Transportation Concept,Transportation Systems and Transportation in Turkey
Logistics is the Art and Science of Determining Requirements; Acquiring them;Distributingthem and finally, Maintaining them in an operational ready condition for their entire life. (Stone, 1968)
Historical Perspective 1950’s and early 1960’sIn this period, distribution systems were unplanned andunformulated. 1960’s and early 1970’sIn the 1960’s and 1970’s the concept of physical distribution wasdeveloped with the gradual realization that the ‘dark continent’was indeed a valid area for managerial involvement. 1980sFairly rapid cost increases and the clearer definition of the truecosts of distribution contributed to a significant increase inprofessionalism within distribution.(centralized distribution,severe reductions in stock-holding and the use of the computer)
Historical Perspective Late 1980’s and early 1990’sCombining of materials management (the inbound side)with physical distribution (the outbound side).The term‘logistics’ was used to describe this concept 1990sSupply Change Management.Manufacturers and retailers should act together inpartnership to help create a logistics mechanism.
Historical Perspective 2000 and beyondFor many organizations, changes in logistics haveprovided the catalyst for major enhancements to theirbusiness.(Rushton, 2000)
Transportation system is the entire of labor,facilities,and resources that make up themovement capability in the economy.This capability refers to movement of freight andpeople.(R.Ballou, 1992)
Movement of Freight and People Domestic Freight MovementBulk of the Freight Transportation Small Shipment Movement Agencies Services Water Freight Forwarders Federal Express Air Truck Shippers United Parcel Rail Brokers Service Pipe Others
Bulk of the Freight Movement Sea Freight Cost Economies Flexibility Availability Slow Spees Need for double handling Delay Problems Damage
Bulk of the Freight Movement Road Freight Quick Service Reduced need for double handling Flexibility Minimum packaging cost
Bulk of the Freight Movement Rail Freight Damage risk There is a need to double-handle Slow speed Unreliable Economic Limited rail heads
Bulk of the Freight Movement Air Freight Rapid Transit Time Fast Speed Lead Time Economy Reduction in Packagin Costs Expensive
Bulk of the Freight Movement PipelineUnlike the case with the other four modes,pipelines aphysical plant consist only of pipes,pumping stations,storage tanks,and land.(Ballou, 1992)
Intermodal Transport An intermodal freight transport system is characterized by the subsequent use of different traffic modes for moving goods stowed into an intermodal loading unit (ILU) from the consignor to the consignee(Johan Woxenius and Fredrik Bärthel).
Intermodal Transport The cellular container ship
Intermodal Transport The roll-on roll-off ferry (RORO)
Overview The share of the transportation and logistics sector in Turkey’s GDP is estimated between 8-12%. (IGEME ,2009) The size of Turkish transportation & logistics industry is determined as US$ 59 billion, while the share of the logistics service supplier market (Third Party Logistics) is estimated as US$ 22 billion in “Turkey Logistics Industry Survey 2008”. The industry has tripled since 2002 while the share of logistics service suppliers has only increased by 7% which signals an unrealized growth potential.(Quattro Business Consulting “Turkey Logistics Industry Survey ,2008)
Turkey lies between Europe and Asia serving as a bridge geographically, culturally and economically.(Republic of Ministry Investement Support Agency)
Road Transport As of 2010, having 91,7 percent of passenger and 89,4 percent of freight transport, road transport constitutes a great share among the transportation modes in Turkey. Turkish total road network is over 64,865 km, of which more than 31,395 km are state roads, 31,390 km are provincial roads and 2080 km are motorways.
Rail Transport Currently, TCDD has 11,052 km conventional line and 888 km high speed line which finally equals 11,940 km lines in total. 93 percent of these mainlines are single-track; 3161 km of total lines are electrified and 3908 km of them are signaled. There are 452 km sidelines which enable the connection of 326 freight centers (such as Factory-organized industrial zones) with main railway network. (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport and Communication) A budget of US$ 23.5 billion is allocated to railway development up to 2023.(Deloitte, Investors’ Guide Turkey, 2009)
With regard to international transportation, block trains are operated reciprocally from Turkey to Germany, Hungary, Austria, Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia in west
and to Iran, Pakistan, Syria, Iraq in east, and to Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan in Central Asia.In this scope, 191 block freight trains are operated reciprocally per day including 158 domesticand 33 international trains. (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport and Communication)
Air Transport Turkey has 45 airports, 13 of which serve international flights. . In 2010 there were more than 100 million airline passengers in Turkey. Total number of transit flights were 304.540, international flights were 536.350 and domestic flights were 489.980. In 2010, domestic cargo jumped to 598 thousand tons and international cargo reached 1.4 million tons.
Sea Transport 85 percent of the volume of Turkey’s foreign trade transportation has been carried by sea.
Sea Transport The amount of container (including import, export, cabotage and transit) handled in Turkish ports has reached 5.7 million TEU in 2010. The amount of cargo (including import, export, cabotage and transit) handled in Turkish ports has reached 348.69 million tonnes in 2010
Sea Transport Turkish shipyard has become 70 in 2010 and has managed to become well known throughout the world, especially in the construction of chemical tankers and container ships. The number of ships in the Turkish-owned shipping fleet has become 1.239 in 2010. Total tonnage of Turkish-owned fleet has reached 18.671.000 DWT in 2010. (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport and Communication)
Multi-modal Transport Maritime-railway connections in Haydarpaşa, Derince, Bandırma, Alsancak, Samsun, İskenderun and Mersin Ports Railway-road connections in Halkalı, Köseköy, Derince, Bozüyük, Çukurhisar, Ankara, Boğazköprü, Eskişehir, Kayseri, Başpınar, Biçerova, Mersin etc. Train-ferry connection between Samsun-Kavkaz ports RO-RO connections between;
Multi-modal Transport -Haydarpaşa -Ilichevsky (Ukraine) Ports, - İzmir – Ravenna – Monfalcone Ports (Slovenia), - İzmir – Salerno – Savona Ports (Italy), - İzmir – Mersin –Alexandria (Egypt) – Livorno (Italy) – Geneva (Italy) –Mostaghanem (Algeria) Ports, - Pendik-Haydarpaşa-Trieste Ports(Italy) - Ambarlı-Trieste Ports(Italy) - Taşucu-Girne Ports(Turkish Republic Northern Cyprus) - Mersin- Magusa Ports(Turkish -Mersin –Trieste Ports (Italy) - Çeşme – Trieste Ports (Italy) - Rize – Poti Ports (Georgia) - Samsun – Novorossiysk Ports (Russia) - Trabzon-Sochi Ports, - Zonguldak-Ukraine Ports, - Train-ferry connections between Derince - Ilichevsky (Ukraine) Ports and between Samsun
Logistic Centers Modern logistic centers are planned to be established in areas which are close to “Organized Industrial Zones” and convenient for technologic and economic developments as in other European Countries
Works for establishing 12 logistic centers has been underway to improve integrated combined transport in the country. (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport and Communication)