Essential oil

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Essential oil

  1. 1. ESSENTIAL OIL <ul><li>Master 1 EFTIS LUDINANT Sandra </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>&quot;Fragrant products, generally of complex composition, obtained from a raw vegetable botanically defined or driven by steam or by dry distillation, or by a mechanical process without proper heating. The essential oil is most often separated from the aqueous phase by physical processes involving no significant change in its composition &quot; </li></ul>
  3. 3. PLAN <ul><li>HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNIQUES FOR EXTRACTING ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS </li></ul><ul><li>EXTRACTION BY STEAM DISTILLATION </li></ul>
  4. 4. HISTORY <ul><li>Traces of use of aromatherapy goes back more than 7000 years (found in - 40 000 the first traces in Australian aborigines with fumigation), evidence is still in the clay found in Pakistan. There are inscriptions dating back 4,000 years in Mesopotamia and Egyptian writings dating back 3,500 years. The Egyptians obtained by pressing essential oils from plants. The Romans also used essential oils. But the great epic of essential oils began in the 15th century until 1935, when it was relegated to the background with the discovery of penicillin ... </li></ul>
  5. 5. HISTORY <ul><li>In 1937 the French chemist Rene-Maurice Gattefosse published his findings in his book entitled &quot;Aromatherapy&quot;. It is considered as the father of modern aromatherapy. </li></ul><ul><li>During the war of 1939-45, Dr. Jean Valnet heals the war wounds using essential oils. The concepts of healing essential oils were popularized by his first book, &quot;Aromatherapy, treatment of diseases by species of plants&quot; (published in 1964) </li></ul>
  6. 6. TECHNIQUES FOR EXTRACTING ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS <ul><li>Enfleurage applies mainly to flowers with petals </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Pressing is used to extract the desired product by exerting some pressure on it. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Decoction is about aromatic plants placed in cold water, then brought to a boil. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Infusion of finely divided aromatic plants and then dipped in boiling water to retrieve the odorous and active principles. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Maceration of aromatic plants placed in a cold liquid, extracts the soluble constituents. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The steam distillation of water or steam distillation uses steam water for driving the active principles of the plant </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Extraction with volatile solvents is a recent method, plants are mixed with a solvent in which chemical compounds that you wish to collect are very soluble. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Extraction with supercritical CO 2 is now increasingly used in agri-food and petrochemical industry. This method is currently being implemented for extracting caffeine </li></ul>
  14. 14. EXTRACTION BY STEAM DISTILLATION <ul><li>Steam distillation is an ancient technique very much used to extract essential oils from aromatic plants, leaves, flowers, seeds, bark, roots…). It is a heating and spraying method of extraction. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>(1) Heating mantle </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Distillation flask with water and anti-bumping granules </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Thermometer </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Condenser </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Water in and out </li></ul><ul><li>(6) Receiving flask </li></ul><ul><li>(7) Natural product </li></ul><ul><li>(8) Distillate : Essential oil </li></ul>
  16. 16. CONCLUSION <ul><li>All necessary human chemical compounds cannot be drawn in nature only, because the necessary quantities become huge and nature cannot be over-exploited this is why these extraction methods are often very expensive. Thus, synthesis of chemical compounds provides a synthetic compounds in great quantity, similar to the natural compounds obtained by extraction at often a more advantageous cost. </li></ul>

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