Developing Your Personal Network Strategy

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Shows how to design your personal networks to build more social capital for yourself using the ideas of expert networks researchers and sociologists like Ron Burt and Rob Cross.

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Developing Your Personal Network Strategy

  1. 1. Designing a Personal Network Strategy:Using Network Analysis Concepts to Build Your Social Capital Rick Fowler, Principal Kahler Leadership Group Rick@kahlerleadership.com
  2. 2. Agenda1. Introduction to Networks 1. Exercise with Formal and Informal Network Structures 2. Network Analysis Fundamentals2. Personal Networks: Applying Network Knowledge to Build Your Network Strategy© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKS© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 3
  4. 4. Exercise: Formal and Informal Structures Tell Us Different Things about an Organization Activity: Examine the formal and informal structures of relationships among the 20 executives. Background for the Exercise You’ve done a survey in an organization and now have the formal and informal structures of 20 executives in the exploration and production division of a petroleum company. The client’s goals and the diagrams are in your handout. Questions to consider • What can the formal and informal structures tell us about an organization or the individuals? • If you were consulting this organization, what you want to know before you meet the people? • What would you want to investigate further?Adapted from Cross, Rob, Stephen P Borgatti, Andrew Parker. (2002). A bird’s-eye view: Using social network analysis to improveknowledge creation and sharing. IBM Institute for Knowledge-Based Organizations. Retrieved August 22, 2008, from http://www.ibm.com © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 4
  5. 5. Exercise: Formal and Informal Relationships of 20 Oil Company ExecutivesAdapted from Cross, Rob, Stephen P Borgatti, Andrew Parker. (2002). A bird’s-eye view: Using social network analysis to improveknowledge creation and sharing. IBM Institute for Knowledge-Based Organizations. Retrieved August 22, 2008, from http://www.ibm.com © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 5
  6. 6. Informal Structure Reveals Things Not Visible in Formal StructureInformal Structure Shows UsCole is a Hub• Central source of information• Bridge between groups• One of two connections to SVP(Jones)Leads Us to Learn and Consider• He is overloaded with information requests.• He has reputation for expertise and responsiveness.• His overload has increased his stress and slowed the group down.© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 6
  7. 7. Informal Structure Reveals Things Not Visible in Formal StructureInformal Structure Shows UsJones is on the periphery• Only two connections = periphery• No direct connection to ProductionLeads Us to Learn and Consider• His poor responsiveness delayed important decisions, holding the group back.• He has underutilized expertise.• The network diagram grounds a potentially difficult conversation.© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 7
  8. 8. Informal Structure Reveals Things Not Visible in Formal StructureInformal Structure Shows UsProduction is separated from therest• Cole is the only bridge betweenProduction and the rest of thefunctionsLeads Us to Learn and Consider• Production had been relocated which caused a loss of serendipitous meetings.• Cole’s singular importance as a bridge is also a risk to the organization.© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 8
  9. 9. What Does Network Analysis Reveal?Network analysis This knowledge may be useful becauserevealsBottlenecks Central nodes provide the only connection between parts of a networkNumber of links Insufficient or excessive links between coordinating groupsAverage Distance Degrees of distance between pairs; affects accuracy and speed of information flowsIsolation People who are not integrated; underutilized expertise and higher likelihood of turnoverExperts People who may not be utilized effectivelySubgroups and Groups that may develop subcultures and attitudes toward othercliques groupsMany possible insights: What could you do if you had access to them?© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 9
