders with leak detection and containment. Elevators
  14. 14. Overview of Types of Elevators <ul><li>Generally Two Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holed Hydraulic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holeless Hydraulic </li></ul></ul>Holeless hydraulic elevators use a telescoping hydraulic piston as the driving machine, eliminating the need for an in-ground cylinder. Currently limited to a height of about 3 stories. Elevators
  15. 15. Overview of Types of Elevators <ul><li>Generally Two Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holed Hydraulic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holeless Hydraulic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roped Hydraulic </li></ul></ul>Roped holeless hydraulic elevators use a telescoping hydraulic piston and a hoist rope and pulley system to increase speed and travel heights. Elevators
  16. 16. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Machine Room </li></ul><ul><li>Cabs </li></ul><ul><li>Hoistway/Pits </li></ul>Major Components Machine rooms for traction elevators generally located directly above the hoistway. Hydraulic elevator machine rooms typically located at the basement or lowest level adjacent to the hoistway. Elevators
  17. 17. Hydraulic Elevators Telescoping Plunger Above-Ground Cylinder Hydraulic Tank / Controller Car Buffer
  18. 18. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Hoist Machine </li></ul>Machine Room Can be geared traction machines in which the power from the motor is transmitted to the drive sheave through reduction gears, or a gearless machine in which the hoist ropes pass over a traction drive sheave which is an integral part of the armature. The grooved wheel of a traction-type hoisting machine over which the hoist ropes pass, and by which motion is imparted to the car and counterweight by the hoist ropes. Elevators
  19. 19. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Hoist Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Hoist Motor </li></ul>Machine Room Also called drive machines and used for traction elevators. They are the power units that apply the energy to the hoist machines. Can be AC or DC. Elevators
  20. 20. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Hoist Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Hoist Motor </li></ul><ul><li>Generator </li></ul>Machine Room Generators are electro-mechanical devices that convert mechanical energy to electrical energy (usually direct current). Elevators
  21. 21. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Hoist Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Hoist Motor </li></ul><ul><li>Generator </li></ul><ul><li>Governor </li></ul>Machine Room A mechanical speed control mechanism. Usually a wire-rope driven centrifugal device used to stop and hold the movement of its driving rope. This initiates the activation of the car safety device. It opens a switch which cuts off power to the drive motor and brake if the car travels at a preset overspeed in the down direction. Elevators
  22. 22. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Hoist Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Hoist Motor </li></ul><ul><li>Generator </li></ul><ul><li>Governor </li></ul><ul><li>Controllers </li></ul>Machine Room A device, or group of devices, which serve to control, in a predetermined manner, the floor selection, drive speeds, car selection and general operation of the elevators. Elevators
  23. 23. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Hoist Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Hoist Motor </li></ul><ul><li>Generator </li></ul><ul><li>Governor </li></ul><ul><li>Controllers </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnects </li></ul>Machine Room Switches to disconnect the power to the controller and cab lights and located in the machine room. Elevators
  24. 24. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Roller Guides </li></ul>Hoistway / Pits Roller guides or guide rails are steel T-section with machined guiding surfaces installed vertically in a hoistway to guide and direct the course of travel of an elevator car and elevator counterweights. Elevators
  25. 25. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Roller Guides </li></ul><ul><li>Counterweights </li></ul>Hoistway / Pits A weight that counter-balances the weight of an elevator car plus approximately 40% of the capacity load. Elevators
  26. 26. GMU FM-403: Class Five - Elevators Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Roller Guides </li></ul><ul><li>Counterweights </li></ul><ul><li>Door Interlocks </li></ul>Hoistway / Pits An electro-mechanical device that prevents operation of an elevator unless the hoistway doors are in the closed and locked position; and prevents opening of a hoistway door from the landing side unless the elevator is in the landing zone and is either stopped or being stopped.
