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  1. 1. Simple present Simple past "I always drink coffee", she said She said that she always drank coffee. Present continuous Past continuous "I am reading a book", he explained. He explained that he was reading a book Simple past Past perfect “I broke the glass", he admitted He admitted (that) he had broken the glass. Present perfect Past perfect "I have been to Spain", he told me. He told me that he had been to Spain REPORTED STATEMENTS
  2. 2. Past perfect Past perfect "I had just turned out the light," he explained. He explained that he had just turned out the light. Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous They complained, "We have been waiting for hours". They complained that they had been waiting for hours. Past continuous Past perfect continuous "We were living in Paris", they told me. They told me that they had been living in Paris.
  3. 3. Future Present conditional "I will always love you", he promised He promised that he would always love her. Future continuous Conditional continuous She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday". She said that she would be using the car next Friday. Can Could “We can solve the problem", they insisted They insisted (that) they could solve the problem. May Might "I may be late” He warned us. He warned us (that) he might be late.
  4. 4. Must Had to “We must leave now" he explained. He explained that he had to leave then . We don’t need to change the verb form : •if the reporting verb is in the present, or if the original statement was about something that is still true, e.g. “ The currency in Argentina is the peso” The teacher tols us that the currency in Argentina is the peso When the sentences we are reporting contains the modals: Would, could, might, ought to, should or must when it used for deduction: I could come tomorrow” she said He said that he could come the next day
  5. 5. Direct Speech Indirect Speech Here Now This /that Today This morning There Then These/those That day That morning Ago Yesterday Last week Before The day before /the previous day The week before/ the previous week Next week Next month The following week /The week after The following month/ the month after TIME EXPRESIONS
  6. 6. QUESTIONS Use the same word order as in statements Change the tenses as in statements There is no questions mark unless the introductory phrase is a question: Use the Wh-word in Wh-questions  Present Past When does the film start?   He asked me When the film started. He wanted to know when the film started Use if / whether for Yes/ no questions Present perfect  Past perfect Have you done your homework or not? The teacher asked if /whether we had done our homework or not.
  7. 7. Must use whether (not if) when we are asking someone to make a choice: Present Past “Do you want tea or coffee?”   He asked me whether I wanted tea or coffee. May use polite introductory phrases like: I wonder if you, could you tell me… Don’t change the tense Present “What’s the time?” I wonder if you could tell me What the time is?.
  8. 8. REQUESTS AND ORDERS We often use verbs like: ask, tell+object+to-infinitive: We don’t chance tenses “Will you be quiet, please?” The teacher asked me to be quiet. The teacher told me to be quiet. We use not before the to-infinitive to report negative requests or orders: “Please don’t interrupt the meeting" The manager asked /told me not to interrupt the meeting
  9. 9. Verb+gerund Verb+object preposition+ gerund verb +preposition+ gerund deny recommend suggest accuse blame congratulate apologize insist Examples: He denied having anything to do with her. Ken suggested studying early in the morning. Examples: They accused the boys of cheating on the exam. She blamed her husband for missing the train. Examples: He apologized for being late. She insisted on doing the washing up.
  10. 10. verb +object +infinitive Verb+infinitive verb (that) advise encourage invite remind warn agree decide offer promise refuse threaten admit agree decide deny explain insist promise recommend suggest Examples: Jack encouraged me to look for a new job. They invited all their friends to attend the presentation. Examples: She offered to give him a lift to work. My brother refused to take no for an answer. Examples: Tom admitted (that) he had tried to leave early. She agreed (that) we needed to reconsider our plans.
  11. 11. HOPES INTENTIONS ANDPROMISES ORDERS OR COMMANDS, REQUESTS AND SUGGESTIONS Promise, hope, propose threaten, guarantee swear. Tell, command, order, warn, ask, advise, invite, beg, teach, forbid, remind, urge, warn Ask, advise, beg, encourage, invite, persuade, recommend, request , remind SUGGESTIONS STATEMENTS insist, recommend, demand, request, propose. add, admit, agree, announce, answer, claim, complain, declare, explain, insist, imply, mention, point out, promise, recognise, state, QUESTIONS want to know, wonder , ask
  12. 12. 1. Verbs followed by 'if' or 'whether' + clause: ask know remember say see SUMMARY OF REPORTING VERBS
  13. 13. 2. Verbs followed by a that-clause: add admit agree announce answer argue boast claim comment complain confirm consider deny doubt estimate explain fear feel insist mention observe persuade propose remark remember repeat reply report reveal say state suggest suppose tell think understand warn
  14. 14. 3. Verbs followed by either a that-clause or a to- infinitive: decide expect guarantee hope promise swear threaten 4. Verbs followed by a that-clause containing should (but note that it may be omitted, leaving a subject + zero-infinitive): advise beg demand insist prefer propose recommend request suggest
  15. 15. 5. Verbs followed by a clause starting with a question word: decide describe discover discuss explain forget guess imagine know learn realise remember reveal say see suggest teach tell think understand wonder 6. Verbs followed by object + to-infinitive advise ask beg command forbid instruct invite teach tell warn