  10. 10. How Network Analysis Helps – Summary of ExerciseNetwork Analysis produces an X-ray on organizational relationships• See hidden relationships and state of connectivity• Identify how information flows• Learn which people carry and sustain the cultureAnd this view allows you to…• Make better decisions• Give better advice• Design more effective interventions• Improve knowledge creation and sharing• Evolve or transform cultures• Use data and analysis to ground potentially difficult conversations© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 10
  11. 11. Network Analysis Fundamentals: Networks Have StructureNetworks are sets of nodes (similar things) and ties (relationships) Reading a Sociogram • Dots are nodes, individual people • Lines are ties between two people • Arrows indicate tie direction (one- way, both ways or symmetrical.)Sociogram of Rick’s network in 2007© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 11
  12. 12. Network Analysis Fundamentals: Define a Network by Choosing Basis of TiesKind of Basis for Relationship What can we learn about thisNetwork network?Work With whom do you exchange Habitual, mundane routines; restingNetwork information in daily routines? pulse of the cultureSocial With whom do you “check in” inside Indicator of trust in a culture;Network and outside of work to find out what’s enough to withstand stress but not going on? too demanding Context Matters: What if the individuals don’t know their ties?Kleiner, Art, “Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust,” Strategy+Business, 4th Quarter, 2002. © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 12
  13. 13. Network Analysis Fundamentals: Many kinds of networksTypical bases are information flow, affect (friendship, trust), goods and services,and influence (advice), many other kinds of networks are possible.Kind of Network Basis for RelationshipKnowledge Networks Multiple network views: Work, Social, Innovation, Expert, Advice, LearningGlobal Action Networks Countries, companies, and NGOs who have different interests in a treatySupply networks Distribution centers that ship productsProfessional networks • People who seek career advice from each other • People who share ideas with each other at a conferenceLeadership networks • Connections to well-connected others. • Connections to diverse contacts. © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 13
  14. 14. Network Analysis Fundamentals: What if some ties are stronger than others?We choose a basis for determining the strength of ties• Simplest ties are either present or absent• Example: Co-authors of mathematics research papers.One approach to framing the strength of a tie1Component of Tie Strength ExplanationTime and Frequency How long have you known a person?Depth (emotional intensity) How do you know this person?Intimacy How much mutual confiding do you have with this person?Reciprocal services What do you exchange with each other?1Mark S. Granovetter, “The Strength of Weak Ties,” American Journal of Sociology, Volume 78, Issue 6 (May, 1973),1360-1380.© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 14
  15. 15. Applying Network Knowledge to Build Your Network Strategy PERSONAL NETWORKS© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 15
  16. 16. What is Social Capital? “…social capital is productive, making “…’social capital’ refers to features of possible the achievement of certain social organization such as networks, ends that would not be attainable in its norms, and social trust that facilitate absence.” (Coleman, 1990) coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit. (Putnam, 1995) “…define social capital Social capital is at once as the sum of the actual the resources contacts and potential resources hold and the structure of embedded within, contacts in a network. available through, and The first term describes derived from the whom you reach. The network of relationships second describes how possessed by an you reach. (Burt, 1992) individual or social unit. (Burt, 1992)© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 16
  17. 17. Lin View of Social Capital Therefore, social capital can be defined as resources embedded in a social structure which are accessed and/or mobilized in purposive actions. By this definition, the notion of social capital contains three ingredients: • Resources embedded in a social structure; • Accessibility to such social resources by individuals; and • Use or mobilization of such social resources by individuals in purposive actions. (Lin, 1999)© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 17