  27. 27. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Roller Guides </li></ul><ul><li>Counterweights </li></ul><ul><li>Door Interlocks </li></ul><ul><li>Top-of-Car Station </li></ul>Hoistway / Pits Controls on the top of the car used by an elevator maintenance contractor to operate the car at inspection speed. It provides a means of operating an elevator from on top of the car at slow speed during adjustment, inspection, maintenance and repair. Elevators
  28. 28. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Roller Guides </li></ul><ul><li>Counterweights </li></ul><ul><li>Door Interlocks </li></ul><ul><li>Top of Car Station </li></ul><ul><li>Buffers </li></ul>Hoistway / Pits A device designed to stop a descending car beyond its normal limit of travel by storing or by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy of the car. Spring buffers are used for elevators with speeds less than 200 fpm. Oil buffers (for speeds greater than 200 fpm) use a combination of oil and spring to cushion the elevator. Elevators
  29. 29. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Cab Finishes </li></ul>Elevator Cabs Decorative features in a passenger elevator including carpet or other flooring, wall panels, door finishes, ceilings and lighting. Elevators
  30. 30. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Cab Finishes </li></ul><ul><li>Cab Controls </li></ul>Elevator Cabs A car-operating panel with a faceplate that is mounted in a fixed (non-swing) panel or sidewall. Elevators
  31. 31. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Cab Finishes </li></ul><ul><li>Cab Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Door Safety Edges </li></ul></ul>Elevator Cabs Two way communication devices in the cab required by ADA and national elevator codes for safety. Elevators
  32. 32. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Cab Finishes </li></ul><ul><li>Cab Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Door Safety Edges </li></ul></ul>Elevator Cabs A door protective and automatic door reopening device, used with automatic power door operators. Elevators
  33. 33. Elevator Components & Descriptions <ul><li>Cab Finishes </li></ul><ul><li>Cab Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Door Safety Edges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Door Operators </li></ul>Elevator Cabs The Door Operator monitors the speed and position of the car doors and compares performance against standards. Deviations in kinetic energy during door travel is corrected within milliseconds. Elevators
  34. 34. Code Compliance for Elevators <ul><li>Local Codes: DCMR 13A D.C. Elevator Code (& NEC 620-1) </li></ul><ul><li>Model Codes: BOCA Chapter 30: Elevators and Conveying Systems </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Codes: ASME/ANSI A17.1 – 3 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators; Guide for Inspections; Existing Elevators </li></ul>Local – National - Standards Elevators
  35. 35. Code Compliance for Elevators ADAAG: 4.10.1 thru 4.10.14 Covers operation, call buttons and lanterns, entrances, door safety devices, delays and timing, cab dimensions, floor surfacing, lighting levels, position indicators and emergency communications. Accessibility Regulations Elevators
  36. 36. New Elevator Code Harmonized Code The U.S. and Canadian elevator codes, ASME A17.1, and CAN/CSA B44, are now identical. Architects planning installations in the United States or Canada should be aware of “harmonized code” changes that affect the cost and installation of all types of elevators: hydraulic, geared and gearless. Code Compliance for Elevators Elevators
  37. 37. Code Compliance for Elevators Elevators
  38. 38. Code Compliance for Elevators Elevators
  39. 39. Code Compliance for Elevators A17.1 & Local Codes require elevator standby testing annually, with no-load and full-load (125% of capacity) testing every five years. Traction – Emergency Generators Hydraulic – Battery Lowering Device Emergency Power Elevators
  40. 40. Code Compliance for Elevators Firefighter's Service — A device or group of devices which provide: (1) a signal for immediate recall to a designated landing in order to remove cars from normal use, and (2) to permit special operation for firefighters or other authorized emergency personnel. Fireman’s Service Elevators
  41. 41. <ul><ul><li>Weight Added to Cab for Modernization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic Energy & Force Limitations - Doors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missing Door Safety Retainers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate Illumination of Cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Self-Closing Self-Locking Doors to Mach. Room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate Lighting of Machine Rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Comp. Elevator Car Emergency Signals/Signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Smoke/Heat Detection in Elev. Mach. Room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Serviced Fire Extinguisher in Machine Room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No GFI Outlets in the Machine Room and Pit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra Credit: Non-Elevator Equipment/Storage in Room </li></ul></ul>Top 10 Elevator Code Violations Maintenance & Safety Inspections Elevators
