Effat 1234


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Effat 1234

  1. 1. Prepared by :Effat Nashat
  2. 2. • e-learning • Technology‟s the answer, But what is the question? E-learning is the answer, The question is……. How to change
  3. 3. To e …….? Or not to e…….? THAT is the Question To e ……….. or not to be...….… ! THAT is the problem?
  4. 4. Connectivism and learning.. • Learning by connecting • Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources “a node is anything that can be connected to another node: information, data, feelings, images” George Siemens
  5. 5. e-Learning Learning Management personalization System Content community e-store content assembly courseware learner deployment testing mentors tracking administration assessment workshops
  6. 6. e-Learning– The SCORM Overview Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL)
  7. 7. Original Goal • The DoD established the ADL initiative in 1997 to develop a DoD-wide strategy for using learning and information technologies • to modernize education and training and • to promote cooperation between government, academia and business to develop e-learning standardization. DoD: the Department of Defense ADL: the Advanced Distributed Learning initiative
  9. 9. BOOK 1: The SCORM SCORM There are three books Overview (volumes) to specify the standard of SCORM 1.2. BOOK 3: The SCORM Run Time BOOK 2: The SCORM Environment Content Aggregation Model Meta-data Dictionary (from IEEE) Content Packaging (from IMS) Data Model (from AICC) Launch, Communication API (from AICC) Content Structure (derived from AICC) (Meta-data XML Binding and Best Practice (from IMS)
  10. 10. Description of the SCORM • The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORMTM) defines a Web- based learning “Content Aggregation Model” and “Run-time Environment” for learning objects. • SCORM is a model that references a set of interrelated technical specifications and guidelines designed to meet DoD‟s high-level requirements for Web- based learning content.
  11. 11. Why SCORM
  12. 12. AICC + IEEE + IMS + ADL = SCORM Many, many long technical meetings IEEE Meetings Late 1999 Partial list of participants: Microsoft Sun Boeing Oracle Cisco IBM Click2Learn, Avilar, Pathlore, Saba, IMS Meetings NETg, SmartForce, Centra, Thinq, Early 2000 Macromedia, and many more…
  13. 13. • the IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc., • the Aviation Industry CBT (Computer- Based Training) Committee (AICC) , • the Alliance of Remote Instructional Authoring & Distribution Networks for Europe (ARIADNE)12 and • the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC)
  14. 14. SCORM Timeline SCORM 1.0 SCORM 1.2 No Major SCORM Updates Planned 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 SCORM 2004 CORDRA ADL Kickoff 4ML
  15. 15. SCORM Interoperability • - Reusability • - Accessibility • - Durability • -
  16. 16. SCORM Maintainability • - Adaptability • - Affordability • -
  17. 17. Content Packaging
  18. 18. Content Packaging • Packaging standarts prescribe ways to bundle separate objects; • to protect them, xml • to transport them. • Packaging standarts for e-learning specify how to bundle the separate files that SCORM make up a lesson, course or other unit SCORM of content. UNESCO Training the
  19. 19. Content Packaging Assets PDF PPT text image Course Transport SCO
  20. 20. SCORM Technology Course A .HTML SCORM tells a Lesson 1 SCO how to SCORM tells the SCO communicate with LMS what assets the LMS .SWF are in a SCO SCO .JPG SCO SCO Lesson 2 .JS SCO LMS SCO .MPG SCORM tells the LMS what SCOs are in a course SCO … Assets SCO Course*
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Adult learning theory Pedagogy to Andragogy to E-learning Heutagogy Heutagogy Teacher Andragogy Self-determined centred learning Principles Pedagogy of adult learning
  23. 23. Changing roles for teachers “If we teach today as we taught yesterday, we rob our children of tomorrow.” – John Dewey • professional development needs to give teachers some control over the what, who, why, when, and where of their learning.
  24. 24. How to Bring Web 2.0 into the Classroom Teaching/Learning Services
  25. 25. Teacher Interests What is it? How will it affect How much my organisation? does it cost? Will it work Teacher Interests for my What are the students? mistakes to avoid? What are How to I set up e- the key learning? tools?
  26. 26. Teacher Quality: Leave No Teacher Behind COURSE COMPLETION From Teaching to Learning (Degrees and Certificates) PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES (Tests of Knowledge From Teacher and Skills) Learning to Student Learning LEARNING OF STUDENTS (Student Achievement Measures)
  27. 27. A good e-teacher • gives feedback • answers questions • is active • instructs • wakes up sleeping students • is present • creates the material • is expert in his or her subject area • encourages students
  28. 28. Evidence Based Learning
  29. 29. Solid research equals solid results. Doctors use solid research before treating patients. Teachers and schools must apply just as much care.
  30. 30. Transforming Findings into Evidence?
  31. 31. What Is Evidence-based …….? • EB… is a decision-making approach that places emphasis on evidence to: • guide decisions about which interventions to use; • evaluate the effects of an intervention.