  18. 18. Ron Burt View of Social CapitalSocial capital predicts that returns to intelligence,education and seniority depend in some part on apersons location in the social structure of a market orhierarchy. While human capital refers to individualability, social capital refers to opportunity. (Burt, 1997) “Managers with more social capital get higher returns to their human capital because they are positioned to identify and develop more rewarding opportunities.”© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 18
  19. 19. Bridging and Bonding: Types of Networks Understood by Constraint Bridging: Efficient Networks Bonding: Cohesive Networks Low Constraint High ConstraintDescription Efficient = Brokerage Dense = Closure Connections waiting to be made Everyone is connectedInformation Diversity; different ideas and Depth; redundancy; resilience opportunitiesControl Leverage; Tertius Gaudens Enforcement; constraint; stabilityEfficiency High efficiency; low redundancy Low – All know the same thingsTrust Less – good for new ideas, More – good for teams, affiliation, innovation (Strength of weak ties) reinforcement of group normsCommunication Spread in diverse contacts and Frequent, easier, more depth networks; may be shallow © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 19
  20. 20. Roles in Network Structure: Insiders, Outsiders, and Entrepreneurs Sparse Dense = Bonding Efficient = Bridging Outsider, Periphery Insider EntrepreneurSparse – not enough information and opportunities; Outsider, PeripheryDense – redundancy; trust; large effort to maintain; constraint; InsiderEfficient – diverse networks; no redundancy; Entrepreneur© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 20
  21. 21. Example: A Mathematician with an Exceptional Network (and Social Capital) The Erdös Number Project Erdös was known for traveling the world and collaborating with mathematicians on problems and proofs he found interesting. He would actually live with his collaborators for a week or two while they worked out the proofs. Then he would travel on to the next collaboration. These collaborations became so famous that soon mathematicians were keeping track of their Erdõs Numbers.• Co-author an article with Erdös = you have an Erdös number of 1• Co-author a paper with a direct collaborator = your Erdös Number is 2• and so on.It is very prestigious in the mathematics community to have a low Erdös Number.Erdös network shows both patterns, a densely connected core [bonding]with loosely coupled radial branches reaching out from the core [bridging].Adapted from case example written by Valdis Krebs, http://www.orgnet.com/Erdos.htmlErdös Number Project - http://www.oakland.edu/enp© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 21
  22. 22. Network Strategy: Great Networks Have Both Bridging and Bonding Social CapitalNetwork Entrepreneurs create and Network Insiders are more able todiscover more opportunities realize the value from opportunities You may need both bridging and bonding social capital!© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 22
  23. 23. Network Strategy:Suggestions for Building Bridging Social Capital• Continually seek more diversity• Build relationships with hubs and gatekeepers• Resist the temptation to spend more time than necessary with people and groups you already know well• Prepare for the identity (roles) you want to portray in each network• Reserve capacity to realize opportunities through your cohesive networks© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 23
  24. 24. Network Strategy:Suggestions for Building Bonding Social Capital• Contribute to the network• Build relationships and trust• Build your reputation• Follow and enforce the norms• Carefully select and invest in some networks• Reserve capacity to generate opportunities through diverse networks, too© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 24
  25. 25. Network Strategy: Process for Building the Strategy and Plan Ideal Network Take Current Action Learn Network Make Plan© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 25
  26. 26. Network Strategy: Your Ideal NetworkWhat information and opportunities do you want your networks to provide?• Information• Opportunities• Affiliation• Reputation• What else?Which networks could generate or provide these ideas and opportunities?Where will you serve roles to generate opportunities? (Network entrepreneur)Where will you serve roles to turn opportunities into value? (Network insider)© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 26