  42. 42. Missing Panel Cover Maintenance & Safety Inspections Elevators
  43. 43. Trash in Elevator Pit (This Is Not An Incinerator) Maintenance & Safety Inspections Elevators
  44. 44. Maintenance & Safety Inspections Elevators
  45. 45. Maintenance & Safety Inspections Elevators
  46. 46. Maintenance & Safety Inspections Elevators
  47. 47. Maintenance & Safety Inspections Elevators
  48. 48. Maintenance & Safety Inspections Elevators
  49. 49. Maintenance & Safety Inspections Elevators
  50. 50. <ul><li>What To Look For . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of Cab Mods – Counterweight Balance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement PM Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget for EUL Replacement – ADA/F&LS Upgrades </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence of Preventive Maintenance & Logs </li></ul><ul><li>ADA Compliance Issues – Safety Edges & Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Detection/Alarms/Sprinklers/Disconnects/Shunt Trips </li></ul><ul><li>Machine Room Air Conditioning - Ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Controller Obsolescence & Equipment Age </li></ul>Elevator Maintenance Elevators
  51. 51. Unevenly Worn Sheaves Elevator Maintenance Elevators
  52. 52. Things to Look For… Elevator Maintenance Elevators
  53. 53. Things to Look For… Elevator Maintenance Elevators
  54. 54. Corroded Drive Unit Elevator Maintenance Elevators
  55. 55. Corroded Contact Terminals Elevator Maintenance Elevators
  56. 56. Elevator Maintenance Remote Elevator Monitoring Developed to optimize performance and minimize downtime, Remote Elevator Monitoring — REM® — tracks hundreds of system functions on thousands of elevators around the world. REM Makes the Call If the REM system detects a problem, it correctly diagnoses the cause and location, then automatically makes the service call — dramatically reducing the time your system is out of service. Fast Response If the REM system detects an urgent problem, it reports the condition to the OTISLINE 24-hour communications center, and an Otis mechanic is dispatched if necessary. Elevators are often back in service before you or your tenants realize there is a problem. Preventing Callbacks The REM system identifies most problems before they occur. REM detects deteriorating components and intermittent anomalies, and notes the small nuisances that might have gone undetected until they caused service disruptions. Intermittent problems are often fixed before they annoy you or your tenants. Elevators
  57. 57. Elevator Modernization Projects Elevator systems in older buildings may be renovated and modernized to provide improved performance and service. Certain service components (controllers), hoist machines, door operators) may be overhauled or modernized, while visual components (elevator cab, lobby) may be renovated or restored to an original or new appearance. Elevators
  58. 58. Elevator Modernization Projects   Safety Does your elevator comply with the latest safety codes & regulations? Are your elevator lobbies and cabs ADA compliant? Do your elevator doors close on passengers as they enter or exit? Is your elevator level with the floor when it stops? Performance Is your elevator working when you need it? Do your tenants complain they spend too much time on the elevator? Aesthetics Does your elevator look worn, tired and out-of-date? Does the appearance of your elevator reflect poorly on your building? Efficiency Do your tenants have to wait long times before the elevator arrives? Are you concerned that your elevator uses too much energy? Comfort Is your elevator ride noisy and rough? Do your elevator doors close too fast or too slow, or are they noisy? Elevators
  59. 60. <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A moving staircase for carrying people between floors of a building which consists of a motor-driven chain of individual, linked steps that move up or down on tracks, allowing the step treads to remain horizontal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most applications include department stores, airports, shopping malls, convention centers, hotels, and public buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the largest, most expensive machines people use on a regular basis, but also one of the simplest. </li></ul></ul>Escalators
