Indian institute of space science and technology
Done by :
Priyanka Ojha ,
TRENT 1000-BOEING 787 ENGINE
• The Trent 1000 engine is a three shaft high bypass ratio, axial flow,
turbofan with Low Pressure, Intermediate Pressure and High Pressure
Compressors driven by separate turbines through coaxial shafts.
• Best engine for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner.
• It is a new ultra-high-thrust variant of the Trent family and uses a
• Least environmental impact
• it is a bleedless design.
A significant architectural innovation
• Higher propulsive efficiency through increased
• Higher engine thermal efficiency through
increased overall pressure ratio and improved
• Improved thrust-to-weight ratio through the
application of advanced materials.
• Introduction of a novel dual-use electrical power
generation system that doubled as the engine
• The three-shaft architecture- the three-spool design affords
intermediate pressure power off-take with demonstrated benefits
in engine operability and fuel consumption.
• The Trent 1000 is a bleedless engine to suit the requirements of
the More Electric Boeing 787- This offers reductions in fuel burn
and weight for the overall aircraft and enables increased levels of
electrical energy to be transferred to the aircraft via the
Intermediate Pressure (IP) spool power off-take. In addition, this
unique three-shaft technology improves engine operability.
• Incorporate the latest swept aero hollow-fan-blade technology
evolved from the predecessor Trent 900 engine.
• Incorporate surface coolers for compact and efficient rejection of
VFSG and engine oil heat.
• Design the Trent 1000 with the latest computational fluid
dynamics-enabled 3D aerodynamics for high efficiency and
• improve component life the Trent 1000 features new
technology- soluble core High Pressure (HP) turbine blades,
new manufacturing methods produce more effective cooling
for longer-life blades and improved fuel burn. Improved
materials also increase lives of discs and shafts
• Usage of Variable frequency starter generator(VFSG) which
reduce fuel burn and noise on the 787.
• The engine has 15% lower fuel burn than those of a decade
ago, and delivers 40% lower emissions than required by
current international legislation.
• At take-off the Boeing 787 Dreamliner’s two Trent 1000s will deliver
thrust of 150,000 lbf, which is equivalent to the power of 1,500 cars.
• The engine sucks in 1.25 tons of air per second during take off (that’s
about the volume of a racket ball court every second).
• Air passing through the engine is squeezed to more than 700 lb per sq
inch, which is 50 times normal air pressure.
• The engine has about 30,000 individual components
• The fuel in the engine combustion chamber burns at about 3632 deg F
the sun’s surface is about 9941 deg F.
• The force on a fan blade at take-off is about 100 tons. That is like hanging
a freight train off each blade. The first generation of turbine blades had
about 10 tons of force.
• The blade tip travels at more than 900mph – faster than the speed of
• Each high pressure turbine blade produces more than 800 horsepower –
the same as a NASCAR engine.
• The LP and IP assemblies
rotate independently in an
anti-clockwise direction, the
HP assembly rotates
clockwise, when viewed from
the rear of the engine. The
Compressor and Turbine have
the following features:
LP – Single stage LP – 6 stage
IP – 8 stage IP – single stage
HP – 6 stage HP – single stage
Type: Three-shaft high bypass ratio (11-10.8:1) turbofan engine
Length: 4.738 m (186.5 in)
Diameter: 2.85 m (112 in) (Fan)
Dry weight: 5,765 kg (12,710 lb)
Take-off thrust: 53000 - 75000 lbf
Fan: 20 blades, 112" diameter(2.85 metres)
Maximum thrust: 53,000–75,000 lbf (240–330 kN) (flat-rated to
ISA+15C) (Takeoff thrust)
Overall pressure ratio: 52:1 (Top-of-Climb)
Thrust-to-weight ratio: 6.189:1 (Trent 1000-J/-K at maximum
Mass flow: 2,400 - 2,670 lb/s
• Climatic Operating Envelope
The engine may be used in ambient temperatures up to ISA +40°C.