  27. 27. Network Strategy: Current Network Assessment ExampleBobbi’s Network in 2005• Colors reflect actual roles : bridging (entrepreneurial) or bonding (insider)• Weight of ties reflects level of Bobbi’s involvement• Size of shape reflects size of network• Kind of shape reflects kind of opportunity anticipatedI used NetDraw to generate the diagram. This step is not necessary, just fun for network geeks!© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 27
  28. 28. Review Your Current Network: Rules for Understanding Your Network RolesRole in Your Network (currently) Redundancy Density ConstraintBridging social capital (for you) Low Low Low(Network Entrepreneur) Low Low High Low High LowBonding social capital (for you) Low High High(Network Insider) High Low High High High HighQuestionable social capital (for you) High Low Low High High LowDefinitions – (not exactly the same as in social network analysis but similar)Redundancy – Degree to which people in one network are in your other networks.Density – Degree to which people in one network are already inter-connected.Constraint – Degree to which you are strongly connected within the network. © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 28
  29. 29. Network Strategy: Bobbi’s Network Data Data Used to Build Bobbi’s Network Diagram: (1, 2, 3) = (Low, Medium, High)Network Name Redundancy Density Constraint Role Effort Size Opportunity AccessibilityWEO 1 1 1 Entrepreneur 1 1 1 1GreshamCh 1 3 1 Entrepreneur 3 3 1 3BeavCh 2 2 3 Insider 2 3 2 3Cindys 3 3 3 Insider 1 2 1 1Portlandia 1 1 1 Entrepreneur 1 2 1 2BAGS 3 3 3 Insider 3 1 1 3HillsboroCh 1 1 1 Entrepreneur 1 2 1 3BNI 1 2 3 Insider 3 3 1 3PABA 1 3 1 Entrepreneur 1 3 1 3CrProf 1 3 1 Entrepreneur 1 1 1 3ASTRA 1 2 1 Entrepreneur 1 2 2 1NSA 1 2 2 Entrepreneur 3 2 2 1ASTD 1 1 1 Entrepreneur 1 3 2 3CREW 1 3 1 Entrepreneur 1 2 2 3MSN 1 3 1 Entrepreneur 1 2 1 3IBI 1 1 1 Entrepreneur 1 1 1 2Current Role (Entrepreneur or Insider) is calculated using the table on previous slide. © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 29
  30. 30. Network Strategy: Review Your Current NetworkYour Size Redundancy Density Constraint Effort Opportunity AccessibilityConnectedNetworksNetwork ANetwork BNetwork CNetwork D Rate each network High, Medium or Low in each category. Determine how you treat the network: Bridging, Bonding, or ??? • Redundancy – What percent of people belong to other networks on your list? • Density – What percent of people have strong ties together? • Constraint – With what percent of the people do you have strong ties? Determine the nature of opportunities available (discover or generate) • Size (of network), Opportunity (size, type, other criteria), Accessibility © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 30
  31. 31. Review Your Current Network: Assessing Bridging OpportunityAssessing Opportunities to Make Bridging Connections Redundancy=Low always; High constraint only if you are a go-to person in this network and you have non-redundant networks for making connections. Relationships do not have to be weak– just not both numerous and strong.• Is the network big enough and with low enough density that you can makeconnections amongst members? Small networks with high density = fewbridging opportunities.• Are the members connected to other networks that are not redundant withyours? If most members are in only a few networks, this opportunity is small.• Are you connected to other networks with low redundancy so you can makevaluable bridges between your networks?© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 31
  32. 32. Review Your Current Network: Assessing Bonding OpportunityAssessing Opportunities for Bonding Social Capital Constraint = High always to be a Network Insider; Density is usually high at least for an important core of the group• Is the density or redundancy high enough because members want to bearound each other?• Are the members accessible to you?• Are you able and willing to embrace the norms?• Are you willing to build relationships and make an important contribution?• Will you be able to build trust and reputation within and because of thisnetwork?© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 32
  33. 33. Assessing a Network: Example Network Assessment and StrategyThis section contains the assessment and strategy using Bobbi’s network.When assessing networks…• We are not evaluating the quality or value of the network or the people.• We are looking at network characteristics.• We are saying, “If I become involved in this network…” • “How would it contribute to my bridging and bonding social capital?” • “What roles and commitments make sense for me here?”© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 33