  60. 61. <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have the capacity to move large numbers of people, and they can be placed in the same physical space as one might install a staircase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have no waiting interval (except during very heavy traffic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be used to guide people toward main exits or special exhibits, and may be weatherproofed for outdoor use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2004, it was estimated that the United States had 30,000 escalators, and that people used escalators 90 billion times each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escalator speeds vary from 90 – 180 ft per minute, an escalator moving 145 per minute can carry more that 10,000 people in an hour </li></ul></ul>Escalators
  61. 62. word <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Began as an amusement and not for practical transport </li></ul><ul><li>First patent awarded in 1859 for a steam generated unit, used as an amusement ride in Coney Island </li></ul><ul><li>Named Escalator by Charles Seeberger in 1897 by combining the latin word for steps “scala” and elevator </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Seeberger sold rights to Otis Elevator Company in 1902 which is currently the dominant player in the industry </li></ul>Escalators
  62. 63. Escalators
  63. 64. <ul><li>Basic Operating Guidelines -Escalators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regularly (at least monthly) apply a silicone friction reducer on skirt panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document any unusual noises or vibrations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove any debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor for broken comb teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always remove the start-up key from the &quot;on” direction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If an escalator or moving walkway makes an automatic emergency stop, perform a detailed equipment check before returning to operation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not permit overloading of passengers or freight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not permit the use of an inoperative escalator as a stairway </li></ul></ul>Escalators
  64. 65. Escalator Maintenance Escalators
  65. 66. Escalators
  66. 67. Brief History of Elevators Such factories utilized huge cranes with multiple sheaves and chains, powered by large diameter cylinders. Manufacturers out of the large pumping stations' sphere of operations used on-site generators of steam power. All engineers within the confines of the Industrial Revolution knew well the application of Pascal's Law even if they could not quote it -- &quot;pressure from a small piston against another larger in piston area provides the latter with more lifting power but less speed.” The European Industrial Revolution also relied upon heavy capacity lifts in the factories and foundries manufacturing the metal products shipped throughout the world, and also used in large quantities on the home front. Elevators
  67. 68. There are never any repairs and nothing can put the Steam-Hydraulic-Lift out of service but the boiler blowing up.&quot; It is understandable that the Boiler Inspectors, as a specialty, came into being and standards set for them and the owners, before Elevator Inspectors were considered. Brief History of Elevators In the U.S., Craig Ridgeway & Son Company of Coatsville, Pennsylvania sold steam-operated hydraulic loading dock lifts in the horse and wagon era. The manufacturer stated in his brochure, &quot;This lift will do the work of a half dozen men, save thousands of dollars and can be used by the greenest of help who cannot hurt themselves or the machine no matter how careless they become. Elevators
  68. 69. Elevating materials throughout early history was deemed more important than lifting people, although isolated attempts were made to elevate Royalty and Princes of the Church within their domiciles. Loads of materials in most instances were much heavier than a cabin of passengers, prompting much thought to lifting cargo by hydraulic power, a form that could be multiplied in a variety of ways. The idea for lifting loads by hydraulics was envisioned by Yorkshireman Joseph Bramah who received a patent in 1795 for the principle of a hydraulic press. He is better known for his experimentation and patenting of the all-important leather cup that would contain the water under pressure within a cylinder, yet allow the easy movement of the piston. He foresaw high pressure mains in English towns in one of his last patents in 1812 but half a century had to pass before practical application. That practical usage was the brain child of Sir William Armstrong in 1848. Low pressure lifting machines were developed thereafter with large diameter cylinders. To power the industrial lifts to load the vessels of &quot;Her Majesty's Fleet,&quot; British engineers came to use a source older than England, herself -- the water of the River Thames. Few activities were more important than keeping commerce moving through the docks of London, then the world's largest city. In 1871, Parliament gave monopolistic powers to the Wharves and Warehouses Steam Power and Hydraulic Pressure Company, and by 1883, it laid seven miles of mains on either side of the river with 700 pounds per square foot being generated at the Falcon Wharf Pumping station. Intensifiers and accumulators augmented chains, ropes and sheaves to increase industrial capacity of hydraulic power. Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  69. 70. &quot;Our Electric Chain Driven Machine is used where slow speed and large capacity is desired, in such buildings as garages, storage warehouses, etc. Our ceiling type machine for chain driven work is often used in mills and factories as it comes cheaper than either the Direct-connected Electric Drum or Traction machines. The floor type machine is made in capacities up to 16,000 lbs., and for speeds of 20 to 40 ft. per minute. Other than the method of connection to the motor, it is similar to our Direct-connected machine, having the same electric features, ball bearing end thrust, etc. The ceiling type machine with electric chain drive work is built for capacities up to 5,000 lbs. and has the same general specifications as the ceiling type belt elevator with the exception of the motor connection.&quot; (The Graphic and copy is by Salem Elevator Works of Salem, Massachusetts, founded in 1862.) Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  70. 71. The earliest brakes were probably ratchets on hand-powered windlasses. These, and all brakes thereafter, were designed to stop and hold the elevator at a floor, and are distinguished from car safeties that were designed to stop cars in the event of an emergency. Hand brakes, operated by a pull-rope from hand-powered lift platforms were of a band type around a drum on the bull wheel shaft. A pull would activate a lever or a screw, thus tightening the band. With the coming of electricity brakes were electrically opened, then closed by springs when power drifted out of the solenoid coil. Although the electric brake shoes usually operated on a drum fastened to the worm/motor shaft an auxiliary brake periodically was used for redundancy on the drive sheave shaft. Two brakes were sometimes used on the worm shaft. Brakes were also both opened and closed by a small motor. With the coming of variable voltage and gearless drive machines, the braking was dynamic and the brake only came into action as a holding device after the drive machine halted. Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  71. 72. In the &quot;Genesis of Lifting&quot; Wing, it was seen that early man had a propensity for erecting monuments to his panoply of gods, to One God, or to men considered akin to gods. As befitting a tribute to gods or god-men heroes, the monuments were lofty in their own right or situated upon a high point. Although the churches and cathedrals dedicated to the worship of One God were usually built down among the people, they compensated by being constructed as high as aesthetics and engineering of the time would allow. All these lofty structures required continually improved mechanisms for lifting stone, timber and other material. Later, high towers were seen as utilitarian structures. The Tower of Pharos and its Egyptian companions were erected along the coast of North Africa to guide ships to the major port of Alexandria. As city defense walls grew taller, they were matched in height by assault towers. In Italy where rival families were constrained to remain alert to the activities of others, the top of a tower provided a lookout as well as a refuge of last resort. Eventually, as leisure time itself became a new creation, towers were erected to afford a panoramic view of the countryside or a night cityscape; or to allow a grasp of an exposition as its centerpiece. The commercial aspects of towers came to the fore, as inner-city land grew increasingly valuable. High-rise office buildings, hotels and apartment dwellings became symbols of affluence within themselves, often adorned with the names of owners -- the new man-gods. Those of wealth or position sought upper floors and penthouses. As the Age of Agriculture, then Industrialization, gave way to that of Communications, the highest tower with a broadcasting beam became a symbol of power and influence. As the rationale for building higher fluctuated, century after century, increasingly efficient lifting machines were the constant making their erection possible. Thereafter, the lifting machines continually made the monuments (for such they remained) more efficient and safer for the inhabitants and visitors. Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  72. 73. Modernization of a device or a system has been the primary building block of evolution in any industry, including that of elevating men and materials. Absent replacing a complete system with one of a different nature, progress has steadily been made from &quot;upgrading,&quot; &quot;making it better,&quot; &quot;tweaking it,&quot; &quot;adding a touch here and there,&quot; to the sophisticated kind of retrofitting found in more modern times where almost everything but the drive machine, guide rails and car sling are changed. By today's regulations, the changing of the drive machine qualifies as a &quot;new installation.