• Turbine Gas Temperature – Trimmed (°C)
Maximum during ground starts and shutdown: 700
Maximum during in-flight relights: 900
Maximum for take-off (5 min. limit): 900
Maximum Continuous (unrestricted duration): 850
Maximum over-temperature (20 second limit): 920
• Fuel temperature (°C)
Minimum fuel temperature: -45
Maximum fuel temperature: 65
• Oil temperature (°C)
Range is -40 to 205
Fuel pressure (kPa)
Minimum absolute inlet pressure (measured at engine inlet):
• Steady state conditions with engine running: 34.5 + vapour pressure
• Transient conditions with engine running (2 seconds): 13.8 + vapour
Maximum pressure at inlet (measured at the pylon interface):
• Steady state conditions with engine running: 483
• Transient conditions with engine running (2 seconds): 966
• Static after engine shut down: 1172
Maximum permissible rotor speeds
Rotor HP IP LP
Reference speeds, 100% rpm 13391 8937 2683
Without SB 72-G319 Maximum for take-off 98.6% 100.8% 101.4%
Maximum continuous 97.8% 99.5% 101.4%
With SB 72-G319 Maximum for take-off 100.2% 103.5% 101.5%
Maximum continuous 99.2% 100.8% 101.5%
(Data makes allowance for instrumentation accuracies)
Low fan speed, life of engine blades,
elliptical leading edge blades, low
• Moving a tonne of air per second, the
fan produces over 85% of the
• A 2.8 m (110 in) diameter swept-back
fan, with a smaller diameter hub to
help maximize airflow, This produces
a higher bypass ratio without any
increase in external diameter.
• The biggest and most swept set of
outlet guide vanes made from
titanium; a forged titanium,
lightweight and acoustically-treated
rigid fan case.
• Fan blades rotate 3300 times per
minute with a tip speed of 1730 km/hr
• Heavy blades need more energy to
move and therefore require more fuel.
• Centripetal force is about 900 kN
• Blades are about 10 kg in mass, 100
cm high and about 40 cm wide.
• Made of Titanium alloy containing
small amounts of Fe, O, V and Al.
• Melting point-1604 -1660
• Tensile strength-1000MPa.
• The force on a Trent fan blade at take-off
is almost 100 tons (1000 kN)
Fully swept titanium fan
Trent 1000 - the world’s best fan
• The proven swept fan design is
the lightest in the industry and
balances the requirement for
low noise with high
performance. It does this by
combining lower rotational
speed with advanced
aerodynamic profiles. The low
hub diameter enables a more
compact design and even lower
weight to be achieved.
• The hollow titanium fan blade is
the lightest weight solution due
to its stiff girder structure
Fan Blade –Hollow titanium
• First, at an atomic level, three sheets of
titanium material, are fused. It has to be done
in an ultra-clean production facility through a
process of diffusion bonding.
• Then the process of superplastic forming
creates a hollow within the blade. Argon gas is
used to inflate the titanium in a furnace
operating at almost 1000°C. The two outer
titanium panels are expanded, while the
middle sheet is stretched into a zig-zag shape,
creating the final hollow 3D aerodynamic
shape of the blade and giving extraordinary
rigidity to the structure
• The hollow titanium fan blade coupled with
linear friction welding made it possible to join
the blade to the disk creating a single
integrated structure, called a blisk or ‘bladed
• The compressor is made up of the fan and alternating
stages of rotating blades and static vanes. The
compression system of a Trent engine comprises the
fan, eight intermediate pressure stages and six high
• The primary purpose of the compressor is to increase
the pressure of the air through the gas turbine core. It
then delivers this compressed air to the combustion
• The pressure rise is created as air flows through the
stages of rotating blades and static vanes. The blades
accelerate the air increasing its dynamic pressure, and
then the vanes decelerate the air transferring kinetic
energy into static pressure rises
• At the start of an IPC the
temperatures are around
• The air leaves HPC at about
• It compresses air at about
• High strength, corrosion
resistant to high
temperatures, resistant to
deformation and low density
• So we choose nickel based
• Blades are made by forging
Intermediate Pressure (IP) compressor
Improved life, improved efficiency,
improved robustness, optimised
to reduce fuel consumption
3D-bladed aero compressor, IP
power offtake, welded titanium
drum, 8 stages of titanium blades,
active Variable Stator Vane (VSV)
• incorporates a de-icing system, in
which 44 of the sector stators are
pneumatically heated to prevent
ice accumulation from freezing
IP power offtake
Lower fuel burn, significantly lower
idle noise, reduced brake wear,
Enabled by 3-shaft design, allows
lower idle speed, lowers handling
• Unlike its predecessors, the Trent
1000 power off-take is from the aft
of the IP compressor rather than
the usual front end of the HP
compressor, allowing a greater
stability margin and lower flight and
ground idle thrust
• The contra-rotating HP system
delivers superior efficiency for the
HP and IP turbine systems
High Pressure (HP) compressor
Improved Foreign Object
Damage (FOD) protection, high
life system, improved robustness
RR1000 material, inertia welded
discs, titanium rotor 1 blades,
improved blade root sealing
• a new HP turbine casting design;
as well as a higher temperature
RR1000, R-R’s proprietary
powder metallurgy alloy. This is
used in the last two stages of the
HP compressor drum and HP
NOTE :- RR1000 is a powder nickel alloy introduced into the
Trent 1000 to gain benefits in cycle operating temperature and component life.
