Introduction to the proper use of Infrared Imaging Edward L. Fronapfel, P.E., Certified Level II, CBIE, CFCC, NACHI, NAFE ...
Class Agenda  <ul><li>Part 1: Fundamentals of Infrared </li></ul><ul><li>Part II: Infrared Applications in the Fields of F...
Importance of the Fundamentals <ul><li>The camera provides a true radiation picture,  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is not </...
Benefits of Infrared Use <ul><li>Non-Intrusive Means of Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrative Visual Presentation o...
Infrared Imaging Equipment 1950’s Present Day 1970-1980’s
 
Buildings are not the only reason
 
Experience Infrared Jupiter Moon (Clouds) Rocket Launches
Bush Fires
Camera Selection Consideration <ul><li>Commercial radiometric (temperature measuring) thermal cameras are sensitive to inf...
Characteristics of IR <ul><li>Infrared radiation is a wave, sharing many characteristics with visible light. </li></ul><ul...
Class Example One <ul><li>Misc. Objects, and Sensitivity of Cameras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handprint, Footprint,  </li></ul...
Class Example Two <ul><li>Infrared Reflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We are familiar with mirrors and visible reflections o...
Class Example Three <ul><li>Transmittance </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics Visible light can pass through glass, clear, water, d...
Infrared Windows <ul><li>Why would we need a window to view through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Absorption and Emissivity <ul><li>The ability of a material to absorb radiation is known as absorptivity. </li></ul><ul><l...
How is heat added to the object <ul><li>Absorption Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Roof versus White Roof? </l...
Black Body, Emissivity = 1 <ul><li>The ability of a surface to radiate </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency as a radiator (emitter...
Heat Transfer Through a Roof
Study by
Back to the States <ul><li>http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/product_specs/eligibility/roofs_elig.pdf   </li></ul>
The impact of “Green” or White Roofs <ul><li>Window Purchase:  </li></ul><ul><li>Desire Low Emittance </li></ul><ul><li>De...
Construction Materials <ul><li>Emmisivity Guess? </li></ul>
 
 
Class Example 4 <ul><li>Using Tape or Liquid Paper to Equalize the Emissivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply and Read </li></...
 
 
Does the Angle Change the Properties <ul><li>Try Temperature Readings with the Camera from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90 </li><...
 
 
 
Consideration of Visible Light Source (Sun)
 
Common? <ul><li>High Emissivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Electrical Tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></u...
Camera Operation <ul><li>FORD (You cannot change this at the office) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Operating D...
Considerations <ul><li>Temperature of the Object </li></ul><ul><li>The emissivity, reflectivity and transmissivity of the ...
Heat Transfer <ul><li>Radiation – Heat travels through space as em waves to warm object </li></ul><ul><li>Convection – hea...
Camera Use <ul><li>Forensics </li></ul>
Prevention
Dead Zone
Heat Sources Convection, Conduction, Radiation
Insulation Interupption?
When Light Not On, what occurs
Radiant Heat Systems, Concealed
 
 
 
 
Exterior Radiant Heat (Electric)
Pre and Post Infrared
 
Building Evaluations
The Details of the  System  Require Water Management
Loss of Insulation Value
Plumbing Loss
Interior Moisture
Rim Joist (Energy Loss or Water Infiltration)
Exterior Work
Moisture Infiltration to Built-Up Roof Assembly
 
 
Electrical
 
 
 
Mechanical
 
 
 
 
Refractory Lining
Industrial
Food Processing                       
Construction Quality
 
 
 
Validation of IR
Determination of Findings
 
 
 
 
 
CFD modeling
Thank You! Edward L. Fronapfel, P.E [email_address] Business Phone: (303) 425-7272 4680 Table Mountain Drive, Suite 170 Go...
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Ir Basics Web