&quot; When, in the days of lifting by muscle, an unknown entrepreneur added a counterweight and second rope, winding in another direction, to his windlass, he had a neat modernization on his hands. On the other hand, when James Watt added sun and planet gears to Newcomen's reciprocating steam engine, it was more than a modernization as the new system performed a completely different kind of a task. Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  73. 74. Often owners, having invested a substantial sum in a steam or gas-powered elevator installation, were reluctant to replace the entire system. They merely used the newly available electric motor to drive the belts to the reduction gearing in place. When revised codes and regulations sought to prevent the spread of fire, modernization took the form of enclosing hoistways. As time went on, control systems became the focus of a new breed of retrofit specialists who strove to save the drive machines and static components but add sophisticated controls. The time came when the appearance of cabins and entranceways became a mark of distinction within a commercial building and the upgrading of these became major renewal items. At the end of World War II, one of the greatest waves of modernization occurred when human operators in the car were replaced by &quot;operator-less control systems.&quot; Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  74. 75. CAPACITY - 100 PASSENGERS When it became necessary to lower commuters to the trains operating between Liverpool, Lancashire and residential Cheshire, under the River Mersey, Wm Wadsworth & Sons, Ltd. installed the largest passenger elevators of the period. Completed in 1880, each of the three hydraulic elevators traveled 90 feet, and the cars were 17 feet square. The huge cabins were elaborately decorated with mirrors and seats along the side, giving vent to the term, &quot;moving drawing rooms.&quot; The 100-passenger elevators were converted from steam to electricity in 1906. The system was damaged by enemy bombs during World War II, and in recent times, the drum machines were replaced with gearless drive units by the original manufacturer. Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  75. 76. The growth of elevator companies during the past 125 years has largely been through mergers and acquisitions. With the coming of national railroad services linking major cities it was not necessary for foundries and machines shops to make elevators for a single trade area, When heavy components could be shipped by rail between cities the better-financed regional manufacturers set about acquiring others not so fortunate. The enlarged survivors established sales and service offices where equipment had been previously produced. During a period when large manufacturers spent little on experimentation, compared with modern times, innovation came from rugged individualists, whether such persons were lone inventors or leaders of small companies with flexibility. Although such innovators were competent to create they often were not financially equipped to promote the new product, nor place it in production. Well-financed large manufactures acquired such products, entrepreneurs and/or companies. Having a new and wider range of products to market the growth manufacturers were on the lookout for independent elevator contractors who had built up substantial businesses in local areas. Often such independent contractors had been distributors for the manufacturer and were purchased at mutual convenience. Brief History of Elevators Elevators
  76. 77. Large manufacturers were also apt to purchase special components from suppliers and, when an opportunity arose of mutual benefit, the former acquired the suppliers as an arm of the purchaser. When large companies of similar power and affluence saw intimate cooperation to have mutual advantage a &quot;merger&quot; was apt to take place rather than an acquisition. With the coming of the Global Economy the process merely ratcheted up a notch, the largest companies striving to have world coverage by merging with, or acquiring, overseas manufacturing and/or maintenance facilities. (As a leading manufacturer acquired the writer's elevator contracting firm in 1963 the historic absorptions have always held a personal fascination. They have also held an interest for a former co-worker of some 45 years ago Ð E. W McDonald. &quot;Bud&quot;, now retired in Mobile after a half century in the field, became interested in the Elevator Museum early in 2000; felt &quot;Mergers and Acquisitions&quot; deserved a place within the on-line history, and pulled much of it together. An appropriate place for this bit of memorabilia is in the &quot;Human Interest&quot; Wing. Like all other portions of the museum it cries out for completion. WCS). Brief History of Elevators Elevators
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  78. 79. Mergers: Most elevator companies have undergone a high level of mergers and/or acquisitions over time. This has led to both rapid development and obsolescence of many elevator systems and components.