  34. 34. Assessing a Network: Example Network Assessment and StrategyID Network Name Redundancy Density Constraint Role Effort Size Opportunity Accessibility Role/Action1 WEO 1 1 1 Entrepreneur 1 1 1 1 Eliminate2 GreshamCh 1 3 1 Entrepreneur 3 3 1 3 Bridging3 BeavCh 2 2 3 Insider 2 3 2 3 Bonding4 Cindys 3 3 3 Insider 1 2 1 1 Eliminate5 Portlandia 1 1 1 Entrepreneur 1 2 1 2 Bridging6 BAGS 3 3 3 Insider 3 1 1 3 Eliminate7 HillsboroCh 1 1 1 Entrepreneur 1 2 1 3 Eliminate8 BNI 1 2 3 Insider 3 3 1 3 Bonding9 PABA 1 3 1 Entrepreneur 1 3 1 3 Bridging10 CrProf 1 3 1 Entrepreneur 1 1 1 3 Eliminate11 ASTRA 1 2 1 Entrepreneur 1 2 2 1 Bridging12 NSA 1 2 2 Entrepreneur 3 2 2 1 Bridging/Bonding13 ASTD 1 1 1 Entrepreneur 1 3 2 3 Bridging14 CREW 1 3 1 Entrepreneur 1 2 2 3 Bridging15 MSN 1 3 1 Entrepreneur 1 2 1 3 Bridging16 IBI 1 1 1 Entrepreneur 1 1 1 2 Bridging The table values came from interviews with Bobbi except • Role: applied the rules for Entrepreneur (bridging) and Insider (Bonding). • Action: decided based on assessment and what Bobbi knows about context. © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 34
  35. 35. Designing Your Network Strategy: Pillars of the Network Strategy Process 1. Define desired opportunities You want more social capital • Bridging social capital • Bonding social capital Ideal 2. Assess your network Network Determine roles of networks • Bridging • Bonding • Networks to eliminate Take Current Action Learn Network Make Plan4. Follow your plan and learn 3. Decide how to implementAre networks fulfilling expected roles? How to participate in bridging networks?Do you have enough bridging? How to participate in bonding networks?Do you have enough bonding? How to eliminate rejected networks?Are you getting desired opportunities? How to find, explore, add new networks? © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 35
  36. 36. Designing Your Network Strategy: Managing Bridging Networks Bridging Networks What to add to your plan Managing Redundancy Change participation if redundancy in a network increases too much Reducing Constraint Make only essential and high-impact commitments Bridges to be Made Identify possible bridges you can make and plan how to make them Essential Relationships Identify essential, strategic people:Hubs, Gatekeepers, and Pulsetakers Example from Bobbi’s NetworkNetworks for Bridging Managing Reducing Constraint (if too Bridges I Can Build Important Relationships (hubs,Opportunities Redundancy High) gatekeepers, pulse takers)GreshamCh Reduce to 1 project Between networks Buffy, PaulinePortlandia Add 1 committee Within and between networksPABA No committees Between networksASTRA Add 1 committee or project Within and between networksASTD Watch NSA Add 1 committee Within and between networks LarryCREW No committees Between networksMSN No committees Between networks ChuckIBI No committees Within and between networks EricNSA Watch ASTD Between networks David, Shawna © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 36
  37. 37. Designing Your Network Strategy: Managing Bonding Networks Bonding Networks What to add to your plan Managing Constraint Make sure you are well-connected with important people, (Increasing Trust) committees, and initiatives. Become a go-to person. Building Redundancy Facilitate connections, meetings, projects, activities, etc. amongst the and Density network to get them to connect with each other more and more. Make sure culture, norms, rules are defined and enforced. Commitments Make commitments to the network that matter, not just to be visible but to invest in the network and to build trust and reputation. Key Relationships Identify essential, strategic people:Hubs, Gatekeepers, and Pulsetakers Example from Bobbi’s NetworkNetworks for Bonding Managing Constraint Building Redundancy and Important Commitments and Important RelationshipsOpportunities (Building Density (Building Projects Relationships and relationships and making Trust) intra-group connections.)BeavCh Add 1 committee Publish articles, speak Speak, workshops, Plan networking at Leadership training program; Robin, Chuck, Sharon, Chris;BNI leadership role; I’m a conference Member success program; Chapters: Southwest, Downtown hub, gatekeeper Advanced education programNSA Seek leadership role; Facilitate networking ideas David, Shawna © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 37