  1. 1. Introduction to the proper use of Infrared Imaging Edward L. Fronapfel, P.E., Certified Level II, CBIE, CFCC, NACHI, NAFE Solutions Before|Solutions After, Inc.
  2. 2. Class Agenda <ul><li>Part 1: Fundamentals of Infrared </li></ul><ul><li>Part II: Infrared Applications in the Fields of Forensic & Construction Defect Engineering </li></ul>
  3. 3. Importance of the Fundamentals <ul><li>The camera provides a true radiation picture, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thermal or temperature picture. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If you don’t understand what you are looking at and the surrounding environment, you can make serious mistakes! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Benefits of Infrared Use <ul><li>Non-Intrusive Means of Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrative Visual Presentation of Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Failure Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation of Failure Points & Possible Migration Paths </li></ul><ul><li>Predictive & Preventative Maintenance </li></ul>
  5. 5. Infrared Imaging Equipment 1950’s Present Day 1970-1980’s
  6. 7. Buildings are not the only reason
  7. 9. Experience Infrared Jupiter Moon (Clouds) Rocket Launches
  8. 10. Bush Fires
  9. 11. Camera Selection Consideration <ul><li>Commercial radiometric (temperature measuring) thermal cameras are sensitive to infrared radiation, usually within one of two wavebands </li></ul><ul><li>Short Wave – about 3-5 micrometers </li></ul><ul><li>Long Wave – about 8-12 micrometers </li></ul><ul><li>There are also broadband cameras (3-12 micrometers) and dual wave band cameras </li></ul><ul><li>No camera detects the total infrared radiation from an object </li></ul>
  10. 12. Characteristics of IR <ul><li>Infrared radiation is a wave, sharing many characteristics with visible light. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refracted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unlike visible light, infrared is emitted by all objects with a temperature greater than absolute zero </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There can be no cold, only less hot! Absolute Zero </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This means that all objects are sources of infrared of this invisible light in the world of infrared </li></ul>
  11. 13. Class Example One <ul><li>Misc. Objects, and Sensitivity of Cameras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handprint, Footprint, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing on Misc. Object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coffee </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Class Example Two <ul><li>Infrared Reflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We are familiar with mirrors and visible reflections off of flat polished surfaces, such as ceramic tiles and glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared behaves in a similar fashion with good infrared mirrors or reflectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visible Mirror Example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum (Dull) Example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black Binder Example </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Class Example Three <ul><li>Transmittance </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics Visible light can pass through glass, clear, water, diamond and many other materials </li></ul><ul><li>A good visible transmitter or window is not necessarily a good infrared transmitter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic Example (A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic Example (B) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass (C) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Infrared Windows <ul><li>Why would we need a window to view through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dangerous Situations, Heat, Spark, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveillance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is impact to our thermal readings and accuracy? </li></ul>
  15. 17. Absorption and Emissivity <ul><li>The ability of a material to absorb radiation is known as absorptivity. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability of a material to emit or radiate is known as emissivity. </li></ul><ul><li>A good absorber is a good emitter </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared radiation and visible radiation can be absorbed and emitted by objects, some materials absorb and emit better than others </li></ul><ul><li>If a material absorbs visible radiation (light) well, it does not necessarily mean that it will absorb infrared radiation well </li></ul>
  16. 18. How is heat added to the object <ul><li>Absorption Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Roof versus White Roof? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lets Review Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EPDM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e = ? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TPO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e = ? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are we after low absorption or high emissivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kirchoff’s Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a + t + r = 1 </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Black Body, Emissivity = 1 <ul><li>The ability of a surface to radiate </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency as a radiator (emitter) </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed as a number from 0 to 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.0 = 0% efficiency = perfect mirror (if object is opaque) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.0 = 100% efficiency = perfect radiator = Blackbody </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perfect emitters and reflectors do not exist in the real world </li></ul>
  18. 20. Heat Transfer Through a Roof
  19. 21. Study by
  20. 22. Back to the States <ul><li>http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/product_specs/eligibility/roofs_elig.pdf </li></ul>
  21. 23. The impact of “Green” or White Roofs <ul><li>Window Purchase: </li></ul><ul><li>Desire Low Emittance </li></ul><ul><li>Desire High Solar Reflectance </li></ul><ul><li>In a hot climate </li></ul><ul><li>High emittance means that increase of heat loss from a material </li></ul><ul><li>Low emittance accompanied by increase in absorption of solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>The effect is an increase in heat load </li></ul><ul><li>Wait, if it has high emittance it will lose heat more rapidly by radiation and have a cooling effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly high emittance materials are dark in color: absorb significant solar radiation and offset our cooling (loss of heat benefit) </li></ul><ul><li>So depending on the application we may want high emittance and low absortance or low emittance and high absortance </li></ul>
  22. 24. Construction Materials <ul><li>Emmisivity Guess? </li></ul>
  23. 27. Class Example 4 <ul><li>Using Tape or Liquid Paper to Equalize the Emissivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply and Read </li></ul></ul>
  24. 30. Does the Angle Change the Properties <ul><li>Try Temperature Readings with the Camera from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is happening? </li></ul><ul><li>Are all materials effected? </li></ul>
  25. 34. Consideration of Visible Light Source (Sun)
  26. 36. Common? <ul><li>High Emissivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Electrical Tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Metallic Flat Paints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Emissivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal Plated Surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum foil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Surface Mirrors </li></ul></ul>
  27. 37. Camera Operation <ul><li>FORD (You cannot change this at the office) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Distance (Zoom, Zoom) </li></ul><ul><li>Range (Temperature High and Low Limits) </li></ul>
  28. 38. Considerations <ul><li>Temperature of the Object </li></ul><ul><li>The emissivity, reflectivity and transmissivity of the object </li></ul><ul><li>The apparent temperature behind the object (if object transmits) </li></ul><ul><li>The apparent temperature of the background (ambient) </li></ul><ul><li>The medium between the camera and object </li></ul>
  29. 39. Heat Transfer <ul><li>Radiation – Heat travels through space as em waves to warm object </li></ul><ul><li>Convection – heat causes water and air or other substance (I.e. water) in space to circulate </li></ul><ul><li>Conduction – heat travels from hot end of material to cooler the cooler end (dependent on conductive nature) </li></ul>
  30. 40. Camera Use <ul><li>Forensics </li></ul>
  31. 41. Prevention
  32. 42. Dead Zone
  33. 43. Heat Sources Convection, Conduction, Radiation
  34. 44. Insulation Interupption?
  35. 45. When Light Not On, what occurs
  36. 46. Radiant Heat Systems, Concealed
  37. 51. Exterior Radiant Heat (Electric)
  38. 52. Pre and Post Infrared
  39. 54. Building Evaluations
  40. 55. The Details of the System Require Water Management
  41. 56. Loss of Insulation Value
  42. 57. Plumbing Loss
  43. 58. Interior Moisture
  44. 59. Rim Joist (Energy Loss or Water Infiltration)
  45. 60. Exterior Work
  46. 61. Moisture Infiltration to Built-Up Roof Assembly
  47. 64. Electrical
  48. 68. Mechanical
  49. 73. Refractory Lining
  50. 74. Industrial
  51. 75. Food Processing                    
  52. 76. Construction Quality
  53. 80. Validation of IR
  54. 81. Determination of Findings
  55. 87. CFD modeling
  56. 88. Thank You! Edward L. Fronapfel, P.E [email_address] Business Phone: (303) 425-7272 4680 Table Mountain Drive, Suite 170 Golden, Colorado 80403

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