Increasing pressure and temperature through compressors
• Air and fuel flow through the annular
combustor. Air is diffused around the
outside of the combustion chamber,
slowing it down; the speed at which the air
leaves the compressor would blow out the
flame were it to pass directly through. In
the illustration, blue shows the combustion
feed air from the HP compressor, and white
through yellow to red, the hot combustion
gases in the burning zones being cooled
before entering the turbine system.
• The gas temperatures within the combustor
are above the melting point of the nickel
alloy walls. Cooling air and thermal barrier
coatings are therefore used to protect the
walls and increase component lives.
Dilution air is used to cool the gas stream
before entering the turbines.
Fuel injector Igniter Secondary zone
Nozzle guide vane
Diffuser Primary zone Dilution zone
Low risk, improved efficiency, low emissions, low noise.
• Temperature in the combustion chamber can peak at
• The thermobarrier coating is around 250mm thick.
• Cooler air from the compressor cools the walls of the
• Materials used is Partially Yttria stabilized Zirconia whose
melting point is in range of 2700-2850*C
Phase 5 tiled combustor, single skin casing reduces
leakage, 18 fuel spray nozzles, proven relight capability,
• The combustion chamber is designed for long life and low
Features of Combuster system
• The use of heat-resistant ceramic tiles to line the combustor
also reduces NOx emissions. The tiles mean you need less
cooling air to cool the combustor. With less cooling air, which
takes up space, the same amount of fuel burns in a larger
volume, lowering peak temperature.
• The "tiled combustor" also is designed to increase durability
and reduce maintenance costs. The area exposed to high
temperatures is lined with 2-by-6-inch, overlapping, heat-resistant
tiles. This lining can grow and shrink with
temperature cycles, shielding the metal rings of the
combustor from the full effects of the heat and reducing
• The turbine is an assembly of discs
with blades that are attached to
the turbine shafts, nozzle guide
vanes, casings and structures.
• Turbine blades convert the energy
stored within the gas into kinetic
energy. Like the compressor, the
turbine comprises of a rotating
disc with blades and static vanes,
called nozzle guide vanes. The gas
pressure and temperature both
fall as it passes through the
IP turbine LP turbine
• Turbine blades rotate at about
• Work in temperatures up to 16000C
• Each blades extracts about 560 kW
of power from the hot gas.
• The blade has to survive 5 million
• Turbine blades are made of a single
crystal of nickel based super alloy to
• They are coated in an advanced
ceramic material to insulate them
from the extreme temperatures
they are exposed to.
Low risk, improved efficiency,
Active tip clearance control,
RR1000 powder metallurgy
disc, contra-rotating, 3D
profiled end wall
aerodynamics, soluble core
HP blades, lower HP blade
count (66), increased cooling
effectiveness, anti blockage
• A high pressure ratio along
with contra-rotating the IP
and HP spools improves
Turbine - Cooling Technology
• HP turbine blades and
nozzle guide vanes are
designed with cooling
passages and thermal
barrier coatings, to ensure
long life while operating at
such high temperatures.