  32. 32. Phases of Evidence-based Intervention Identify Identify Evidence-based Intervention Evaluate Evaluate Implement Implement
  33. 33. Evidence-based Intervention Evidence-based Intervention
  34. 34. Quantitative Qualitative • Numbers • Words • „how many‟ • „how‟ and „why‟ • Hypothesis • Emerging themes • Representative sample • Wide range of respondents • Statistical power • Small numbers • Replicable • Depend on context
  35. 35. Quality+ quantity = good evidence (U.S. Department of Education, 2003) www.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/rigorousevid/rigorousevid.pd f Meta-synthesis meta-analysis “dig for” evidence. The analysis of the analysis
  36. 36. Why Do Meta-Synthesis ,and meta-analysis? • Meta-analysis – aggregating data to reach statistical power for detection of cause and effect between treatment and outcomes. • Meta-synthesis – integrating data to reach a new theoretical or conceptual level of understanding and development. Thorne, S., Jensen, L., Kearney, M.H., Noblit, G., Sandelowski, M. (2004). Qualitative metasynthesis: Reflections on methodological orientation and ideological agenda. Qualitative Health Research, 14 (10), 1342-1365. ,
  37. 37. Meta-Synthesis... A neologism Meta • “... Beyond; transcending; more comprehensive.” Synthesis • “... the combining of the constituent elements of separate material or abstract entities into a single or unified entity.” Meta-synthesis: is not a word that can be found in the dictionary: it is a neologism, which can readily be inferred as describing a high order form of synthesis.
  38. 38. Meta…………………. • Meta-data-analysis = “the interpretive analysis of findings of primary research studies to identify similarities and discrepancies among them”. (eg: meta- ethnography of Noblit and Hare (1988). • Meta-method = the study of the appropriateness and influence of particular research methods and procedures in research (Szmatka, Lovaglia & Mazur 1996)”. • Meta-theory = the consideration of theoretical frameworks and underlying assumptions of primary research studies in their broader social and theoretical contexts.”.
  39. 39. • Step 1: Identifying findings • Step 2: Grouping findings into categories; and • Step 3: Grouping categories into synthesized findings METASYNTHESIS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH STUDIES Identification of practice issue Search for appropriate research reports Critical appraisal and selection of studies to include 32 Findings from 15 41 Findings from 7 38 Findings from 11 Phenomen. Studies Ethnographies Discourse Analyses Aggregate of Aggregate of Aggregate of well-founded and explicit well-founded and explicit well-founded and explicit Findings Findings Findings 9 "CATEGORIES" 4 "CATEGORIES" 7 "CATEGORIES" Synthesis of Findings 10 "SYNTHESISED FINDINGS" Recommendations for Practice
  40. 40. • The Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (QARI)
  41. 41. • Operationally define terms • • Establish Ixclusionary /exclusionary criteria - – • • Use predetermined search procedures - - • • Organize & analyze articles - – •
  42. 42. Reviews of meta-analytic software • Arthur, W., Bennett, W. & Huffcutt, A. (1994). Choice of software and programs in meta-analysis research: Does it make a difference? Educational & Psychological Measurement, 54, 776-787. • Egger, M., Sterne, J.A.C. & Davey Smith, G. (2000). Meta-analysis software. British Medical Journal, 316. • http://www.bmj.com/archive/7126/7126ed9.htm/ (accesed 21.11.2000). • Normand, S.L. (1995). Meta-analysis software: A comparative review. American Statistician, 49, 298-309. • Sterne, J.A.C., Egger, M. & Sutton, A.J. (2001). Meta-analysis software. In M. Egger, G. Davey Smith & D.G. Altmann (Eds.), Systematic Reviews in Health Care: Meta-analysis in Context (pp. 336-346). London: BMJ Pub. Group. • Sutton, A.J., Lambert, P.C., Hellmich, M., et al. (2000). Meta-analysis in practice: A critical review of available software. In D.A. Berry & D.K. Stangl (Eds.), Meta-analysis in Medicine and Health Policy. New York: Marcel Dekker.
  43. 43. Constructivism from the Perspective of Evaluation • Require meaningful assessment criteria vs. those epistemic criteria of scientism. • “The Parallel Criteria (Trustworthiness)” and “Authenticity” Guba and Lincoln (1989) • The Parallel Criteria speak to methods (parallel to reliability & validity) that can ensure one has carried out the process correctly, as in scientism. • Authenticity speaks to outcome, product, and negotiation which are unique to constructivism
  44. 44. • Trustworthiness • Authenticity • Credibility - prolonged • Fairness - stakeholder engagement, triangulation identification, member checks • Transferability - • Ontological - testimony extensive description of the wrt growth of perceptions context & culture of the • Educative - greater respect study for alternative views • Dependability - • Catalytic - willingness to be emergent design-induced involved in change changes in the process • Tactical - quality of change • Confirmability - occurring in follow-up interviews, methodological and reflexive journals After Rodwell & Beyers (1997)
  45. 45. • Learner-centred • learner free to make his/her own interpretations • teacher as a facilitator • Authentic • context-rich, experience-based activities • Social interaction • sharing of multiple representations, reflection and monitoring • opportunity for negotiation (social/meaning) • Scaffolding • manipulation of attention (focus on meaning/form) • collaboration to achieve aims
  46. 46. Constructivism • Role of teacher • Facilitator/mediator of learning • Teacher place--anywhere • Type of listening -- what for? • Goal is divergence--everyone learning in a unique individual way • Learning occurs through social interaction/negotiation • Evaluation--student understanding
  47. 47. “We’re smart when we listen. We’re smarter when we share.” Queen Rania of Jordan THE END
  48. 48. Thanks