  38. 38. Designing Your Network Strategy: Managing Your Exit from Eliminated Networks Eliminated Networks What to add to your plan Why not bridging? What makes this network a poor bridging opportunity? Why not bonding? What makes this network a poor bonding opportunity? Why inadequate opportunity? What makes the opportunities not worth the effort? Key Relationships Maintain key relationships. Example from Bobbi’s NetworkNetworks to Minimize Why? – Not enough Why? – Not enough bonding Why? – Inadequate Important Relationships to Keepor Eliminate from the bridging opportunity opportunity opportunity or accessibility forStrategy effort required Too small; sparse; poorWEO opportunitiesCindys Too redundant High, but available elsewhere Low accessibility Too redundant High; I’m a hub and Too small; sparse; low-qualityBAGS gatekeeper opportunities Maybe Maybe, but effort is high, Low-quality opportunities; high SusanHillsboroCh inconvenient; relevance? effort (inconvenient) Not relevant Too small; sparse; low-qualityCrProf opportunities © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 38
  39. 39. Designing Your Network Strategy: Finding and Assessing New Networks1. Find new networks to determine how they may fit in your strategy.2. Determine whether the network can provide desired opportunities.• Size, Opportunity, Accessibility3. Determine who the key people are.• Hubs, Gatekeepers, Pulse-takers4. Learn about the network characteristics:• Redundancy, Density, Constraint5. Use the assessment tool to track what you learn and add it to your strategy© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 39
  40. 40. Rick Fowler rick@kahlerleadership.com www.kahlerleadership.comPlease connect with us via LinkedIn for updates to the resources
  41. 41. APPENDICES© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 41
  42. 42. Network Basics: We Define a Network by Choosing Basis of TiesKind of Basis for Relationship What can we learn about this network?NetworkThe Work With whom do you exchange Habitual, mundane routines; resting pulse of the cultureNetwork information in daily routines?The Social With whom do you “check in” Indicator of trust in a culture; enough to withstand stressNetwork inside and outside of work to but not too demanding find out what’s going on?The Innovation With whom do you collaborate Talk openly about perceptions, ideas, experiments; mayNetwork or kick around new ideas? dismiss keepers of corporate lore as relicsThe Expert To whom do you turn for Keeps of established critical and tacit knowledge; mayKnowledge expertise or advice? clash with innovators.NetworkThe Advice or Whom do you go to for advice With enough trust in the organization, this network canStrategy Network about the future? influence business strategy and careers – focused on the future.The Learning Whom do you work with to Key people are bridges between hubs; between expertNetwork improve existing processes or and innovation networks; Dormant until change awakens methods? sense of trust.Kleiner, Art, “Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust,” Strategy+Business, 4th Quarter, 2002. © Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 42
  43. 43. Curiosity: Are LinkedIn and Facebook Really Social Networks?How do LinkedIn and Facebook fit with our understanding of social networks?• They are tools that support network activity and store network data.• They allow the creation of nodes (invitation to create a profile on Facebook?)• They facilitate creation of links between nodes (invitation to link?)• They facilitate communication and other network activity.What’s the basis for a connection on LinkedIn or Facebook?What’s the difference between a link and a relationship?How does a social networking site change your networking activities?What implications are there to your networks?© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 43
  44. 44. Network Analysis Experts and BlogsVerna Allee - http://valuenetworks.com/Patti Anklam - http://www.pattianklam.comSteve Borgatti - http://www.steveborgatti.com/, http://www.analytictech.com/Ron Burt - http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/ronald.burtRob Cross - http://www.robcross.org/Bruce Hoppe - http://www.connectiveassociates.com/David Krackhardt - http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/krack/krackplot.shtmlValdis Krebs - http://www.orgnet.com/Nan Lin - http://fds.duke.edu/db/aas/Sociology/faculty/nanlin/Karen Stephenson - http://www.netform.com/Steve Waddell - http://networkingaction.net/© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 44