• Cooling air is taken from the
compressor and is fed
around the combustor into
the blades to cool the
HP Turbine blade
Blade cooling air
High pressure turbine blade
• . This blade is grown as a single crystal of a Rolls-Royce
alloy in a vacuum furnace. As it grows, it incorporates a
complex series of air passages to cool the blade. Then
it needs external cooling holes created by incredibly
accurate laser drilling. And on top of all that is a
thermal barrier coating that surpasses that used to
make the tiles on the space shuttle.
• The blade lives in the high-pressure turbine, where the
gas temperature is at least 400 degrees above the
melting point of the blade’s alloy. It sits in a disc that
rotates at more than 10,000 rpm
Fan (LP compressor) IP compressor HP compressor IP turbine LP turbine
Trent 1000 – three shaft configuration
• Rear view of Trent 1000
showing noise reducing
'chevrons', also called
• Uses "crenellations" or
"chevrons" on the trailing
edge of the nacelles in
order to reduce noise.
These chevrons help to
"premix" the core air and
bypass air flows before they
exit the aircraft.
NEW NACELLE FEATURES IMPROVE ON
The nacelle design maximizes composite
and weight-saving materials to
improve maintenance cost and fuel
burn. Highlights include:
• A single-piece inlet barrel
construction for low noise.
• Lightweight composite fan cowls.
• A proven translating sleeve thrust
reverser system that utilizes compact
state-of-the-art 5,000 pounds per
square inch (psi) hydraulic actuation.
• Advanced titanium alloy exhaust
• A single-piece aft fairing.
• Composite diagonal brace.
• Advanced titanium alloy strut.
*This view of the nacelle shows the inlet, fan cowls, thrust reverser, exhaust plug, and nozzle.
Variable frequency starter generator
• Replaces the heritage bleed air system
used to feed the airplane’s environmental
control system, thereby realizing direct
weight savings through the elimination of
relatively heavy bleed air components
such as regulation valves, ducting, and
• Eliminates the energy loss of the bleed
air system pre-cooler.
• Eliminates the throttling losses of bleed
air provided from discrete engine
• Eliminates the single-purpose air turbine
starters and their associated oil system
• Simplifies the auxiliary power unit (APU)
design to be a shaft power-only machine.
Pressure and temperature stations for Trent 1000
On the Trent 1000 up to 30% of the power produced by the IP Turbine can be
transmitted to the Electrical generators when operating at idle. This is a significant
amount of the overall turbine power and will therefore have a significant effect on
During the following description the pressure ratio across the two compressors
(P30/P24) and the level of power offtake (defined as a fraction of the total gas
generator shaft power for a specified condition) will be kept constant. The shift of
the compressor operating point is defined as the variation of the corrected
inlet/outlet mass flow.
HPC outlet non-dimensional mass flow =
IPC inlet non-dimensional mass flow =
Typical HP compressor map with constant speed and constant efficiency iso-lines
• Bypass ratio has increased thereby increasing the size of
the engine. Up to a point, fan efficiency increases with
size. The Trent 1000 engine has a bypass ratio of 10 and a
fan diameter of 112 inches, compared to the predecessor
Trent 700, which has diameter of 97 inches and a bypass
ratio of 5. The Trent 1000 increases fuel consumption
efficiency by 13 to 14 percent, compared to the Trent
• Reduce the fan pressure ratio, the ratio of the air
pressure going out of the fan nozzle versus the air
pressure coming into the fan. The lower fan pressure
ratio, and the resulting lower exhaust velocity, improve
propulsive efficiency and SFC
• Thermal efficiency can increase by reducing aerodynamic losses in
the engine components and increasing the overall pressure ratio
(and resulting temperatures) in the core. The higher the pressure,
the better the efficiency.
• But since NOx emissions increase as pressures and temperatures
rise, combustor technologies need to adjust. Rolls-Royce cites as
critical technologies those that minimize the need for cooling air,
improve cooling configurations for blades and improve materials
and thermal barrier coatings.
• Rolls-Royce has increased the overall compression ratio from the
Trent 700 to the Trent 1000 from 33 to 50
• The blisks end up increasing the overall efficiency of the engine by
reducing the aerodynamic losses.