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Fluidized Deposition Reactor for Silicon Production                      Paul Ege1, Alireza Abbasi1, Jin-Seok Seo2, Jun-Su...
Overview           2	  
BackgroundPolysilicon Processes•    Siemens Rod Deposition     •    High Energy / High Quality     •    SiHCl3(g) +H2 = HC...
BackgroundFluidization Fundamentals                            4	  
BackgroundFluidized bed design elements                                5	  
                                                                                      	                            Polysil...
Polysilicon Fluidized Bed                                       LiteratureØ  JPL work in 1980ʼ’s many referencesØ  Furus...
Polysilicon Fluidized Bed    Prior art (old patents)                              8	  
Polysilicon Fluidized BedProtected designs (current patents)                                      9	  
Polysilicon Fluidized Bed                  Commercial ProcessesMEMC – SiH4 FBR •    Two stage process; high production wit...
Polysilicon Fluidized Bed Commercial design solutions                               11	  
FBR development            Scope Scale and Objective of stages①  Review stage   ü  Review literature/patents for IP/Cost/...
FBR development  Multi Stage Effort                       13	  
FBR development Multi Level Modeling                        14	  
FBR development                                             CFD and CPFD for flow and scale up analysisReactech	  Process	...
FBR developmentReactor Model for design/analysis/control                                            16	  
FBR development                                                                   Experimental                            ...
ConclusionsØ  Polysilicon FBR is promising technology for low cost high quality    productionØ  Prior art allows develop...
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Fluidized Deposition Reactor for Silicon Production

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Presented at SolarCon China 2012
CPTIC Symposiumseries

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Fluidized Deposition Reactor for Silicon Production

  1. 1. Fluidized Deposition Reactor for Silicon Production Paul Ege1, Alireza Abbasi1, Jin-Seok Seo2, Jun-Suk Lee2, Jung-Hyun Lee2 1- Reactech Process Development Inc, Canada 2- KCC Corporation, Republic of Korea
  2. 2. Overview 2  
  3. 3. BackgroundPolysilicon Processes•  Siemens Rod Deposition •  High Energy / High Quality •  SiHCl3(g) +H2 = HCl(g) + Si(s) •  SiH4 = Si(g)+Si(s)+ H2•  Metallurgical Routes •  Low Energy / Low Quality•  Fluid Bed deposition •  Low Energy / Medium-High Quality •  SiH4 = Si(g)+Si(s)+ H2 •  SiHCl3(g) +H2 = HCl(g) + Si(s) •  4 SiHCl3= 2 H2+ 3 SiCl4+ Si(s)•  Silane Freespace •  Low Energy / Medium quality 3   3  
  4. 4. BackgroundFluidization Fundamentals 4  
  5. 5. BackgroundFluidized bed design elements 5  
  6. 6.     Polysilicon Fluidized Bed Process EvaluationAdvantages Challengesª  Continuous granular production -  Complex flow patterns => Reduce operation cost -  Gas mix in emulsionª  Excellent contact high surface volume -  Gas bypass in bubbles -  Attrition and Erosion => compact process -  Quality reductionª  Low DP for high throughput -  Dust generation => high capacity -  Pipe/Internal deterioration -  Entrainmentª  Excellent heat transfer -  Powder inherent, less with TCS => low energy consumption -  Dust from abrasion/attrition -  Fouling -  Wallª  Near isothermal conditions and large -  Nozzles/distributor thermal reservoir -  Complex reaction kinetics -  TCS, equilibrium limited -  Silane, competing reactions 6   6  
  7. 7. Polysilicon Fluidized Bed LiteratureØ  JPL work in 1980ʼ’s many referencesØ  Furusawa Hom/Het kinetics (1988)Ø  Lai & Dudukovics (MEMC) 1986 •  Describes a multi step mechanismØ  Caussat et. Al. study on FBR (1995-98) •  Bubbling reactor model and exp dataØ  Mlezcko et. Al. Solarworld (2004)Ø  Pina et.al REC process (2006) •  PF/CSTR approachØ  Ydstie-Balaji independent(2009)Ø  Parker Barracuda (2010) 7  
  8. 8. Polysilicon Fluidized Bed Prior art (old patents) 8  
  9. 9. Polysilicon Fluidized BedProtected designs (current patents) 9  
  10. 10. Polysilicon Fluidized Bed Commercial ProcessesMEMC – SiH4 FBR •  Two stage process; high production with dust, low production to adsorb dust and anneal •  Seed, quench, el.mag. heat, coating and valves •  Recent – multiple beds for growth, and special distributor •  Appears to be traditional bubbling fluid bed behavior •  Dimensions and capacities not revealedREC – SiH4 FBR •  Submerged Spouted bed one or more spouts •  Nozzle design with secondary orifice, internal grinding, annular withdrawal, halogen injection, tapered bed •  Recent radiant heated bed with internal liner and cooling below injectorOthers in development •  Wacker, KRICT, AEP, SILIKEN – TCS based •  Samsung-MEMC, KCC – Silane based •  Independent developers 10  
  11. 11. Polysilicon Fluidized Bed Commercial design solutions 11  
  12. 12. FBR development Scope Scale and Objective of stages①  Review stage ü  Review literature/patents for IP/Cost/Risk feasibility analysis②  Lab/Bench Scale (inches diameter) ü  Establish reaction kinetics and flow for basic reactor models ü  Validate process conditions and scale up strategy for pilot/commercial③  Pilot/Demo Scale (feet diameter) ü  Validate commercial challenges in long term continuous operation ü  Verify scale up predictions and design for commercial ü  Well instrumented small commercial unit with many interruptions ü  Risk in scale best taken here!④  Commercial Scale (meters diameter) ü  Target uninterrupted production with minimum disturbance ü  Start-up and stabilize, then optimize Yield/Capacity/Quality/Economics 12  
  13. 13. FBR development Multi Stage Effort 13  
  14. 14. FBR development Multi Level Modeling 14  
  15. 15. FBR development CFD and CPFD for flow and scale up analysisReactech  Process  Development     15  
  16. 16. FBR developmentReactor Model for design/analysis/control 16  
  17. 17. FBR development Experimental OBJECTIVE   Experimental  methods  to  verify  a  wide  range  of  parameters  that  are  important     in  reactor  model  development  and  for  design  purposes  Characteristics MethodsParticle– External Pressure and Temperature•  Fluidization/Entrainment/Reactivity •  Global / Time average => Mb, Hb, Void fraction•  Porosity/Density, Size/Shape, Umf, DPf, Ut •  Fluctuations => frequency, regime, forces •  Correlations => size, velocityGas •  Delta T=> Solids mixing•  Fluidization/Entrainment Intrusive probes•  Density, Viscosity •  Capacitance/Fiberoptic/DPFluid bed •  Local bubble and void properties•  Void, Solid Mixing, Gas dispersion, Mass and Non Intrusive probes Heat transfer •  x-ray, γ-ray, capacitanceEntrainment •  High speed samples => local bubble properties•  TDH, Freeboard flow/void, Cyclone feed/ •  Multiple samples => Tomography efficiency, Dipleg operation Tracer studies •  Gas dispersion •  Solids mixing (solid tracer, heat pulse) 17  
  18. 18. ConclusionsØ  Polysilicon FBR is promising technology for low cost high quality productionØ  Prior art allows development of Polysilicon FBR. Challenge will be to avoid design details already patentedØ  Significant development challenges require serious long-term effort from lab through pilot to commercial scale.Ø  REC successfully commercialized new technologyØ  Several new projects at different development stagesØ  KCC progressing well with solid foundation from Bench scale efforts fast approaching demonstration scale pilot production 18  

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