  45. 45. Social Networks Reading ListsLeadership Networks Bibliographyhttp://leadernetwork.pbworks.com/Annotated Bibliography of Social Network Analysishttp://connectedness.blogspot.com/2005/05/annotated-bibliography-of-social.html© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 45
  46. 46. Social Networks ResourcesInternational Network for Social Network Analysis - http://www.insna.org/The Journal of Social Structure (JoSS) - http://www.cmu.edu/joss/Managerial Network Analysis - http://www.socialnetworkanalysis.com/Organizational Network Analysis Surveys - http://onasurveys.com/Organizational Network Analysis Yahoo Group -http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/ona-prac/Organizational Network Analysis Wiki - http://ona-prac.wikispaces.com/Open Value Networks Community - http://www.openvaluenetworks.com/Value Networks - http://valuenetworks.com/© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 46
  47. 47. Bibliography Brass, Daniel and David Krackhardt, “Social Capital for 21st Century Leaders,” InJ.G. Hunt and R.L. Phillips (eds.) Out-of-box Leadership Challenges for the 21st CenturyArmy, 179-194. Burt, R. (2004). Structural holes and good ideas. American Journal of Sociology.110(2), 349-399. Burt, R. (2005). Brokerage and Closure. London: Oxford University press. Burt, R. and Ronchi, D. (2007). Teaching Executives to See Social Capital:Results from a Field Experiment. Social Science Research, 36(3), 1156-1183. Casciaro, Tiziana and Miguel Sousa Lobo, “Competent Jerks, Lovable Fools, andthe Formation of Social Networks,” Harvard Business Review, June 2005, pp. 92-99. Cialdini, Robert. Influence: Science and Practice. Boston, MA : Allyn and Bacon,2001. Cross, Rob, Nitin Nohria & Andrew Parker, “Six Myths About Informal Networks— and How To Overcome Them,” MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring 2002, Vol. 43,No. 3, pp.66-75.© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 47
  48. 48. Bibliography (cont’d) Cross, Rob, Stephen P Borgatti, Andrew Parker. (2002). A bird’s-eye view: Usingsocial network analysis to improve knowledge creation and sharing. IBM Institute forKnowledge-Based Organizations. Retrieved August 22, 2008, from http://www.ibm.com. Cross, Rob, Stephen P Borgatti, Andrew Parker. (2002). Making invisible workvisible: Using social network analysis to support strategic collaboration. CaliforniaManagement Review, 44(2), 25-46. Retrieved August 22, 2008, from ABI/INFORMComplete database. (Document ID: 110636653). Granovetter, Mark S., “The Strength of Weak Ties,” American Journal ofSociology, Volume 78, Issue 6 (May, 1973), 1360-1380. Hanneman, Robert A. and Mark Riddle. (2005). Introduction to Social NetworkMethods. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the University of California, Riverside Website: http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ [free online manual for social network analysis] Hoppe, Bruce and Claire Reinelt, “Social Network Analysis and the Evaluationof Leadership Networks,” Draft submission to Leadership Quarterly, January 19, 2009.© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 48
  49. 49. Bibliography (cont’d) Kleiner, Art, “Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust,”Strategy+Business, 4th Quarter, 2002. Katz, Nancy, David Lazer. Building effective intra-organizational networks: Therole of teams. Working Paper. Center for Public Leadership. Retrieved August 22, 2008,from hks.harvard.edu. Krackhardt, David. (2006). Sample network questionnaire 2. Retrieved August22, 2008, from http://www.andrew.cmu.edu. Krackhardt, D. and Hanson, J. (1993). Informal Networks: The Company Behindthe Chart. Harvard Business Review. 71(4): 104-111. Krebs, V. and Holley, J. (2002). Building Smart Communities through NetworkWeaving. Retrieved April 30, 2007 from Orgnet.com:http://www.orgnet.com/BuildingNetworks.pdf Pfeffer, Jeffrey. Managing with Power: Politics and Influence in Organizations.Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 1992.© Kahler Leadership Group www.kahlerleadership.com 49
  50. 50. Rick Fowler rick@kahlerleadership.com www.kahlerleadership.comPlease connect with us via LinkedIn for updates to the resources

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