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  81. 82. Elevator Components & Descriptions Elevators
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  85. 86. Glossary of Elevator Terminology ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) — The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 was signed into law by President Bush on July 26, 1990. The ADA is designed to give civil rights protection to people with disabilities, similar to those granted by the Civil Rights Act. Balustrade — the side of an escalator extending above the steps. It includes skirt panels, interior panels, decks and handrails. Brake — an electro-mechanical device used to prevent the elevator from moving when the car is at rest and no power is applied to the hoist motor. On some types of control, it also stops the elevator when power is removed from the hoist motor. Brake Shoe — moving member(s) of a brake, lined with friction material which, when in contact with the brake drum, holds the elevator at floor level. On some types of control, it will stop the elevator when power is removed from the hoist motor. Brush — a device, usually of carbon or graphite composition, used to connect a circuit with the rotating or moving portion of a DC motor, generator or other electrical device. It carries current to and from the non-moving parts of connections. Elevators
  86. 87. Glossary of Elevator Terminology Callback — in contract service, a customer request which requires a check of an elevator other than the regularly scheduled maintenance. Car (Cab) — the load-carrying unit, including its platform, frame, enclosure, and car door or gate. Car Counterweight — a set of weights roped directly to the elevator car of a winding-drum type installation. In practice, this weight is equal to approximately 70 percent of the car weight. Car Operating Station — a panel mounted in the car containing the car operating controls, such as call register buttons, door open and close, alarm emergency stop and whatever other buttons or key switches are required for operation. Car-top Inspection Station — a control panel on top of an elevator car which, when activated, removes the car from normal service and allows the car to run at inspection speed from the car top station only. Elevators
  87. 88. Glossary of Elevator Terminology Code — a system of regulations pertaining to the design, manufacture, installation and maintenance of elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators and moving walks. The most widely recognized and used is ANSI A17.1, sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards, the American Institute of Architects, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and published by ASME. It has been adopted by many states. Some states and cities have written their own codes, most of which are based on the ANSI A17.1. Controller — a device, or group of devices, which serves to control, in a predetermined manner, the apparatus to which it is connected. Counterweight — a weight which counterbalances the weight of an elevator car plus approximately 40 percent of the capacity load. Cylinder — the outermost lining of a hydraulic jack. Direct Current (DC) — an electric current flowing in one direction only and substantially constant in value. Elevators
  88. 89. Glossary of Elevator Terminology Door Lock — any type of mechanical lock designed to prevent the opening of a hoistway door from the landing side. Door Operator — a motor-driven device mounted on the car which opens and closes the car doors. Drive Machine — the power unit which applies the energy necessary to raise and lower an elevator, material lift, or dumb waiter car or to drive an escalator, an inclined lift or a moving walk. Drive Sheave — the grooved wheel of a traction-type hoisting machine over which the hoist ropes pass, and by which motion is imparted to the car and counterweight by the hoist ropes. Escalator — a power-driven, inclined, continuous stairway used for raising or lowering passengers. Elevators
  89. 90. Glossary of Elevator Terminology Firefighter's Service — a device or group of devices which provide: (1) a signal for immediate recall to a designated landing in order to remove cars from normal use, and (2) to permit special operation for firefighters or other authorized emergency personnel. Geared Traction Machine — a traction machine in which the power from the motor is transmitted to the drive sheave through reduction gears. Gearless Traction Machine — a type of elevator hoisting machine on which the hoist ropes pass over a traction drive sheave which is an integral part of the armature. Called gearless because no geared reduction unit is utilized. Generator — an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy (usually direct current). Governor — A mechanical speed control mechanism. It is a wire-rope driven centrifugal device used to stop and hold the movement of its driving rope. This initiates the activation of the car safety device. It opens a switch which cuts off power to the drive motor and brake if the car travels at a preset overspeed in the down direction. Some types of governors will also open the governor switch and cut off power to the drive motor and brake if the car overspeeds in the up direction. Elevators
