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  2. 2. Amoebiasis Amoebiasis, or Amebiasis, refers to infection caused by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica.
  3. 3. What is Entamoeba histolytica? •take from a few days to a few weeks to develop and manifest themselves, but usually it is about two to four weeks •(histo –lytic = tissue destroying) is an anaerobic parasitic proto zoan, part of the genus Entamoeba. Predominantly infecting humans and other primates.
  4. 4. What is Entamoeba histolytica? •can actually 'bore' into the intestinal wall, causing lesions and intestinal symptoms, and it may reach the blood stream •it can reach different vital organs of the human body, usually the liver, but sometimes the lungs, brain, spleen, etc •A common outcome of this invasion of tissues is a liver abscess, which can be fatal if untreated
  5. 5. What are the symptoms? • Mild diarrhea to severe dysentery with blood and mucus • fulminating dysentery • weight loss • Fatigue • abdominal pain • amoeboma
  6. 6. How is it transmitted? • by the fecal-oral route • indirectly through contact with dirty hands or objects • by anal-oral contact • through contaminated food and water
  7. 7. Diagnosis • By finding cysts shed in the stool through flotation or sedimentation procedures. • Serological tests • Microscopy (fecalysis)
  8. 8. How to prevent? • To help prevent the spread of amoebiasis around the home : – Wash hands thoroughly with soap and hot running water for at least 10 seconds after using the toilet or changing a baby's diaper, and before handling food. – Clean bathrooms and toilets of ten; pay particular attention to toilet seats and taps. – Avoid sharing towels or face washers. • To help prevent infection: – Avoid raw vegetables when in endemic areas, as they may have been fertilized using human feces. – Boil water or treat with iodine tablets. – Avoid eating street foods especially in public places where others are sharing sauces in one container
  9. 9. What can be done to prevent amoebiasis? • It is important to be careful about food in tropical countries where all forms of travelers' diarrhea may occur. • Avoid food that may have been cooked some time before. Freshly boiled food, eg, rice and sweet corn, is safe to eat. • Avoid salads, shellfish, crab and prawns • Avoid fruit and vegetables which can't be peeled; fruits which can be peeled, eg, avocado, bananas, citrus fruits and melon, are safe • Do not have ice in drinks and drink only bottled water. Do not use tap water, even for brushing teeth • If a traveler has spent a long time in tropical countries, it may be advisable for them to have a stool test on returning home as amoebae may be present without symptoms and require treatment. Good sanitary practice, as well as responsible sewage disposal or treatment, are necessary for the prevention ofE.histolytica infection on an endemic level. E.histolytica cysts are usually resistant to chlorination, therefore sedimentation and filtration of water supplies are necessary to reduce the incidence of infection
  10. 10. What treatment is available? • If there are no symptoms but a stool sample confirms the presence of amoebic cysts, medical treatment will be prescribed. A 10-day course ofdiloxanide tablets is given to eradicate the parasite in carriers with no symptoms. Metronidazole (eg, Flagyl®), a type of antibiotic, may be given (as tablets or as syrup) for amoebic dysentery or liver abscess or for other forms of amoebic disease. It may also be given to eradicate the parasite in carriers with no symptoms. Tinidazole (Fasigyn®) is another antibiotic which may be given for amoebic dysentery or amoebic liver disease as an alternative to metronidazole. Tinidazole is given as tablets. Diloxanide may be given alone for chronic (long-lasting) infections or after a course of treatment with metronidazole or tinidazole to destroy any amoebae in the intestine. Chloroquine tablets (as Avloclor®) may be used to treat amoebic hepatitis. Rehydration is very important. Electrolyte solutions can be taken to replace fluid and salts that are lost as a result of the diarrhoea. Rehydration preparations include Dioralyte®, Electrolade® and Rapolyte®. Plenty of clear liquids such as water or juice should also be drunk.
  11. 11. Thank you!!! Prailbilbao BSN II UI-PHINMA