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Attachment Therapy<br />Theory and Practice<br />
Attachment Theory<br />John Bowlby<br />Introduced the “Attachment Behavior System”<br />This system has the primary and i...
Attachment Theory<br />Mary Ainsworth- “The Strange Situation”<br />“The Strange Situation”- Widely replicated experiment ...
Two Broad Categories of Attachment<br />Secure<br />	Infant feels confident about the predictable response of the caregive...
Typesof Insecure Attachment<br />Insecure-Preoccupied<br /> “Sometimes my caregiver meets my needs, but sometimes not, so ...
Insecure-Disorganized<br />“I have so much anxiety over my caregiver’s inconsistent (and sometimes threatening) responses,...
What Causes Insecure Attachment?<br /><ul><li>Unpredictable Caregiving
 Frightening or Dangerous Caregiving
 Unresolved States Within the Caregiver</li></li></ul><li>Attachment is BIOLOGICAL!<br />Attachment actually shapes many b...
 Autonomic Nervous System
 Heart
 Respiration
 Endocrine System
 Immune System</li></li></ul><li>How are Brains Made?<br /><ul><li>Internal Working Models
Experience
Attention
 Use of Body</li></li></ul><li>THE GROWTH OF AN ATTACHMENT SYSTEM<br />The explosion of right brain growth during the firs...
 Sound
 Smells
 Movement
 Affect
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Attachment Intro 2

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Attachment Intro 2

  1. 1. Attachment Therapy<br />Theory and Practice<br />
  2. 2. Attachment Theory<br />John Bowlby<br />Introduced the “Attachment Behavior System”<br />This system has the primary and immediate responsibility for regulating infant safety in the environments of evolutionary adaptedness….it leads the infant to continually monitor the physical and psychological accessibility of attachment figures.<br />
  3. 3. Attachment Theory<br />Mary Ainsworth- “The Strange Situation”<br />“The Strange Situation”- Widely replicated experiment that studied infants’ interactions with their primary caregivers. <br />Identified infant attachment behaviors<br />Seeking proximity<br />Secure base<br />Flight to attachment figure<br />The most important factor in the child’s developing psychological is not whether he/she has become attached, but how the attachment to the primary figure has become organized.<br />
  4. 4. Two Broad Categories of Attachment<br />Secure<br /> Infant feels confident about the predictable response of the caregiver.<br />Insecure<br />Infant feels anxious about the unpredictable responses of the caregiver.<br />
  5. 5. Typesof Insecure Attachment<br />Insecure-Preoccupied<br /> “Sometimes my caregiver meets my needs, but sometimes not, so I am anxious and will cling to her/him for reassurance.”<br />Insecure-Avoidant<br />“My security needs won’t be met, so I won’t look to my caregiver for reassurance. This would mean risking rejection.”<br />
  6. 6. Insecure-Disorganized<br />“I have so much anxiety over my caregiver’s inconsistent (and sometimes threatening) responses, that I will seek out safety from anyonewho looks like they might meet my needs.”<br />
  7. 7. What Causes Insecure Attachment?<br /><ul><li>Unpredictable Caregiving
  8. 8. Frightening or Dangerous Caregiving
  9. 9. Unresolved States Within the Caregiver</li></li></ul><li>Attachment is BIOLOGICAL!<br />Attachment actually shapes many biological systems within the body. <br /><ul><li> Brain mass, volume, and functioning
  10. 10. Autonomic Nervous System
  11. 11. Heart
  12. 12. Respiration
  13. 13. Endocrine System
  14. 14. Immune System</li></li></ul><li>How are Brains Made?<br /><ul><li>Internal Working Models
  15. 15. Experience
  16. 16. Attention
  17. 17. Use of Body</li></li></ul><li>THE GROWTH OF AN ATTACHMENT SYSTEM<br />The explosion of right brain growth during the first two years of life is the basis of the attachment system. Right brain functions include:<br /><ul><li> Imagery
  18. 18. Sound
  19. 19. Smells
  20. 20. Movement
  21. 21. Affect
  22. 22. Sensation
  23. 23. Sense of Self in Space
  24. 24. Metaphor</li></li></ul><li>Attachment theorists maintain that models of attachment develop initially in childhood relationships with parents and serve as prototypes for later relationships.<br />
  25. 25. AdultAttachment<br />Mary Ainsworth (1991)<br />“There is a seeking to obtain an experience of security and comfort in the relationship with the partner.”<br />Romantic Partners can help each other develop secure attachment.<br />
  26. 26. Attachment-Focused Family Therapy<br /><ul><li>Safety
  27. 27. Attunement
  28. 28. Magnification
  29. 29. Co-regulation
  30. 30. Reflection</li></li></ul><li>PACE Model of Parenting <br />Playfulness<br />Acceptance <br />Curiosity<br />Empathy<br />The PACE parenting model rests on the principle that home should be a sanctuary…a safe haven for all. The rights of all members of the home, children and adults, deserve respect. The development of each person is encouraged without hurting the development of another. <br />
  31. 31. Allan Schore…<br />“The essential biological purpose of intersubjective communications in all human interactions, including those imbedded in the psychobiological core of the therapeutic alliance, is the regulation of right-brain/mind/body states.” (2005)<br />
  32. 32. OnTrack’s Attachment Program<br />Rationale: Research overwhelmingly show that children removed from their parents and placed in “better” environments fare worse than those who remain with their families of origin, however flawed they may be.<br />
  33. 33. OnTrack’s Attachment Program<br />Goals:<br /><ul><li> Build parenting capacities
  34. 34. Reduce attachment trauma
  35. 35. Reduce intergenerational transmission of attachment-related disorders
  36. 36. Reduce out-of-home placement of at-risk children</li></li></ul><li>OnTrack’s Attachment Program<br />Interventions:<br /><ul><li> Individual and Parent/Child assessment.
  37. 37. Attachment-focused family therapy.
  38. 38. Individual Therapy
  39. 39. Parent/child attachment coaching.
  40. 40. Psychoeducation in attachment for parents in treatment.</li></li></ul><li>Tools<br />AAI –Adult Attachment Inventory<br />BAA-Brief Attachment Assessment<br />Piccolo Assessment<br />CRI-Crittendon Relationships Inventory<br />
  41. 41. Opportunities for Change<br />Systemic Change<br />Interagency Collaboration<br /><ul><li>Community partners working together towards the goal of reunification
  42. 42. Recognition of common goals</li></ul>Recognition of Common Goal<br /><ul><li>Community partners recognize that we are all here to help children and families succees
  43. 43. Foster parents mentoring bio parents
  44. 44. Honoring bio parents’ cultural, social, and religious traditions when the plan is to return to parent</li></li></ul><li>End<br />Program Contact information :<br />Elizabeth Fisher, OnTrack, Inc. (541)772-1777 ext. 53<br />

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