  90. 91. Glossary of Elevator Terminology Governor Rope — a wire rope attached to an elevator car frame that drives the governor and, when stopped by the governor, initiates setting of the car safety. Guide Rails — steel T-section with machined guiding surfaces installed vertically in a hoistway to guide and direct the course of travel of an elevator car and elevator counterweights. Hall Lantern — a corridor mounted signal light indicating than an elevator car is approaching that landing and the direction in which the car is to travel. Handrail — (1) the moving handhold provided for escalator passengers which moves over the top of the balustrade and newels; (2) a railing serving as a support. Handrail Guard — a guard, usually made of rubber, that fits over the outside of the handrail at a point where the handrail enters or leaves the balustrade; it is designed to keep a person's fingers out of the handrail opening. Elevators
  91. 92. Glossary of Elevator Terminology Hoistway — a shaftway for the travel of one or more elevators, dumbwaiters or material lifts. It includes the pit and terminates at the underside of the overhead machinery space floor or grating, or at the underside of the roof where the hoistway does not penetrate the roof. Hydraulic Elevator — a power elevator where the energy is applied, by means of a liquid under pressure, in a cylinder equipped with a plunger or piston. Layout — a scaled mechanical drawing showing dimensioned plan views and elevations of an elevator hoistway and machine room to indicate space conditions, pertinent dimensions, sizes and location of components of the installation. Leveling — the movement of an elevator toward the landing sill when it is within the leveling zone. When the word leveling is used, the inference is that the process of attaining a level or stop position (the platform level with the landing sill) is performed completely automatically. Machine Room — the space in which the driving machine for an elevator or group of elevators, dumbwaiter, escalator or group of escalators is located. Elevators
  92. 93. Glossary of Elevator Terminology Main (Car) Guide Rails — steel T-sections with machined guarding surfaces installed vertically in a hoistway to guide and direct the course of travel of an elevator car. Overspeed Governor Switch — a part of an escalator machine. It is actuated by centrifugal force and trips a switch when the motor speed has increased 20 percent over its rated name plate speed. Preventive Maintenance — inspections, tests, adjustments, cleaning and similar activities carried out on elevator and escalator equipment with the intention of preventing malfunctions from occurring during operation. It is designed to keep equipment in proper operating order and is done on a schedule basis. It is also referred to as schedule maintenance. Relay — an electric device that is designed to interpret input conditions in a prescribed manner and after specified conditions are met, to respond and cause contact operation or create change in associated electric control circuits. Roller Guides — guide shoes which use rollers that rotate on guide rails rather than sliding on the rails. Elevators
  93. 94. Glossary of Elevator Terminology Sheave — a wheel mounted in bearings and having one or more grooves over which a rope or ropes may pass. Specifications — a detailed itemized description of the plans, materials, dimensions and all other requirements proposed for the installation of the equipment. Top-of-Car Inspection Station — controls on the top of the car used by an elevator constructor to operate the car at inspection speed. It provides a means of operating an elevator from on top of the car at slow speed during adjustment, inspection, maintenance and repair. Traction Machine — an electric machine in which the friction between the hoist ropes and the machine sheave is used to move the elevator car. Traveling Cable — a cable made up of electric conductors which provides electrical connection between an elevator or dumbwaiter car, or material lift, and a fixed outlet in the hoistway or machine room. Elevators
  94. 95. Glossary of Elevator Terminology Two Speed AC - A type of traction machine powered by an AC-driven motor (actually 2 motors built into one), which has 2 distinct speeds. Two Speed Door - A type of door consisting of two horizontal sliding panels, which move, in the same direction. Variable Voltage - A method of controlling a DC-driven machine, which produces many different speeds. Worm - A shaft on which a spiral groove is cut. Worm Gear - The gear wheel which engages the revolving worm. The rotating motion of the worm is transmitted through the worm gear to the drive sheave. Elevators

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